Tugs (TV series)
|Created by||Robert D. Cardona
|Written by||Chris Tulloch
|Directed by||David Mitton
|Voices of||Patrick Allen
|Narrated by||Patrick Allen|
|Theme music composer||Junior Campbell
|Country of origin||United Kingdom|
|No. of series||1|
|No. of episodes||13 (List of episodes)|
|Executive producer(s)||J. Nigel Pickard|
|Producer(s)||Robert D. Cardona
|Location(s)||Shepperton Studios, Surrey, England, United Kingdom|
|Cinematography||Clearwater periscope lens system|
|Running time||approx. 15–20 minutes|
|Production company(s)||Tugs Limited|
|Original channel||ITV Network (CITV)|
|Picture format||PAL (576i)|
|Original run||26 November 1988 – 20 June 1989|
|Related shows||Thomas & Friends
Tugs (stylized as TUGS) is a British children's television series first broadcast in 1988. It was created by the producers of Thomas the Tank Engine & Friends, Robert D. Cardona and David Mitton. The series dealt with the adventures of two anthropomorphized tugboat fleets, the Star Fleet and the Z-Stacks, who compete against each other in the fictional Bigg City Port. The series was set in the Roaring Twenties, and was produced by Tugs Ltd., for TVS and Clearwater Features Ltd. Music was composed by Junior Campbell and Mike O'Donnell, who also wrote the music for Thomas the Tank Engine and Friends.
Following the initial airing of the series throughout 1988, television rights were sold to an unknown party, while all models and sets from the series sold to Britt Allcroft. Modified set props and tugboat models were used in Thomas the Tank Engine and Friends from 1991 onwards, with footage from the original program being heavily dubbed and edited for use in American children's series Salty's Lighthouse. Mitton returned to working with Thomas & Friends in 1991, while Cardona would go on to direct Theodore Tugboat, a similarly natured animated series set in Canada. All thirteen episodes of the show were released on VHS between 1988 and 1993.
The series begins with the introduction of the Star Fleet, a small group of tugboats working the Roaring Twenties era of the early twentieth century. The Star Fleet compete for work in Bigg City Port, alongside the fleet's biggest rivals, the Z-Stacks.
Throughout the series, the two fleets primarily contest contracts to dock and tow larger sailing vessels and objects, including ocean liners, tramp steamers and schooners. Various other contractual obligations were also completed by the two fleets, including transportation of stone, munitions and logging fell. The series was considerably darker in tone than many other children's television programmes, with further plots involving crime, violence, and sabotage. The characters' dialogue, too, was somewhat mature for a children's series, featuring slang and terminology not normally directed at children. Characters would often insult each other, as well as use historical and maritime terms.
Cast and characters 
Star Fleet 
The Star Fleet are the show's protagonists, who aim to work together to achieve contracts in the port. The models were styled upon the Crowley Maritime Corporation, founded in San Francisco in 1892. They are led by Captain Star, who narrates the series. The fleet consists of Ten Cents, Big Mac, O.J., Top Hat, Warrior, Hercules and Sunshine.
Another tugboat, Boomer, is briefly a member of the Star Fleet after being found floating at sea. Boomer believes himself to be jinxed, and he certainly seems to bring trouble with him wherever he goes. After numerous nasty accidents, Captain Star sells Boomer, who is later made into a houseboat. It is unknown whether he remains part of the fleet after this. The adventures of Boomer are central to the episode "Jinxed". Grampus, a naval submarine who appears throughout the series, is purchased from the navy by Captain Star to work for the Star Fleet. It is also unknown whether this remains after the conclusion of the series.
The Z-Stacks are the show's antagonists, who can be seen frequently trying to sabotage the good work of the Star Fleet. They take on the more risky contracts in the port, at the attraction of a higher pay. The models' design was taken from the Moran Tugs of New York. They are led by Captain Zero. The fleet consists of Zorran, Zebedee, Zak, Zug and Zip. As with the Star Fleet, Boomer also briefly works for the Z-Stacks, following being sold by the former. Despite this, Boomer is cast out the Z-Stacks also.
|Patrick Allen||Captain Star (as narrator and character)|
|Nigel Anthony||Big Mac, Hercules, Zebedee, Fire Tug, Sea Rogue, Frank|
|John Baddeley||Top Hat, Zip, Puffa, Burke, The Quarry Master, The Shrimpers|
|Sean Barrett||Warrior, Mighty Moe, Scuttle Butt Pete, Blair, Bluenose, Johnny Cuba, Jack the Grappler, Nantucket|
|Timothy Bateson||O.J., Lord Stinker, Little Ditcher, Big Mickey, Eddie, Municipal Garbage Corporation|
|Lee Cornes||Grampus, The Coast Guard, Billy Shoepack, Boomer, The Fuel Depot|
|Mike Mulloy||Captain Zero, Zug, Izzy Gomez|
|Simon Nash||Ten Cents|
|Shaun Prendergast||Sunshine, Zak|
|Sue Glover||Lillie Lightship|
|Star Fleet||Ten Cents||Shigeru Nakahara|
|Big Mac||Keiji Fujiwara|
|Top Hat||Masashi Ebara|
|Captain Star||Rokurō Naya|
|Captain Zero||Masaaki Tsukada|
Format and production 
The series consists of thirteen fifteen-minute episodes (though four exist as twenty-minute episodes on the Tugs videos), each told by the show's narrator, Captain Star (voiced by Patrick Allen). Filming and production of the series took place throughout 1987–1988, in west London's Shepperton Studios. The series was animated using live-action models, which were seen as the most realistic method of portraying real tugboats. The set featured the Clearwater Periscope lens system, a type of professional video camera used to film at the models' eye level. Each model was mounted on a wheeled chassis, which were then pulled through the water using transparent string. Remote control devices were initially tested in operating the machines, but the tugboats became too heavy and unable to move through the water. Remote controls were instead used to power other devices, such as the moving eye features of the models and some cranes.
Some of the models, including Big Mickey the crane were passed over as background models for Thomas the Tank Engine and Friends. It was said that most of the original models had been repainted but in mid-2012, several face masks were auctioned off on eBay and models of the characters were confirmed to still exist in December 2012. As of 9 January 2013, the models have been confirmed sold as a near-complete collection (a few models, most notably Top Hat, have gone missing) and are being preserved by The Sodor Island Forums and Fansite, who have now began a trust to restore and preserve the models. They were delivered to their new owners on 26 January 2013.
Tugs first aired on CITV in the United Kingdom, and then on Australia's ABC Network. Talks of a second series were never finalised, and eventually all plans to create a follow-up were dropped. Redubbed and heavily edited footage aired later as part of American children's series Salty's Lighthouse, which aired in 1997. The series also aired in Japan with Japanese voice-overs.
Airing history 
A number of items of Tugs merchandise was produced surrounding the series' release in the early 1990s. Some of the merchandise includes:
- Ertl models - Ten Cents and Sunshine models were produced by toy company Ertl. The full Star Fleet cast were originally to be produced, but only the above two were made. In addition, none of the Z-Stacks were produced.
- Photo Books
- 2 hardback annuals
- 1 hardback dot-to-dot book
- Jigsaw sets
- A bed cover
- A Tugs-themed board game
- Collectors edition thimbles
- Card Game
- Publicity Pack
In line with the series being released in Japan, a range of Japanese merchandise was also released, such as models of the set and characters, videos, books and an LCD game.
VHS release 
A number of VHS versions of the series were released between 1988 and 1993 in the United Kingdom, Australia and Japan. Three of these videos contained three fifteen-minute episodes, while two contained two twenty-minute episodes (these episodes were edited to fifteen minutes for television broadcasts, most likely due to time slot issues). In addition, a number of original scenes were extended/deleted for the videos, including an alternate opening title sequence. Those released included:
- "Trapped"/"Ghosts"/"High Winds"
- "Jinxed"/"Quarantine"/"Up River"
- "Bigg Freeze"/"Warrior"/"High Tide"
- "Munitions"/"4th of July"
A four episode, 65 minute version was released in 1993:
- "Trapped"/"Ghosts"/"High Winds"/"4th of July"
- Mitton, David (director) (1988). "Sunshine"/"Pirate" (Videotape). Surrey, England: Tugs Ltd. UPC 5016500102026. Retrieved 2010-06-16.
- "TUGS airdates". BFI. Retrieved 2007-08-28.
- "Who Drove Thomas To Success?". sodor-island.net. Retrieved 2010-06-17.
- "Theodore Tugboat - Nighttime Adventures". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2010-06-17.
- Mitton, David; Tulloch, Chris (directors) (1990). "High Tide"/"Warrior"/"Bigg Freeze" (Videotape). Surrey, England: Tugs Ltd. UPC 5016500109322. Retrieved 2010-06-16.
- Mitton, David; Tulloch, Chris (directors) (1990). "Jinxed"/"Quarantine"/"Up River" (Videotape). Surrey, England: Tugs Ltd. UPC 5016500109421. Retrieved 2010-06-19.
- Mitton, David (director) (1988). "Munitions"/"4th of July" (Videotape). Surrey, England: Tugs Ltd. UPC 5016500102125. Retrieved 2010-06-16.
- Interview with Robert Cardona for Model Boats Magazine, July 1990.
- "TUGS Cast and Crew". TV.com. Retrieved 2007-08-27.
- "Tugs (1989)". hollywoodupclose.com. Retrieved 2010-06-17.
- "Characters (voice: short title) Introduction". Google Translate, translated from original website (in Japanese). Retrieved 2010-06-17.
- "Toonhound - Tugs". Toonhound.com. Retrieved 2008-09-17.
- "Behind the Scenes". Bigg City Port website. Retrieved 2007-08-28.
- "Behind The Scenes! - Other articles on behind the scenes". sodor-island.net. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
- "Salty's Lighthouse (1997)". BFI. Retrieved 2010-06-17.
- "Image of Ten Cents and Sunshine models". Facebook. 2008-06-30. Retrieved 2009-01-06.
- "Image of Tugs Dot-to-dot book". Facebook. 2008-06-30. Retrieved 2009-01-06.
- "Tugs - Trapped / Ghosts / High Winds / 4th July [VHS] ". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2009-11-21.
- Mitton, David (director) (1988). "Sunshine/Pirate" (Videotape). Shepperton Studios, Surrey, England: Tugs Ltd. UPC 5016500102026. Retrieved 2010-06-19.
- Mitton, David (1988). "Munitions/4th of July" (Videotape). Shepperton Studios, Surrey, England: Tugs Ltd. UPC 5016500102125. Retrieved 2010-06-19.
- Mitton, David; Tulloch, Chris (director) (1989). "Trapped/Ghosts/High Winds" (Videotape). Shepperton Studios, Surrey, England: Tugs Ltd. UPC 5016500103726. Retrieved 2010-06-19.
- Mitton, David; Tulloch, Chris (1990). "High Tide/Warrior/Bigg Freeze" (Videotape). Shepperton Studios, Surrey, England: Tugs Ltd. UPC 5016500109322. Retrieved 2010-06-19.
- Mitton, David; Tulloch, Chris (1990). "Jinxed/Quarantine/Up River" (Videotape). Shepperton Studios, Surrey, England: Tugs Ltd. UPC 5016500109421. Retrieved 2010-06-19.