Tughlaq dynasty

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Tughlaq Sultanate
[1]تغلق شاهیان or [2]تغلقیه

 

1320–1414
Tughlaq dynasty of Delhi
Capital Delhi
Languages Persian (official)[3]
Religion Sunni Islam
Government Sultanate
Sultan
 -  1321–1325 Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq
 -  1393–1394 Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah
History
 -  Established 1320
 -  Disestablished 1414
Area 3,200,000 km² (1,235,527 sq mi)
Today part of  India
   Nepal
 Pakistan
 Bangladesh

The Tughlaq dynasty (Persian: سلسلہ تغلق‎), often also called "Tughluq", was a Muslim dynasty of Turkic origin which established a Delhi sultanate in medieval India. Its reign started in 1321 in Delhi when Ghazi Malik assumed the throne under the title of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq.

History

The empire grew under his son and successor Muhammad bin Tughluq, but the latter became notorious for economic and political experiments such as shifting the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad and introducing copper coins without effective regulation against forgery.[4]

After Muhammad bin Tughluq died, a collateral relative, Mahmud Ibn Muhammad, ruled for less than a month, until a cousin Feroz Shah Tughlaq killed him and assumed the throne. His rule was somewhat weak militarily, mainly because of inept leadership in the army.[5] After Feroz died in 1388, the Tughlaq dynasty's power continued to fade, and no more able leaders came to the throne; the dynasty was essentially over within 10 years.

The lowest point for the dynasty however came in 1398, when Turco-Mongol[6][7] invader, Timur (Tamerlane) defeated four armies of the Sultanate on December 15, 1398. Subsequently the Sultan Mahmud Khan fled before Tamerlane entered Delhi on December 18. For eight days Delhi was plundered, its population massacred and over 100,000 war prisoners were killed as well.[8]

Rulers

Titular Name Personal Name Reign
Sultan Ghiyath-ud-din Tughluq Shah
سلطان غیاث الدین تغلق شاہ
Ghazi Malik
غازی ملک
1321–1325
Sultan Muhammad Adil bin Tughluq Shah
سلطان محمد عادل بن تغلق شاہ
Ulugh Khan
الغ خان
Juna Khan
جنا خان
Malik Fakhr-ud-din
ملک فخر الدین
1325–1351
Sultan Feroze Shah Tughluq
سلطان فیروز شاہ تغلق
Malik Feroze ibn Malik Rajab
ملک فیروز ابن ملک رجب
1351–1388
Sultan Ghiyath-ud-din Tughluq Shah
سلطان غیاث الدین تغلق شاہ
Tughluq Khan ibn Fateh Khan ibn Feroze Shah
تغلق خان ابن فتح خان ابن فیروز شاہ
1388–1389
Sultan Abu Bakr Shah
سلطان ابو بکر شاہ
Abu Bakr Khan ibn Zafar Khan ibn Fateh Khan ibn Feroze Shah
ابو بکر خان ابن ظفر خان ابن فتح خان ابن فیروز شاہ
1389–1390
Sultan Muhammad Shah
سلطان محمد شاہ
Muhammad Shah ibn Feroze Shah
محمد شاہ ابن فیروز شاہ
1390–1394
Sultan Ala-ud-din Sikandar Shah
سلطان علاءالدین سکندر شاہ
Humayun Khan
ھمایوں خان
1394
Sultan Nasir-ud-din Mahmud Shah Tughluq
سلطان ناصر الدین محمود شاہ تغلق
Mahmud Shah ibn Muhammad Shah
محمود شاہ ابن محمد شاہ
1394–1412/1413
Sultan Nasir-ud-din Nusrat Shah Tughluq
سلطان ناصر الدین نصرت شاہ تغلق
Nusrat Khan ibn Fateh Khan ibn Feroze Shah
نصرت خان ابن فتح خان ابن فیروز شاہ
1394–1398


  • The colored rows signify the splitting of Delhi Sultanate under two Sultans; one in the east (Orange) at Firozabad & the other in the west (Yellow) at Delhi.

See also

References

  1. ^ Encyclopaedia Islamica
  2. ^ Encyclopaedia Islamica
  3. ^ "Arabic and Persian Epigraphical Studies - Archaeological Survey of India". Asi.nic.in. Retrieved 2010-11-14. 
  4. ^ Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 236-242, Oxford University Press
  5. ^ Jackson, Peter (1999). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 299. ISBN 978-0-521-40477-8. 
  6. ^ B.F. Manz, The rise and rule of Timur, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1989, p. 28: "... We know definitely that the leading clan of the Barlas tribe traced its origin to Qarchar Barlas, head of one of Chaghadai's regiments ... These then were the most prominent members of the Ulus Chaghadai: the old Mongolian tribes - Barlas, Arlat, Soldus and Jalayir ..."
  7. ^ M.S. Asimov & C. E. Bosworth, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, UNESCO Regional Office, 1998, ISBN 92-3-103467-7, p. 320: "… One of his followers was […] Timur of the Barlas tribe. This Mongol tribe had settled […] in the valley of Kashka Darya, intermingling with the Turkish population, adopting their religion (Islam) and gradually giving up its own nomadic ways, like a number of other Mongol tribes in Transoxania …"
  8. ^ Hunter, Sir William Wilson (1909). "The Indian Empire: Timur's invasion 1398". The Imperial Gazetteer of India 2. p. 366. 

External links