Tsuyama Castle

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Tsuyama Castle
津山城
Tsuyama, Okayama Prefecture, Japan
津山城 備中櫓と桜.jpg
Type Azuchi-Momoyama castle
Site information
Controlled by Yamana clan (1441-),
Mori clan (1603-1697),
Matsudaira clan (1698-1871),,
Japan (1873-present)
Condition Mostly ruins,Bitchū-yagura reconstructed in 2005.
Site history
Built 1441-1444; major expansions 1603-1616
Built by Yamana clan (original); Mori Tadamasa (1603)
In use 1616-1873
Materials stone, wood, plaster walls
Height (five stories)
Demolished 1874-1875

Tsuyama Castle (津山城 Tsuyama-jō?) is a castle in Sange, Tsuyama, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. It had been residence of the government office and lord of Tsuyama Domain (Tsuyama Han) during the Edo period. It was one of Japan's three major hirayama-style castles, along with Himeji Castle and Iyo Matsuyama Castle.

Tsuyama Castle had a complex of 77 buildings. This surpassed the 61 buildings of Himeji Castle and 76 buildings of Hiroshima Castle (広島城). These buildings, however, have been lost. The grounds are now the main draw as Kakuzan Park (鶴山公園 Kakuzan Kouen) has around 5000 cherry blossom trees that attract people from all over western Japan when they bloom.

It was a residence of the Tsuyama Domain.

History[edit]

Muromachi period[edit]

Around 1441-44, the shugo daimyo (守護大名) of Mimasaka Province Yamana Norikiyo (山名教清) ordered the relatives to build a castle in Tsuru mountain (鶴山). (Tsuruyama castle/鶴山城)

But when the Yamana clan declined after the Onin War, the castle was abandoned.

Edo period[edit]

1603, Mori Tadamasa marked the foundation at 186,000 koku moved from Shinano Kawanakajima Domain. It started construction of the castle. Renamed to Tsuyama from Tsuruyama.

1616, Castle is a large-scale with the turret 77 and castle tower on the 4 layer 5th floor was completed.

1697, Mori clan extinction. Under the control of the feudal lord Asano Tsunanaga (浅野綱長) of Hiroshima Domain (広島藩).

1698, lineage a eldest son of Tokugawa Ieyasu (徳川家康), Matsudaira Nobutomi (松平宣富)(Echizen) moved in 100,000 koku from Echigo Takada Domain (越後国高田藩).

1809, Honmaru Palace (本丸御殿) burned down.

Modern and Contemporary[edit]

1871, Tsuyama Domain abolished by The abolition of clans and the inauguration of the prefectural system.

1873, by the abandoned castle Ordinance, after becoming a management of the Ministry of Finance, the castle was sold.

1874-1875, the castle tower and all turret was destroyed. Some gate have been removing and reconstruction.

1890, stone wall of Koshimaki turret (腰巻櫓) trace on the northwest side of the castle, has collapsed. In the wake of this, conservative motion of the castle occurs.

1900, Castle Ruins become the property of Tsuyama town, became a park. (Kakuzan park/鶴山公園) Many cherry trees were planted bringing the total to about 5000.

1905, Han school (藩校) Shudokan (修道館) is relocated to Sannomaru. Renamed Kakuzankan (鶴山館).

1936, Regional Exposition was held. Mock castle tower was built at that time. During the Pacific War, it was dismantled because it seemed Mock castle tower becomes the target of the air raid. (Because Okayama City is indiscriminate bombing in a helical at the center on castle tower of Okayama Castle.)

1963, specified in the national historic site.

2002, as one of the castle 400 years celebration, restoration project of Bicchu turret (備中櫓) begins. 2005, complete.

2006, near the Bicchu turret, restore Taiko fence (太鼓塀).

Anecdote[edit]

Anecdote 1

Tadamasa went to Mimasaka Province, but had not decided where to build the castle. And built a mansion in Kamae castle (構城) was in Innosho (院庄) it was the center of political Mimasaka Province from ancient times, temporary and lived with his family there.

There were Ido Uemon (井戸宇右衛門) and Nagoya Kyuemon (名護屋九右衛門) to vassal of Tadamasa. Ido was a vassal to serve from the time of the father of Tadamasa. In the senior statesman of the Mori clan, Ido was the largest of the old retainer. Ido was a person who excels in martial arts. Nagoya, was relatively new vassal from Shinano Kawanakajima Domain era Tadamasa. Nagoya was the one who is rich wit, know the world. In the younger brother of the lawful wife of Tadamasa, Nagoya had been favored in particular.

However, Nagoya and old retainer were on bad terms with each other. Tadamasa also began to shun gradually. When Tadamasa moves, he recruited people of Ido assassination. Nagoya is candidacy, Tadamasa did not allow. Nagoya is ran many times, Tadamasa also forgiveness at last, Tadamasa gave the katana to Nagoya.

Ido had come to Innosho was a castle candidate with colleagues. Nagoya attacked on Ido with a sword. "the orders of one's lord!" However, it is a battle-scarred veteran, Ido only suffered a slight wound. Ido killing the avenger while saying "What you do?!" Colleagues that it was informed of the "the orders of one's lord" for the first time at that time, killed Ido. Soon after, two younger brothers have also been killed.

After this incident, castle construction in Innosho will be canceled, it was changed to Tsuru mountain.

Tomb of Ido brothers is buried on the south side of the road (Izumo kaidou/出雲街道), tomb of Nagoya was buried on the north side of the road. On top of their graves, planted pine. The road which is sandwiched between the grave of each, bizarre phenomenon began to occur. Therefore, the road passed through, bypassing the north side the grave. (1655)

Then, a strange phenomenon appeared to pine. Pine on the south side is lush, pine on the north side is wilting, pine on the north side is lush, pine on the south side is wilted. People thought they would probably have continued to fight even after death. So, these pine called "pine of glaring at each other" (睨み合いの松/niramiai no matsu).

Anecdote 2

Kokura Castle (小倉城) was known as famous Castle of the West Japan. Tadamasa has sent a spy to Kokura to try to reference the fortification. Spies were examined Kokura Castle from the sea. (Castle stood by the sea.) One night, light leaks from the ship that spies had been living, castle's people found spies. Spies were taken to Kokura Castle. Lord of a Kokura castle Hosokawa Tadaoki (細川忠興) heard the story of the spies. Tadaoki forgave spies. On the contrary, it passes the blueprint of the castle, has been released. Tadamasa has constructed a Tsuyama Castle referring to the blueprint. It is said Tsuyama castle tower of the castle, and was built in reference to the castle tower of Kokura Castle.

After the Tsuyama Castle was completed, Hosokawa Tadaoki sent the bell of imported from Southeast Asian countries to Mori Tadamasa. The bell had been hanging until the Meiji Restoration (明治維新) in the castle tower.

Anecdote 3

Edo period starts, the new tower was banned 5 or more layers. (There was no prohibition before it.) However, the castle tower of Tsuyama Castle at the time was 5 layer. In order to Tsuyama Castle was completed, to check whether there is a violation, officials have been dispatched from the shogunate. Castle tower that has been violated is demolition. Tadamasa had removed the tile roof of the 4th layer. Shogunate officials said, "It is 5 layer". Tadamasa kept saying. "4th layer is not a roof. That is the eaves." Shogunate officials also convinced affirmations lord, castle tower of Tsuyama Castle was granted. So, 4 layer of the castle tower of Tsuyama Castle is not a tiled roof.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Media related to Tsuyama Castle at Wikimedia Commons

Coordinates: 35°3′45.97″N 134°0′17.83″E / 35.0627694°N 134.0049528°E / 35.0627694; 134.0049528