The Tsyklon (Циклон, "Cyclone", also known as Tsiklon), GRAU index 11K67, was a Soviet-designed expendable launch system, primarily used to put Cosmos satellites into low Earth orbit. It is based on the R-36 intercontinental ballistic missile designed by Mikhail Yangel and made eight launches, with seven successes and one failure. All of its launches were conducted from LC-90 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome. It is sometimes designated Tsyklon-2A, not to be confused with the later Tsyklon-2 rocket. It was introduced in 1967 and was derived from the R-36 ICBM (NATO designation of SS-9, Scarp). It was retired in 1969.
It made its maiden flight on 27 October 1967.
Tsyklon was designed by the Yuzhnoe Design Bureau and manufactured by Yuzhmash (both in Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine). Control system was designed at NPO "Electropribor" (Kharkiv, Ukraine). The last flown derivative, the Tsyklon-3 was retired in January 2009, however another derivative, the Tsyklon-4, is still under development.
Tsyklon-3 rocket launching a Meteor-3
weather observation satellite (Plesetsk, Aug. 15, 1991)
Two rockets were derived from the Tsyklon: the Tsyklon-2 and Tsyklon-3, known respectively as the SL-11 and SL-14 by the US DoD.
The two stage Tsyklon-2 was first launched August 6, 1969, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The Tsyklon-2 was 39.7 metres (130 ft) long with a fueled mass of 182 tonnes. The Tsyklon-2 made its final flight in 2006.
The Tsyklon-3, which featured a restartable third stage, first launched on June 24, 1977 from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome. The Tsyklon-3 is 39.27 metres (128.8 ft) long with a fueled mass of 186 to 190 tonnes.
On December 27, 2000, A Tsyklon-3 failed in its attempt to carry six Russian satellites into orbit, plummeting to the earth. An electrical failure in the rocket's third stage was the suspected cause.
The Tsyklon-3 was retired after launching the Koronas-Foton satellite on 30 January 2009.
The Tsyklon-4 is under development.
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