Tupolev Tu-204

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Tu-204 / Tu-214
Red Wings Airlines Tupolev Tu-204-100.jpg
A Red Wings Airlines Tu-204-100
Role Narrow-body jet airliner
National origin Russia
Design group Tupolev
Built by Aviastar SP (Tu-204 series)
Kazan Aircraft Production Association (Tu-214)
First flight 2 January 1989
Introduction 23 February 1996 with Vnukovo Airlines[1]
Status In production
Primary users Red Wings Airlines
Rossiya
Vladivostok Avia
Aviastar-TU
Produced 1990[2]–present
Number built 76[3]
Unit cost
$35 million (2007)

The Tupolev Tu-204 is a twin-engined medium-range jet airliner capable of carrying 210 passengers, designed by Tupolev and produced by Aviastar SP and Kazan Aircraft Production Association. First introduced in 1989, it is intended to be broadly equivalent to the Boeing 757, with slightly lower range and payload, and has competitive performance and fuel efficiency in its class. It was developed for Aeroflot as a replacement for the medium-range Tupolev Tu-154 trijet. The latest version, with significant upgrades and improvements, is the Tu-204SM, which made its first flight on 29 December 2010.[4]

Design and development[edit]

The Tu-204 was designed as a family of aircraft incorporating passenger, cargo, combi and quick-change variants. It is powered by either two Aviadvigatel PS-90 or Rolls-Royce RB211 engines. The Tu-204 is produced at two of the largest Russian aircraft manufacturing plants in Ulyanovsk (Tu-204 series) and Kazan (Tu-214).[5]

A Cubana Tu-204-100E, August 2007

The Tu-204 cabin is available in several layouts, including the baseline single-class layout seating for 210 passengers and a two- or three-class layout designed for 164–193 passengers. A cargo version of the Tu-204 is being successfully operated by several airlines in Europe and Egypt.[5]

Seating configuration is 3-3 in economy and 2-2 in Business class. The business class cabin has a seat pitch of 810 millimetres (31.9 in). The passenger cabin can be divided into compartments according to class with removable bulkheads and curtains. Compartments are illuminated by reflected light. Hidden lights located over and under the overhead bins create uniform and comfortable illumination. Overhead bins for passenger baggage and coats are of the closed type. The volume of baggage per passenger is 0.052 cubic metres (1.8 cu ft).[6]

In 1994, the first certificate for Tu-204 aircraft (with PS-90A engines) was issued. Subsequently issued certificates have extended estimated operational conditions and improved overall aircraft type design. The Tu-204-120 variant, certified with Rolls-Royce RB211-535E4 engines, complies with noise regulations described in Chapter 3 of Supplement 16 to ICAO, hence meeting all current European and ICAO requirements.[7] It is currently undergoing the certification process with JAA. The Tu-204-100 variant, certified with PS-90A engines, complies with noise regulations described in Chapter 4 of Supplement 16 to ICAO which means it is quieter. The aircraft was certified to Russian standards AP-25 (harmonized with FAR-25 and JAR-25).[8]

Technology[edit]

Cockpit of a Tu-214

The Tu-204 is part of a new generation of Russian aircraft, including other recent developments such as the Ilyushin Il-96. The Tu-204 features many technological innovations such as, fly-by-wire, a glass cockpit, supercritical wings with winglets, along with Russian or foreign avionics.[9]

Variants[edit]

Tu-204/204C[edit]

The Tu-204 is the basic passenger airline model, and the Tu-204C is the basic freight or cargo model. The most-used models are the -100C and the -120C.[10]

Tu-204-100/200[edit]

A Tupolev Tu-204C operated for DHL by Aviastar-TU at Sheremetyevo International Airport in Moscow, Russia.

Certified in January, 1995, this initial version is powered by Soloviev (now Aviadvigatel) PS90 turbofans with 157 kN (35,300 lbf) of thrust, and uses Russian avionics in addition to its Russian engines. The Tu-204-200 is a heavier version with extra fuel for more range. Only one was built by Aviastar-SP in Ulyanovsk but has not yet been delivered (RA-64036). Now this version is only produced by KAPO in Kazan, marketed under the designation Tu-214. The Tu-204-100C and Tu-204-200C are cargo versions of the −100 and −200 respectively, fitted with a forward main deck freight door. Currently, the Tu-204-100/200 is offered with the option of an up-rated Aviadvigatel PS90A2 turbofan, which promises 40% more service between overhauls.[11]

The Tu-204-100's maximum take-off weight (MTOW) is 107.5 tonnes, and its range with 196 passengers in a two-class configuration is 6,000 kilometres (3,700 mi).

Tu-204-120/220/120C/220C[edit]

To broaden product appeal, the Tu-204-120/220 offers non-Russian avionics and engines. It is powered by two Rolls-Royce RB211-535 engines, each with thrust of 192 kN (43,100 lbf). Egypt's Cairo Aviation became the debut operator in November 1998 when it took delivery of a Tu-204-120 and its cargo version the Tu-204-120C. The Tu-204-220 and Tu-204-220C cargo version, are a higher gross weight variants of the basic Tu-204-120.[12]

The Tu-204-120 has a maximum takeoff weight of 103 metric tons and a range of 4,600 kilometres (2,500 nmi) with 196 passengers in a two-class seating configuration.

Tu-204-300[edit]

Air Koryo Tu-204-300 at Pyongyang

A shortened, longer-range and more efficient derivative of the Tu-204, the Tu-204-300 is also known as Tu-234. About six meters (20 ft) shorter than the basic Tu-204, this variant is available in two versions: the longer-ranged, heavier version, powered by Aviadvigatel PS90-A2 turbofans, has a maximum take-off weight of 107.5 metric tons and range (with 166 passengers) increased to 9,300 kilometres (5,000 nmi); and the lighter, shorter-ranged version, with a maximum take-off weight of 89 metric tons and range of 3,500 kilometres (1,900 nmi) with 166 passengers. The Russian airline Vladivostok Air is the debut customer. This airline's aircraft are in a two-class seating configuration, with a 142-passenger capacity. Average numbers of flight hours during each 24-hour period is 9.35 hours, for year 2009. It is also operated by Air Koryo which currently operates one Tu-204-300 and has one additional aircraft on order with options to replace five Тu-154s and four Il-62Ms. The Тu-204s operate on the Pyongyang-Beijing, Bangkok, Vladivostok, Shenyang and Kuala Lumpur (from April 19 on every Monday and Thursday) lines.[13]

Tu-204-500[edit]

This is a version of the Tu-204-300 optimized for shorter routes, featuring smaller wings and an increased cruising speed (to Mach 0.84), which makes it a competitor to the Next Generation Boeing 737. It is ETOPS rated, and fitted with a Honeywell 331-200ER APU.[14]

Tu-206[edit]

The planned experimental Tupolev Tu-206.

This variant is a company-funded testbed for alternative fuels, flying on liquefied natural gas [15]

Tu-214[edit]

Tu-214 is also a variation of Tu-204 first flown on 21 March 1996.[16] It is technically a Tu-204-200, one of the differences being that it is built by a different factory. Planes designated Tu-204 are produced in Ulyanovsk by Aviastar-SP; Tu-214 in Kazan by the Kazan Aircraft Production Association (KAPO).[17][18] Both factories are independent from the Tupolev design bureau and have some control over the design of the variant they produce.

The main difference is a full-size main door at the left side of the fuselage just before the wing. The Tu-204 has two main doors and 2 emergency doors; the Tu-214 has 3 doors and one emergency door.

The Tu-214 is essentially a higher gross weight variant of the Tu-204, being fitted with extra fuel tanks and structural adjustments to deal with the heavier gross weight. For this reason, the Russian government prefers to use it as the platform upon which all further modifications for the 'Special Mission' variants will be based. Some of the special mission variants are disclosed to be capable of a non-stop 10,000 kilometre flight range.[19]

In 2010 a total of 10 Tupolev Tu-214 aircraft are in airline service with a dozen on order. Tu-214 users are: Rossiya (5), Transaero (3) and Airstars (2). Transaero has an additional 7 orders for the aircraft.[20]

Tu-214ON[edit]

Observation version of Tu-204-200 equipped for Treaty on Open Skies missions. Two ordered by Russian Ministry of Defence, with delivery planned in 2012 and 2013.[21][22]

Tu-214PU[edit]

Airborne command post version. Two operated for Russian Ministry of Defence.[22][23]

Tu-214SR[edit]

Communications relay version. Two operated by GTK Rossiya for Russian government, with three more planned.[22][24][25]

Tu-214SUS[edit]

Communications relay version for Russian Ministry of Defence. Two on order, with delivery planned by end of 2012.[22]

Tu-214R[edit]

Special-mission versions of the Tu-214 commercial transport aircraft, developed under the codename ‘Project 141', to replace the ELINT plattform Il-20 Coot. The aircraft are configured to carry the MRC-411 multi-intelligence payload, to include electronic intelligence (ELINT) sensors, side-looking Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and other Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) and Communications Intelligence (COMINT). In addition, the aircraft will carry multi-spectral electro-optical systems.[26] The aircraft has conducted test flights over the Sea of Japan but the programme was experiencing problems as of January 2013. (Jane's Defence Weekly 16 January 2013)

The Tu-214R makes it public debut on August 2013 at Moscow Air Show MAKS and is the proposed platform for conducting surveillance of the United States of America in accordance with the open skies treaty to monitor compliance with the relevant treaties[27][28]

Tu-204SM[edit]

The Tu-204SM, a medium-range airliner, is an upgraded version of the Tu-204-100/300[29][30] While the Tu-204SM will retain key design and aerodynamic features of the Tu-204-100/100E/100V series, there are numerous upgrades, largely aimed at meeting the current and near-future Russian and international standards, including those of ICAO and Eurocontrol.

The new cockpit features allow the Tu-204SM to be flown by a two-pilot crew (as compared with the three-pilot arrangement of the original Tu-204 series). These features include a new computer (VSUPT-85-2040), a new flight management system (ASO-204/FMS), wide LCD displays (KSEIS-204E), head-up displays (HUD), and an automated board system maintenance and diagnostic system. The electronic flight bag concept will be implemented and all controls and displays will be in English.

The Tu-204SM will be powered by two PS-90A2 engines. The latter is significantly improved over the original PS-90A power plants.[31] and features a unified twin-spool turbofan with a high bypass ratio. The PS-90A2 is expected a life cycle cost saving of 35% over the original engine with a simultaneous increase in reliability in the 50 to 100% range. The PS-90A2 is designed to meet the Russian AP-33 aviation standard, which is harmonized with the US FAR Part 33 and the European JAR33.

There will also be a new APU (TA-18 APU-200) and upgraded fuel management, hydraulic and fire safety systems.

The updated passenger cabin accommodates a maximum of 210 passengers or 174 in a typical two-class layout. The upgrades include[29][30] new larger storage bins, multicolored LED lighting, sound-absorbing structures and a modern in-flight entertainment system (IFE) .

The price for one Tu-204SM is estimated at USD 40–47 million.[32]

The first test flight of Tu-204SM was successfully carried out on 29 December 2010.[4] First deliveries of Tu-204SM were originally planned for 2011.[30]

Tu-204SM orders[edit]

Red Wings Airlines will be the first airline to operate the Tu-204SM. Ilyushin Finance Co. (IFC) said it would complete negotiations with Red Wings for 44 Tu-204SM aircraft in February, to sign a firm order in March, 2011. Red Wings already operates a fleet of Tu-204-100 and Tu-204-100V jetliners, to which it added one airframe in 2010.[33] Russia’s largest aircraft lessor, Ilyushin Finance, has previously placed Tu-204-100 aircraft with Cubana, Air Koryo and Red Wings, and Tu-204-300s with Vladivostok Avia and Air Koryo. Additionally, IFC leases three Tu-214s (Tu-204-200s) to Transaero. Faced with low production rates for the Tu-204 models, Tupolev asked component providers to lower their prices in order to cut the plane's overall price by 27–30%. These suppliers agreed, on condition that 44 more firm orders be secured for the Tu-204SM through 2016.

By January 2012 a firm order from Red Wings had not been signed, the stumbling blocks being requests for guarantees of the residual value of the airframes and after-sales support at a cost the same as an equivalent Airbus or Boeing model.[34] It was subsequently announced that Red Wings had cut back its initial commitment from 44 to 15 Tu-204SMs due to delays to the flight-test programme and after the lessor Ilyushin Finance reportedly "lost interest".[35]

A large order by Iran Air Tours is under threat because of sanctions against the Iranian economy, as the American company Pratt & Whitney has been involved in the development of the engine with the Perm Engine Company. Completing the sale by re-equipping the Tu-204SMs with the Tu-204's Russian-made PS-90A engines has been proposed.[36]

Operators[edit]

This Tu-204-300A is the first Tu-204 to be converted into a VIP configuration. Business Aero operates this aircraft for VTB

Total users (February 2013) [20][37]

Airline Aircraft Type In Service On Order Stored
Egypt Cairo Aviation 3 x 204-120
1 x 204-120C
3/1 0 3
Russia Orenair 204-100 2 2 0
China Air China Cargo 204-120CE 0 0 1
Russia Aviastar-TU 204-100C 1 0 1
China China Cargo Airlines 204-120CE 0 2 0
Russia Aviastar-TU Co. Ltd 204 4 2 4
Russia Rossiya (commercial) 204 0 0 2
Russia Rossiya (government)[38] 214
2 x 204–300 (order)
6 6 0
Russia Vladivostok Avia 204–300 6 0 0
Cuba Cubana 2 x 204-100CE
2 x 204-100E
4 2[39] 0
North Korea Air Koryo x1 204–300
x1 204-100[40][41]
2 2 0
Russia Transaero 3 x 214
2 x 204-100CE[42][43][44]
5 7 0
Russia Red Wings 204-100 / 204SM 8 / 0 0 / 10[45] 0
Russia Business Aero (for VTB) 204–300A 1[46] 0 0
Russia VIM 204SM 0 10 0
Syria Syrianair 204SM 0 3[47] 0
Republic of the Congo Trans Air Congo 204-120CE 0 5 0
Total All versions 41 52 11

Production by year[edit]

Year 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Produced 1 1 2 2 5 2 1 3 1 1 2
Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013[48]
Produced 4 3 4 4 2 3 4 2 10 6 3 5 3 2

Specifications[edit]

204-100 204-120 214 204-300 204SM
Cockpit crew Three Two
Seating capacity 190–210 (1-class, standard)
172 (2-class, standard)
210 (1-class, standard)
180 (2-class, standard)
156 (1-class, standard)
142 (2-class, standard)
194 (1-class, standard)
176 (2-class, standard)
Seat pitch 32 in (1-class, standard)
47 & 32 in (2-class, standard)
32 in (1-class, standard)
39 & 32 in (2-class, standard)
32 in (1-class, standard)
46 & 32 in (2-class, standard)
32 in (1-class, standard)
38 & 32 in (2-class, standard)
Length 46.14 metres (151 ft 5 in) 40.19 metres (131 ft 10 in) 46.14 metres (151 ft 5 in)
Wingspan 41.8 metres (137 ft 2 in)
Wing area 184.2 square metres (1,983 sq ft)
Height 13.9 metres (45 ft 7 in)
Fuselage width 3.8 metres (12 ft 6 in)
Fuselage height 4.1 metres (13 ft 5 in)
Cabin width 3.57 metres (11 ft 9 in)
Cabin height 2.16 metres (7 ft 1 in)
Maximum take-off weight 103,000 kilograms (227,000 lb) 110,750 kilograms (244,160 lb) 107,500 kilograms (237,000 lb) 105,000 kilograms (231,000 lb)
Maximum landing weight 88,000 kilograms (194,000 lb) 93,000 kilograms (205,000 lb) 88,000 kilograms (194,000 lb) 89,500 kilograms (197,300 lb)
Maximum payload 21,000 kilograms (46,000 lb) 25,200 kilograms (55,600 lb) 18,000 kilograms (40,000 lb) 23,000 kilograms (51,000 lb)
Takeoff run at MTOW 2,250 metres (7,380 ft) 2,250 metres (7,380 ft) 2,500 metres (8,200 ft) 1,800 metres (5,900 ft)
Service ceiling 12,600 metres (41,300 ft) 12,100 metres (39,700 ft)
Cruising speed 810 to 850 km/h (500 to 530 mph)
Maximum speed 900 km/h (560 mph)
Range (Standard Pax Configuration) 4,300 kilometres (2,700 mi) 4,500 kilometres (2,800 mi) 5,650 kilometres (3,510 mi) 6,500 kilometres (4,000 mi) 4,800 kilometres (3,000 mi)
Maximum fuel capacity 41,000 L (9,000 imp gal; 11,000 US gal) 44,600 L (9,800 imp gal; 11,800 US gal) 45,000 L (9,900 imp gal; 12,000 US gal) 35,700 kilograms (78,700 lb)
Engine (x 2) Aviadvigatel PS-90A Rolls-Royce RB211-535E4 Aviadvigatel PS-90A Aviadvigatel PS-90A2
Max. thrust (x 2) 157 kN
16,000 Kgf; 35,274 lbf
186.3 kN
19,000 Kgf; 41,887 lbf
158.2 kN
16,140 Kgf; 35,582 lbf
157 kN
16,000 Kgf; 35,274 lbf

Sources: United Aircraft Corporation,[49] Tupolev,[50] 204SM.[29][51]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On 22 March 2010, Aviastar Flight 1906, an Aviastar Tupolev Tu-204 tail number RA-64011, crash-landed short of the runway near Moscow's Domodedovo International Airport while attempting to land at night in fog and poor visibility. There were no fatalities, but four of the eight crew members were seriously injured. It was a repositioning flight with no passengers on board. In September 2010, the МАК released their final report into the accident.[52] The cause of the accident was attributed to pilot error, with a number of factors contributing to the accident including inadequate crew training and lack of cockpit resource management, failure of autoflight systems and serious regulatory violations by Aviastar-TU.
  • On 29 December 2012 at 16:35 local time (12:35 GMT), Red Wings Flight 9268, a Tupolev Tu-204-100В (RA-64047, c/n 1450743164047, s/n 047, built 2008) crashed on landing after overrunning runway 19 at Moscow Vnukovo International Airport (VKO) following a non-revenue repositioning flight originating from Pardubice Airport, Czech Republic. The aircraft broke up and came to a stop on elevated highway M3 about 400 meters (1,300 feet) past the runway's end. There were eight crew members on board of whom five were killed and the other three seriously injured.[53][54] Apart from those, one man driving his car on M3 highway was seriously injured when detached Tu-204's nosewheel crashed into side of the car.[55] The fatal Vnukovo accident was the second runway overrun incident involving a Red Wings operated Tu-204-100B in nine days following a Moscow Vnukovo to Novosibirsk flight on 20 December 2012 that overran runway 25 at Tolmachevo Airport by 1,150 feet (350 meters) into an open field.[56] Flight data recorder readouts indicate that brake failure as well as engine thrust reverser issues were major contributing causes in both overruns resulting in the issuance of additional airworthiness directives.[57][58][59][60]

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

References[edit]

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External links[edit]