Venda language

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Venda
Tshivenḓa
Native to South Africa, Zimbabwe
Region Limpopo Province
Native speakers
1.1 million  (2006)[1]
Latin (Venda alphabet)
Venda Braille
Signed Venda
Official status
Official language in
 South Africa
 Zimbabwe
Language codes
ISO 639-1 ve
ISO 639-2 ven
ISO 639-3 ven
S.20 (S.21)[2]
Linguasphere 99-AUT-b incl. varieties
99-AUT-baa to 99-AUT-bad
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Geographical distribution of Tshivenda in South Africa: proportion of the population that speaks Tshivenda at home.
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Geographical distribution of Tshivenda in South Africa: density of Tshivenda home-language speakers.
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Venda, also known as Tshivenḓa or Luvenḓa, is a Bantu language and an official language of South Africa. The majority of Venda speakers live in the northern part of South Africa's Limpopo Province, but about 10% of its speakers live in Zimbabwe. The Venda language is related to Kalanga (Western Shona, different from Shona, official language of Zimbabwe) which is spoken in Botswana and Zimbabwe. During the Apartheid era of South Africa, the bantustan of Venda was set up to cover the Venda speakers of South Africa.

Distribution of Venda speakers[edit]

In South Africa, Venda speakers are concetrated in the following areas; Makhado local municipality, 350 000 people. Thulamela local municipality, 370 000 people. Musina local municipality, 35 000 and Mutale local municipality, 89 000. The total number of speakers in Vhembe district currently stands 844 000. In Gauteng province, there are 275 000 Venda speakers. Fewer or less than 10 000 people are spread across South Africa and that makes total number of Venda speakers in South Africa at 1.2 million people or just 2.2% of South Africa's population, making Venda speakers the second smallest minority language in South Africa, after the Ndebele language, which number 1.1. million speakers.

Writing system[edit]

The Venda language uses the Latin alphabet with five additional accented letters—there are four dental consonants with circumflex below the letter (ḓ, ḽ, ṋ, ṱ) and an overdot for velar . Five vowel letters are used to write seven vowels. The letters C, J and Q are used only in quoting foreign words and names.

The Venda alphabet
A a B b (C c) D d Ḓ ḓ E e F f G g
H h I i (J j) K k L l Ḽ ḽ M m N n
Ṋ ṋ Ṅ ṅ O o P p (Q q) R r S s T t
Ṱ ṱ U u V v W w X x Y y Z z

Venda distinguishes dental ṱ, ṱh, ḓ, ṋ, ḽ from alveolar t, th, d, n, l, as well as (like Ewe) labiodental f, v from bilabial fh, vh (the latter are slightly rounded). There are no clicks; x has the sound of ch in loch or Bach. As in other South African languages like Zulu, ph, ṱh, th, kh are aspirated, p, ṱ, t, k ejective.

t̪ʰ kʷʰ
t̪ʼ pʷʼ
b d ɡ
pfʰ tsʰ tsʷʰ tʃʰ
bv dz dzʷ
ɸ f s ʃ x h
β v z ʒ
m n ɲ ŋ ŋʷ
l
r
j w

There is fortition of /ɸ β s ʃ x h l̪ l r w/ after nasal prefixes, likely to [pʰ? b tsʰ tʃʰ kʰ? pʰ d̪ d d b].[3]

letter(s) value(s) in IPA notes
a [a], [ɔ]
b [b]
bv [b̪v]
bw [bɣw] or [bj] Varies by dialect
d [d]
dz [d͡z]
dzh [d͡ʒ] Similar to English "j"
dzw [d͡zw]
[d̪]
e [ɛ], [e]
f [f]
fh [ɸ]
g [ɡ]
h [ɦ], [h] Pronounced [h] before e.
hw [ɣw]
i [i]
k [kˀ]
kh [kʰ]
khw [kʰw]
l [ɭ]
[l̪]
m [m], [m̩] M is syllabic, [m̩], when the following syllable begins with m.
n [n], [n̩] N is syllabic, when the following syllable begins with n.
ng [ŋɡ]
ny [ɲ]
nz [nd͡z]
[n̪]
[ŋ]
ṅw [ŋw]
o [ɔ], [o]
p [pˀ]
ph [pʰ]
pf [p̪f]
pfh [p̪fʰ]
r [ɾ]
s [s]
sh [ʃ]
sw [ʂ]
t [tˀ]
th [tʰ]
ts [t͡s]
tsh [t͡ʃʰ]
tsw [t͡sw]
ty [c]
[t̪]
ṱh [t̪h]
u [u]
v [v]
vh [β]
w [w]
x [x] Similar to the ch in Scottish 'loch.'
xw [xw]
y [j]
z [z]
zh [ʒ]
zw [ʐ]

Tone[edit]

Venda has a single specified tone, HIGH, with unmarked syllables having a low tone. Phonetic falling tone occurs, but only in sequences of more than one vowel, or on the penultimate syllable, where the vowel is long. Tone patterns exist independently of the consonants and vowels of a word: that is, they are word tones. Venda tone also follows Meeussen's rule: when a word beginning with a high tone is preceded by that high tone, the initial high tone is lost. (That is, there cannot be two adjacent marked high tones in a word, though high tone spreads allophonically to a following non-tonic ("low"-tone) syllable.) There are only a handful of tone patterns in Venda words—no tone, a single high tone on some syllable, two non-adjacent high tones—which behave as follows:

Word Pattern After L After H Notes
thamana –.–.– thàmà:nà thámâ:nà Unmarked (low) tone is raised after a high tone. That is, the preceding tone spreads.
dukaná –.–.H dùkà:ná dúkâ:ná A preceding high tone spreads, but drops before the final high tone.
danána –.H.– dàná:nà dánâ:nà The pitch peaks on the tonic syllable; a preceding non-adjacent high tone merges into it
phaphána –.H.– phàphá:ná pháphâ:nà
mádzhie H.– má:dzhíè mâ:dzhìè Initial high tone spreads; with an immediately preceding high tone, that initial tone is lost.
(The preceding tone also spreads, but not as far.)
dákalo H.–.– dáká:lò dákà:lò
khókholá H.–.H khókhô:lá khókhò:lá

Unicode[edit]

The extra letters have the following Unicode names

  • U+1E12 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER D WITH CIRCUMFLEX BELOW
  • U+1E13 LATIN SMALL LETTER D WITH CIRCUMFLEX BELOW
  • U+1E3C LATIN CAPITAL LETTER L WITH CIRCUMFLEX BELOW
  • U+1E3D LATIN SMALL LETTER L WITH CIRCUMFLEX BELOW
  • U+1E44 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER N WITH DOT ABOVE
  • U+1E45 LATIN SMALL LETTER N WITH DOT ABOVE
  • U+1E4A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER N WITH CIRCUMFLEX BELOW
  • U+1E4B LATIN SMALL LETTER N WITH CIRCUMFLEX BELOW
  • U+1E70 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER T WITH CIRCUMFLEX BELOW
  • U+1E71 LATIN SMALL LETTER T WITH CIRCUMFLEX BELOW


References[edit]

  1. ^ Venda at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online
  3. ^ Jeff Mielke, 2008. The emergence of distinctive features, p 139ff

External links[edit]

Software[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • G. Poulos, 1990, A linguistic analysis of Venda