Tugstumur Khan

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Tugstumur khan (Uskhal)
Reign 1603–1634
Coronation 1378
House Borjigin
Father Togoontumur
Born 1342
Died 1388

Tugstumur Khan (1342-1348), the brother of Ayurshirdara Khan and son of Togoontumur Khan, was a Khanate ruler in the late 14th century. He was murdered by poisoning after governing for ten years.


Tugstumur Khan was invested to the throne in 1378 during a tumultuous period between Mongolia and China. Tugstumur took the title Uskhal and instituted negotiations and military exercises to foster unity among the Mongolian provinces. Intent to increase the size of the his military, Tugstumur Uskhal recruited soldiers from Karakhorum and from Incheon to prepare for operation in China. The Chinese government also escalated their military preparations. In 1380 the Chinese sent soldiers to maneuver along the border and to penetrate into Mongolia. Under the guidance of general Mu-In,Chinese divisions invaded Mongolia and the light horse cavalry successfully occupied Karakhorum, ravaged several provinces and took many Mongolians prisoner. During this time, in 1380, Tugstumur Khan had based his center of operations in Incheon. He ordered Mongolian commanders Ulzibukh and Narbukh to attack Luleen City in the eastern part of China’s Khebei province, where they assassinated China’s Lyu-Guan, a great military commander of the Min state.

In 1381 the Min State retaliated. Under the leadership of commander Cyuie-Da, Chinese forces penetrated Chiphen. During the following six years (1382-387), Mongolia and China rested from wartime antagonism and retribution, and the Min state maneuvered into position. In 1384 the Gaoli state submitted to the Min Empire and severed their diplomatic relations with Mongolia.

Nagachug, a relative of Mukhulai van (son-in-law or aristocrats) controlled numerous forces and occupied the land to intimidate the Gaoli state and maneuver into their territory. The Min state was very wary of possible unity between Tugstumur Khan and Nagachug. Min was concerned that such a unity could potentially triumph over Min military forces. Therefore, Min decided to focus their efforts toward the annihilatation of Nagachug’s armies. By 1387,the Min state concentrated its forces in Lyaodun to destroy commander Nagachug’s military forces in the Yuan state. In 1384 year two thousand Vhinese soldiers under the guidance the commander Phen Shen fought against Nagachug’s armies and both sides suffered severe casualties. But since the Chinese forces had succeeded in gaining better battlefield position. Nagachug’s armies found themselves in a hopeless situation and they surrendered.

Subsequently, The Min state began to position its main forces against Tugstumur Khan. By the spring of 1388, Mongolia and Min State engaged in a campaign that ended Tumgstumur’s ambitions for control of Min China. Suffering a terrible defeat, Tugstumur Khan, his eldest son assistant, dignitaries and his few surviving soldiers were forced to retreat toward Kharkhorum. Tugstumur’s second son was captured along with Tugstumur’s leading minister, and lords. In all, the Chinese took nearly three thousand people and over one hundred and fifty thousand head of castle. When Tugstumur Khan reached the Tuul river, he was attacked by Esunder, lord of Argbukh origin. Conscious of the weakness in his military force. Tugstumur Khan set out to unite with the armies of commander Markhas. Unfortunately, a 3-day snowstorm barred Tugstumur Khan’s advance. Ultimately, lord Esunder dispatched a courier to capture Tugstumur Khan. The courier murdered the Tugstumur Khan in 1388.