Tuapse

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Tuapse (English)
Туапсе (Russian)
Тӏуапсэ (Adyghe)
-  Town[1]  -
Tuapse area 20.11.2006 (1).jpg
Black Sea coast near Tuapse in November
Map of Russia - Krasnodar Krai (2008-03).svg
Location of Krasnodar Krai in Russia
Tuapse is located in Krasnodar Krai
Tuapse
Tuapse
Location of Tuapse in Krasnodar Krai
Coordinates: 44°06′16″N 39°04′38″E / 44.10444°N 39.07722°E / 44.10444; 39.07722Coordinates: 44°06′16″N 39°04′38″E / 44.10444°N 39.07722°E / 44.10444; 39.07722
Coat of Arms of Tuapse (Krasnodar krai).png
Flag of Tuapse (Krasnodar krai).svg
Coat of arms
Flag
Town Day First Sunday of July[2]
Administrative status (as of May 2013)
Country Russia
Federal subject Krasnodar Krai[1]
Administratively subordinated to Town of Tuapse[1]
Administrative center of Town of Tuapse,[1] Tuapsinsky District[1]
Municipal status (as of June 2009)
Municipal district Tuapsinsky Municipal District[3]
Urban settlement Tuapsinskoye Urban Settlement[3]
Administrative center of Tuapsinsky Municipal District,[3] Tuapsinskoye Urban Settlement[3]
Head[5] Alexander Chekhov[4]
Representative body Council[6]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 63,292 inhabitants[7]
Rank in 2010 251st
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[8]
Founded 1864[9]
Town status since ca. 1896[9]
Postal code(s)[10] 352800–352803, 352808
Dialing code(s) +7 86167[11]
Official website
Tuapse on WikiCommons

Tuapse (Russian: Туапсе́; Adyghe: Тӏуапсэ [tʷʼaːpsa]) is a town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, situated on the northeast shore of the Black Sea, south of Gelendzhik and north of Sochi. Population: 63,292 (2010 Census);[7] 64,238 (2002 Census);[12] 63,081 (1989 Census).[13]

Tuapse is a sea port and the northern center of a resort zone which extends south to Sochi.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

Map of the kingdom of Georgia at the peak of its power (1184-1223). Nicopsia (Tuapse) was the kingdom's most Northerly outpost.

Tuapse was originally known by the name of Nicopsis since its founding as a colony by the Greeks. It was integrated into the kingdom of Abkhazia and then into the kingdom of Georgia, from the eleventh century. With the chaos of the sixteenth century, Georgia lost Nicopsia to the Circassians. Tuapse is a large center (native land) for the Shapsugs tribe[14] with other areas in Circassia, with about 10,000 speakers of the language living in Tuapse. The name of the town is itself Adyghe (literally meaning "two waters")[15] since Tuapse was part of historical Circassia and it became a part of Russia during the rule of Tsar Alexander I in 1801-1825. In early Greek sources the town was also attested as Topsida.

Modern history[edit]

The modern settlement dates back to 1838, when the Russian fort of Velyaminovsky was established in the area after this region became a part of Russia in 1829 by Treaty of Adrianople.[9] During the Crimean War, the Ottomans seized the fort and held it for two years (1857–1859). The village of Velyaminovskoye (Вельяминовское) was established here in 1864; it is the village that later became Tuapse.[9] Town status was granted to Tuapse in 1896.[9]

The Soviets developed Tuapse as an oil terminal and depot. An oil pipeline from Grozny and Maykop was in operation by 1928, designed by Vladimir Shukhov. An oil refinery dates from the same period. No later than 1941, Tuapse's status was changed to that of a town of the krai subordination.[9]

During World War II, the German military attempted to seize the town during the Battle of the Caucasus, which caused major damage to Tuapse.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Tuapse serves as the administrative center of Tuapsinsky District, even though it is not a part of it.[1] As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the Town of Tuapse—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the Town of Tuapse is incorporated within Tuapsinsky Municipal District as Tuapsinskoye Urban Settlement.[3]

Climate[edit]

The sea coast between Dzhubga and Tuapse.

Tuapse has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa).

Climate data for Tuapse (1955-2011)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.2
(72)
24.0
(75.2)
26.5
(79.7)
30.0
(86)
35.4
(95.7)
35.1
(95.2)
41.1
(106)
40.0
(104)
35.4
(95.7)
31.2
(88.2)
26.1
(79)
23.7
(74.7)
41.1
(106)
Average high °C (°F) 8.2
(46.8)
8.8
(47.8)
11.4
(52.5)
15.9
(60.6)
20.5
(68.9)
24.6
(76.3)
27.8
(82)
28.5
(83.3)
24.7
(76.5)
19.7
(67.5)
14.4
(57.9)
10.3
(50.5)
18.0
(64.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.0
(41)
5.4
(41.7)
7.7
(45.9)
12.0
(53.6)
16.4
(61.5)
20.4
(68.7)
23.5
(74.3)
23.8
(74.8)
19.7
(67.5)
14.8
(58.6)
10.5
(50.9)
7.1
(44.8)
14.0
(57.2)
Average low °C (°F) 2.1
(35.8)
2.4
(36.3)
4.5
(40.1)
8.5
(47.3)
12.6
(54.7)
16.4
(61.5)
19.3
(66.7)
19.4
(66.9)
15.5
(59.9)
10.8
(51.4)
7.1
(44.8)
4.1
(39.4)
10.3
(50.5)
Record low °C (°F) −19.0
(−2.2)
−15.0
(5)
−8.0
(17.6)
−4.2
(24.4)
2.3
(36.1)
4.8
(40.6)
5.0
(41)
9.0
(48.2)
3.0
(37.4)
−3.9
(25)
−9.1
(15.6)
−10.5
(13.1)
−19.0
(−2.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 143.2
(5.638)
106.6
(4.197)
93.8
(3.693)
94.3
(3.713)
95.0
(3.74)
80.5
(3.169)
77.3
(3.043)
89.2
(3.512)
114.6
(4.512)
106.9
(4.209)
155.4
(6.118)
176.2
(6.937)
1,333
(52.48)
Avg. precipitation days 17.5 14.7 18.3 13.6 12.2 7.4 5.0 4.2 7.8 12.7 12.4 15.3 141.1
 % humidity 71.3 69.4 70.9 71.1 74.7 75.2 72.5 68.4 69.4 72.2 69.3 69.2 71.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 94.6 109.2 139.5 181.5 254.2 300.0 333.3 313.1 250.5 204.6 123.0 96.1 2,399.5
Source: climatebase.ru[16]
Average Sea Temperature (1977-2006).[17]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Average temperature 8.9 °C 8.0 °C 8.7 °C 11.0 °C 15.2 °C 19.5 °C 23.7 °C 25.0 °C 22.4 °C 18.8 °C 14.2 °C 10.7. °C

Miscellaneous[edit]

The Russian Children Center Orlyonok (former All-Russian SFSR Young Pioneer camp) is located there. The world chess champion Vladimir Kramnik and 2005 Miss Universe winner, Natalie Glebova, were born in Tuapse.

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Tuapse is twinned with:

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Reference Information #34.01-707/13-03
  2. ^ Charter of Tuapse, Article 1.2
  3. ^ a b c d e Law #745-KZ
  4. ^ Official website of Tuapse [Head of the Town] (Russian)
  5. ^ Charter of Tuapse, Article 22
  6. ^ Charter of Tuapse, Article 23
  7. ^ a b "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  8. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  9. ^ a b c d e f Азаренкова, А. С.; И. Ю. Бондарь, Н. С. Вертышева (1986) [1986]. Основные административно-территориальные преобразования на Кубани (1793–1985 гг.) (in Russian). Краснодарское книжное издательство. p. 269. 
  10. ^ Russian Post. Postal codes search form (Russian)
  11. ^ http://www.rt.ru/help-info/mg/index.php?SELECTED_CHAR=%D2
  12. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  13. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  14. ^ http://www.aheku.org/page-id-3074.html
  15. ^ http://www.adm.tuapse.ru/o-tuapse/istoriya.html Official Website of Tuapse (Russian)
  16. ^ "Tuapse Climate Data". Climatebase. Retrieved March 29, 2013. 
  17. ^ Tuapse Water temperature 1977-2006 (in Russian), Retrieved August 9, 2012.
  18. ^ "National Commission for Decentralised cooperation". Délégation pour l’Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Retrieved 2013-12-26. 

Sources[edit]

  • Управление по взаимодействию с органами местного самоуправления Администрации Краснодарского края. Справочная информация №34.01-707/13-03 от 23 мая 2013 г. «Реестр административно-территориальных единиц Краснодарского края». (Department of Cooperation with the Organs of the Local Self-Government of the Administration of Krasnodar Krai. Reference Information #34.01-707/13-03 of May 23, 2013 Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units of Krasnodar Krai. ).
  • Законодательное Собрание Краснодарского края. Закон №745-КЗ от 2 июля 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципального образования Туапсинский район, наделении его статусом муниципального района, образовании в его составе муниципальных образований — городских и сельских поселений — и установлении их границ», в ред. Закона №1756-КЗ от 3 июня 2009 г «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Краснодарского края об установлении границ муниципальных образований». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Кубанские новости", №114, 17 июля 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Krasnodar Krai. Law #745-KZ of July 2, 2004 On the Establishment of the Borders of the Municipal Formation of Tuapsinsky District, on Granting It the Status of a Municipal District, on the Establishment of the Municipal Formations—Urban and Rural Settlements—Within Its Structure and on the Establishment of Their Borders, as amended by the Law #1756-KZ of June 3, 2009 On Amending Several Legislative Acts of Krasnodar Krai on the Establishment of the Borders of the Municipal Formations. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Совет муниципального образования город Туапсе. Решение №41.1 от 17 января 2008 г. «Устав муниципального образования город Туапсе». Вступил в силу после официального опубликования, за исключением отдельных положений, для которых предусмотрены иные сроки вступления в силу. (Council of the Municipal Formation of the Town of Tuapse. Decision #41.1 of January 17, 2008 Charter of the Municipal Formation of the Town of Tuapse. Effective as of after the official publication, with the exception of certain clauses for which other dates of taking effect are specified.).

External links[edit]