Tughlaq dynasty

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Tughlaq Sultanate
[1]تغلق شاهیان or [2]تغلقیه

 

1320–1414
Tughlaq dynasty of Delhi
Capital Delhi
Languages Persian (official)[3]
Religion Sunni Islam
Government Sultanate
Sultan
 -  1321–1325 Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq
 -  1393–1394 Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah
History
 -  Established 1320
 -  Disestablished 1414
Area 3,200,000 km² (1,235,527 sq mi)
Today part of  India
   Nepal
 Pakistan
 Bangladesh

The Tughlaq dynasty (Persian: سلسلہ تغلق‎), often also called "Tughluq", was a Muslim dynasty of Turkic origin which established a Delhi sultanate in medieval India. Its reign started in 1321 in Delhi when Ghazi Malik assumed the throne under the title of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq.

History

The empire grew under his son and successor Muhammad bin Tughluq, but the latter became notorious for ill-advised policy experiments such as shifting the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad and introducing copper coins without effective regulation against forgery. Tughluqi has as a result become synonym for brilliant if stubborn eccentricity in the Urdu language.[citation needed]

After Muhammad bin Tughluq died, a collateral relative, Mahmud Ibn Muhammad, ruled for less than a month, until a cousin Feroz Shah Tughlaq killed him and assumed the throne. His rule was somewhat weak militarily, mainly because of inept army. After Feroz died in 1388, the Tughlaq dynasty's power continued to fade, and no more able leaders came to the throne; the dynasty was essentially over within 10 years.

The lowest point for the dynasty however came in 1398, when Turco-Mongol[4][5] invader, Timur (Tamerlane) defeated four armies of the Sultanate on December 15, 1398. Subsequently the Sultan Mahmud Khan fled before Tamerlane entered Delhi on December 18. For eight days Delhi was plundered, its population massacred and over 100,000 war prisoners were killed as well.[6]

Rulers

Titular Name Personal Name Reign Notes[citation needed]
Sultan Ghiyath-ud-din Tughluq Shah
سلطان غیاث الدین تغلق شاہ
Ghazi Malik
غازی ملک
1321–1325 Founder of the Tughluq dynasty of Delhi. He came to the throne after defeating the usurper Khusro Khan in 1321 CE. He also founded the Delhi neighborhood of Tughluqabad.[citation needed]
Sultan Muhammad Adil bin Tughluq Shah
سلطان محمد عادل بن تغلق شاہ
Ulugh Khan
الغ خان
Juna Khan
جنا خان
Malik Fakhr-ud-din
ملک فخر الدین
1325–1351 He refused to accept the title of Emperor though he expanded his rule to the peninsula. He doubled the exchequer and constantly shifted the capital back and forth from Delhi to Daulatabad. He crushed rebellions in Multan & Sindh. The Mongols of Chagatai Khanate under Tarmashirin, a brother of Qutlugh Khwaja invaded India but were defeated by the Sultan at the Battle of Kalanaur in 1329 C.E.[citation needed] He levied heavy taxes on the Ganges and Yamuna Doab region to the point that Delhi began to be deserted. This state of affairs also led to a diminution of the public funds. Among other sources of loss to the treasury was the introduction of copper coins which were placed on an equal footing with the silver coins. However, very few people exchanged their gold or silver coins for the new copper ones. Moreover, the tokens were easy to forge, which led to heavy losses, as the Sultan subsequently withdrew the forged currency by exchanging it for bullion coins. Around 1332-33 C.E. Ibn Battuta arrived in India & was appointed as Qadi but on some suspicion later, was appointed as ambassador to China. In 1337 C.E. an expedition to Himachal Pradesh was defeated by the natives. He also began to lose control over Bengal in Sonargaon, Lakhnauti and Satgaon. In 1341 C.E. in Deccan a certain Hasan Gangu rebelled. In 1347 C.E. a faction known as Amirs of Hundreds rebelled in Gujarat and Daulatabad but were defeated after a bloody battle. But taking advantage of the situation Hasan Gangu invaded Daulatabad and established the Bahamani Sultanate while the Sultan was quelling a new rebellion in Gujarat hence losing Deccan. By the end of his reign, state institutions and infrastructure were falling apart with disaffection and rebellion, mischief and sedition increasing day by day. He died during an expedition in Sindh.
Sultan Feroze Shah Tughluq
سلطان فیروز شاہ تغلق
Malik Feroze ibn Malik Rajab
ملک فیروز ابن ملک رجب
1351–1388 Feroze Shah succeeded his cousin Muhammad bin Tughluq. He established Ferozabad neighborhood of Delhi with a fort known as Feroz Shah Kotla. He brought order to his army by removing Mughals from it. He managed state affairs well and brought some stability to the kingdom. He invaded the newly founded Ilyas Shahi Sultanate of Bengal in 1353 C.E. but after a protracted war formed a peace treaty with Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah & retraced his steps. This new friendship with Bengal would improve the Sultanate's economy immensely. He founded the city of Hissar-Feroza in 1354 C.E. In 1358 C.E. Mongols invaded India and reached Dipalpur but were repelled. He built the city of Ferozepur on the banks of Sutlej river. He also built a fort of the same name in Sirhind. He besieged Nagarkot in Himachal Pradesh and defeated the raja who surrendered. In reverence to his predecessor he renamed the city to Muhammadabad. During the Sultan's time was written the Dalail-e-Ferozi by Izz-ud-Din Khalid Khani. During this time were also written works on music, poetry and the art of dancing. In 1370 C.E. he twice invaded Thatta. After the rebellion of his vizier Juna Khan Khan Jahan in 1387 who was defeated by the heir apparent Muhammad Shah ibn Feroze Shah, the Sultan appointed his son as the vizier, but after mismanaging state affairs the nobles revolted against the heir apparent and asked the Sultan to pick his grandson Tughluq Khan ibn Fateh Khan as vizier and heir apparent thereby losing all powers.[citation needed]
Sultan Ghiyath-ud-din Tughluq Shah
سلطان غیاث الدین تغلق شاہ
Tughluq Khan ibn Fateh Khan ibn Feroze Shah
تغلق خان ابن فتح خان ابن فیروز شاہ
1388–1389 He ascended the throne in 1388 C.E. assuming the title of Ghiyath-ud-din. But succession crisis started almost immediately with Muhammad Shah ibn Feroze Shah staking his claim with the support of his brother Fateh Khan’s grandson Abu Bakr Khan. Ghiyath-ud-din dispatched troops against his uncle towards the foot of the hills of Sirmur. Muhammad Shah after a brief battle took shelter in the fort of Nagarkot, and Ghiyath-ud-din’s army returned to Delhi without pursuing him any further due to the difficulties of the venture & terrain. Eventually though some Amirs joined Abu Bakr Khan son of Zafar Khan (brother of Ghiyath-ud-din II) and grandson of Fateh Khan, and great grandson of Feroze Shah and plotted to assassinate Ghiyath-ud-din. In 1389 they surrounded the Sultan and Khan Jahan, his vizier and, put them to death and hung up their heads over the gate of the city; the duration of the reign of Ghiyath-ud-din, was five months and eighteen days.[citation needed]
Sultan Abu Bakr Shah
سلطان ابو بکر شاہ
Abu Bakr Khan ibn Zafar Khan ibn Fateh Khan ibn Feroze Shah
ابو بکر خان ابن ظفر خان ابن فتح خان ابن فیروز شاہ
1389–1390
Sultan Muhammad Shah
سلطان محمد شاہ
Muhammad Shah ibn Feroze Shah
محمد شاہ ابن فیروز شاہ
1390–1394
Sultan Ala-ud-din Sikandar Shah
سلطان علاءالدین سکندر شاہ
Humayun Khan
ھمایوں خان
1394 Humayun Khan, the son of Muhammad Shah ibn Feroze Shah ascended the imperial throne in virtue of his being heir apparent, as Ala-ud-din Sikandar Shah on February 1, 1394 C.E. But after one month and sixteen days he died of natural causes.[citation needed]
Sultan Nasir-ud-din Mahmud Shah Tughluq
سلطان ناصر الدین محمود شاہ تغلق
Mahmud Shah ibn Muhammad Shah
محمود شاہ ابن محمد شاہ
1394–1412/1413
Sultan Nasir-ud-din Nusrat Shah Tughluq
سلطان ناصر الدین نصرت شاہ تغلق
Nusrat Khan ibn Fateh Khan ibn Feroze Shah
نصرت خان ابن فتح خان ابن فیروز شاہ
1394–1398


  • The colored rows signify the splitting of Delhi Sultanate under two Sultans; one in the east (Orange) at Firozabad & the other in the west (Yellow) at Delhi.

See also

References

  1. ^ Encyclopaedia Islamica
  2. ^ Encyclopaedia Islamica
  3. ^ "Arabic and Persian Epigraphical Studies - Archaeological Survey of India". Asi.nic.in. Retrieved 2010-11-14. 
  4. ^ B.F. Manz, The rise and rule of Timur, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1989, p. 28: "... We know definitely that the leading clan of the Barlas tribe traced its origin to Qarchar Barlas, head of one of Chaghadai's regiments ... These then were the most prominent members of the Ulus Chaghadai: the old Mongolian tribes - Barlas, Arlat, Soldus and Jalayir ..."
  5. ^ M.S. Asimov & C. E. Bosworth, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, UNESCO Regional Office, 1998, ISBN 92-3-103467-7, p. 320: "… One of his followers was […] Timur of the Barlas tribe. This Mongol tribe had settled […] in the valley of Kashka Darya, intermingling with the Turkish population, adopting their religion (Islam) and gradually giving up its own nomadic ways, like a number of other Mongol tribes in Transoxania …"
  6. ^ Hunter, Sir William Wilson (1909). "The Indian Empire: Timur's invasion 1398". The Imperial Gazetteer of India 2. p. 366. 

External links