A Túath (plural túatha) was a medieval Irish polity smaller than a kingdom. Túatha ranged in character from petty kingdoms sovereign in their own right, to areas bound by fealty to much larger states such as Connacht or Ulaid.
It is an Old Irish word cognate with the Welsh and Breton tud (people), Galician toudo, with the Germanic þeudō (for which see theodiscus). Túath referred to both the people and geographical territory. In Modern Irish it is spelled tuath, without the fada (length mark).
- Osraige - túath that later became the kingdom of the same name in the Christian era.
- Dál Riata - the túath that became a confederation of túatha and eventually settled in Alba, creating the modern nation of Scotland.
- Clandonnell, Glenconkeyne, Killetra, Melanagh, Tarraghter, and Tomlagh, which all once formed the ancient territory of Loughinsholin.
- Colonisation under early kings of Tara, Eoin Mac Neill, Journal of the Galway Archaeological and Historical Society, volume 16, pp. 101–124, 1935
- Corpus genealogiarum Hibernia, i, M.A. O'Brien, Dublin, 1962
- Early Irish Society Francis John Byrne, in The Course of Irish History, ed. T.W. Moody and F.X. Martin, pp. 43–60, Cork, 1967
- Hui Failgi relations with the Ui Neill in the century after the loss of the plain of Mide, A. Smyth, Etudes Celtic 14:2, pp. 502–23
- Tribes and Tribalism in early Ireland, Francis John Byrne, Eiru 22, 1971, pp. 128–166.
- Origins of the Eoghnachta, David Sproule, Eiru 35, pp. 31–37, 1974
- Some Early Connacht Population-Groups, Nollaig O Muraile, in Seanchas:Studies in Early and Medieval Irish Archaeology, History and Literature in Honour of Francis John Byrne, pp. 161–177, ed. Alfred P. Smyth, Four Courts Press, Dublin, 2000
- The Airgialla Charter Poem:The Political Context, Edel Bhreathnach, in The Kingship and Landscape of Tara, ed. Edel Bhreathnach, pp. 95–100, 2005