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|Literal meaning||Garrison Gate|
Tuen Mun or Castle Peak is a city near the mouth of Tuen Mun River and Castle Peak Bay in the New Territories, Hong Kong. It was one of the earliest settlements in what is now Hong Kong and can be dated to the Neolithic period. In the more recent past, it was home to many Tanka fishermen who gathered at Castle Peak Bay. Tuen Mun is now a modern mainly residential area in the north-west New Territories.
A major clan, To (Chinese: 陶), brought the name Tuen Mun to the area. They migrated from Jiangxi Province on the Chinese mainland and established a village Tuen Mun Tsuen (屯門村) late in the Yuan Dynasty (1272–1368). As more and more villages were established, the village was renamed Tuen Mun Tai Tsuen (屯門大村), which means "large village" in Chinese. As yet more villages were established, a market town of Tuen Mun Hui (屯門墟) (now Tuen Mun Kau Hui) was established. This town lies where present-day Tuen Mun Kau Hui is situated.
Portuguese settlers occupied the town in 1514 and were expelled by the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) navy in 1521. This battle is known as Battle of Tamao (the Portuguese name for Tuen Mun). A year later a second encounter was fought, when the Ming were once more victorious. Tuen Mun remained an important town of coastal defence until the start of British rule in 1898. When the British took over the New Territories from the Qing government in this year, the area was renamed Castle Peak, and Tuen Mun Hui to Tsing Shan Hui (青山墟) or Castle Peak Hui. The name Tuen Mun, however, continued to be used by those living in the area.
In 1965, "Castle Peak New Town" was planned. It was later renamed Tuen Mun New Town and constructed from 1970 onwards with many buildings on the reclamed land of the former Castle Peak Bay. The name was officially changed back to Tuen Mun in 1972.
Due to their proximity to the Shenzhen border, towns in the northern parts of Hong Kong, notably Sheung Shui and Yuen Long, have become hubs for parallel traders who have been buying up large quantities of goods, forcing up local prices and disrupting the daily lives local citizens. Since 2012, there has been a vertiginous increase in mainland parallel traders arriving in the North District of Hong Kong to re-export infant formula and household products – goods popular with mainlanders – across the border to Shenzhen. The volume of smuggling activity spilled over into Tuen Mun and Shatin in 2014. Trafficking caused chronic local shortages of milk powder in Hong Kong, forcing the government to impose restrictions on the amount of milk powder exports from Hong Kong.
The first anti-parallel trading protest was started at Sheung Shui in September 2012. As government efforts to limit the adverse impact of mainland trafficking were widely seen as inadequate, so there have been further subsequent protests in towns in the North District including Sheung Shui.
The markets in the town were Tuen Mun Kau Hui (屯門舊墟), Tuen Mun San Hui (屯門新墟) and Sam Shing Hui (三聖墟).
There are a substantial amount of government facilities also, including a magistrates court, registration office and other governmental office. Leisure facilities include several sports complex, a multi-story central library supplemented by two others, and a theatrical and concert venue in the form of Tuen Mun Town Hall at Tuen Mun Town Centre.
Tuen Mun is served extensively by zones 1-3 of the MTR Light Rail (zones 4, 5, 5a are in Yuen Long and Tin Shui Wai), the initial phase of which was completed and operational on 18 September 1988. The government decided that services between town centres and settlements would be provided solely by a Light Rail Transit (LRT) system, while feeder buses operated by the KCRC (now operated by MTR after the takeover in 2007) would connect remote sites to the network, replacing KMB's equivalent services where applicable. The North-west Railway, as it was then known, was thus established according to the Kowloon-Canton Railway Corporation Ordinance.
The system consisted of two big and three small loops serving most of the public housing estates in northern Tuen Mun. Three branches: one to On Ting Estate in the southeast, one to the Tuen Mun Ferry Pier in the southwest, and another northern branch all the way into the town of Yuen Long along Castle Peak Road.
MTR West Rail
With the West Rail Line opened in 20 December 2003 the Light Rail have also taken the role of feeder services.
On the Hong Kong-Shenzhen Western Corridor, Cross Border Shuttle Services to Shekou is operated by Citybus on route B3, which departs from Tuen Mun Ferry Pier and B3X which departs from Tuen Mun Town Plaza, five minutes walk from Tuen Mun. As well, Citybus bus route 962 (Causeway Bay <> Tuen Mun (Lung Mun Oasis)) allows for a cross-harbour link between Tuen Mun and Hong Kong Island. Residents can also take Green Minibus service 44B(1) to Lok Ma Chau which departs from Tuen Mun Ferry Pier.
Private ferries is also available in sporadic times in the public pier, 15 minutes walk from the Tuen Mun Ferry Pier.
The town is also served by ferry services to Tung Chung (being discontinued July 2008 and replaced by KMB route T39) and mainland destinations such as Zhuhai and Shekou, Shenzhen. All services departs from Tuen Mun Ferry Pier.
- "Artefacts found in Tuen Mun in Neolithic period - Antiquities and Monuments Office". Antiquities and Monuments Office (Leisure and Cultural Services Department). Govt of Hong Kong. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
- Anderson, Eugene (2007). Floating world lost : a Hong Kong fishing community. New Orleans, LA: University Press of the South. ISBN 9781931948517.
-  (Chinese)
- "近百名人到上水示威不滿內地水貨客". now.com. 15 September 2012. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
- Ma, Mary (10 February 2015). "Parallel lines of concern need fixing". The Standard
- Jennifer, Ngo "Milk powder supplies still not meeting needs". South China Morning Post. 24 January 2014. Retrieved 29 October 2014
- "Import and Export (General)(Amendment) Regulation 2013 ( with effect from 1 March 2013 ) – Quantity of Powdered Formula for Persons Departing from Hong Kong". "Customs and Excise Department-- The Government of Hong Kong Special Administration Region". 13 March 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2014
- Luk, Eddie (21 September 2012). "Seeing red (white and blue)". The Standard
- Wong, Hilary; Cheng, Kevin (9 March 2015). "Targeting mainlanders ... young and old". The Standard
- "Hong Kong Protests Against Day Trippers as China Eyes Action". Bloomberg L.P.
- "Contact Us." Vitasoy. Retrieved on 10 November 2014. "Address : 1 Kin Wong Street, Tuen Mun, New Territories, Hong Kong" - Address in Chinese: "地址 ： 香港新界屯門建旺街1號"
- "Traffic Improvements to Tuen Mun Road Town Centre Section", Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department, 2007
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tuen Mun.|
- Centalink Map of Tuen Mun
- Timeline of Tuen Mun's development (Chinese)
- Tuen Mun Football Team
- Aerial video of Tuen Mun Typhoon Shelter
- Item #1221. Hau Kok Tin Hau Temple, Tin Hau Road, Tuen Mun Antiquities and Monuments Office. Brief Information on No Grade Items.