Auto rickshaws are a common means of public transportation in many countries in the world. Also known as a three-wheeler, Samosa, tempo, tuk-tuk, trishaw, autorick, bajaj, rick, tricycle, mototaxi, baby taxi or lapa in popular parlance, an auto rickshaw is a usually three-wheeled cabin cycle for private use and as a vehicle for hire. It is a motorized version of the traditional pulled rickshaw or cycle rickshaw. Auto rickshaws are an essential form of urban transport in many developing countries, and a form of novelty transport in many developed countries. However, in some parts of Europe they remain an essential mode of transportation, notably Italy.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Regional variations
- 2.1 Africa
- 2.2 Asia
- 2.3 Europe
- 2.4 Central America
- 2.5 Caribbean
- 2.6 South America
- 2.7 North America
- 3 Fuel efficiency and pollution
- 4 Traffic issues
- 5 Racing
- 6 Portrayal in media
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Japan had been exporting three-wheelers to Thailand since 1934. Moreover, The Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications of Japan donated about 20,000 used three-wheelers to Southeast Asia.[when?] In Japan, three-wheelers went out of use in the latter half of the 1960s.
An auto rickshaw is generally characterized by a sheet-metal body or open frame resting on three wheels, a canvas roof with drop-down sides, a small cabin in the front of the vehicle for the driver (sometimes called an auto-wallah), and seating space for up to three passengers in the rear. Newer models are generally fitted with an CNG-fueled scooter version of a 200cc four-stroke engine, with handlebar controls instead of a steering wheel.
There are tuk-tuks in several Kenyan towns. Using them is somewhat cheaper than ordinary taxis. However, tuk-tuks cannot operate in mountainous towns, which are common in Kenya. Fierce competition with Boda-bodas (bicycle taxis) and Matatus (minibuses) hinders popularity of Tuk-tuks, especially within the interior of Kenya. While they may not be widely found in Kenya, they are numerous in the coastal regions, which are less mountainous. For example, in the town of Malindi they offer an economical and convenient mode of transportation.
Tuk-tuks are also common in Ethiopia and are becoming common in Tanzania, particularly in the outer areas of Dar es Salaam. In Tanzania and Ethiopia they are known as "Bajaj" or "Bajajis", after the Bajaj Auto company which manufactures many of them. Since 2009, tuk-tuks have become common in Maputo, Mozambique.
In Egypt, auto rickshaws are called toktok (Egyptian Arabic: توك توك pronounced [ˈtoktok], plural: تكاتك takātek [tæˈkæːtek]); they are widely used as taxis in poorer neighborhoods of the capital, and have become a popular symbol for lower class Egyptians, although they are banned from the streets of wealthier neighborhoods. Deposed president Mohamed Morsi (June 2012-July 2013) in his opening speech addressed the Tuk-Tuk (toktok) drivers as a symbol of the lower class population, but his political rivals and mass media considered it as a mean of emotional deception for the masses by rendering what could be a promise to legalize their status.
There are keke-marwa's in several Nigerian towns and cities. Although not as popular as the ubiquitous "Okada" in Nigeria, keke-marwa's are embraced as an alternative means of transport by the middle and lower class citizens. Keke-marwa is named after Lagos former military Governor, Buba Marwa in the late 1990s.
Rickshaws are a major means of transport in all parts of Sudan, it's locally known as Raksha.
Auto rickshaws (locally called "baby taxis" and more recently "CNGs" due to their fuel source) are one of the most popular modes of transport in Bangladesh mainly due to their size and speed. They are best suited to narrow, crowded streets, and are thus the principal means of covering longer distances within urban areas.
Earlier, auto rickshaws were colored black with a yellow canvas topping and ran on gasoline without any meter system. However, due to the vast supplies of natural gas in Bangladesh, the government has since encouraged the development of four-stroke compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered engines rather than the older two-stroke engine petrol-running models. Two-stroke engines had been identified as one of the leading sources of air pollution in Dhaka. Thus, since January 2003, traditional auto rickshaws were banned from the capital; only the new CNG-powered models were permitted to operate within the city limits. The newly manufactured CNG auto rickshaws are more fuel-efficient and have a lower center of gravity, making them safer than older models. All CNGs are painted green to signify that the vehicles are eco-friendly and that each one has a meter built in as standard.
Another version of the auto rickshaw can be seen in rural areas of Bangladesh, where they are called "helicopters". "Helicopters" are auto rickshaws modified to have a large body with which it can carry more than six or seven passengers.
At the end of the 1980s, a local company Atlas designed and built a new version of the auto rickshaw, called mishuk, a name derived from a children's mascot of a local deer. Unlike baby taxis, mishuks have spoke wheels and a green body, and have no meter system. Mishuks have more space than baby taxis or CNGs, which makes it more popular with women. They are commonly found in Dhaka and elsewhere in the country due to its four-stroke engine, which is not listed as a significant source of air pollution.
In Cambodia, the term tuk-tuk (Khmer: ទុកទុក) is used to refer to a motorcycle with a cabin attached to the rear. Cambodian cities have a much lower volume of automobile traffic than Thai cities, and tuk-tuks are still the most common form of urban transport. At the temple complex of Angkor, for example, tuk-tuks provide a convenient form of transport around the complex for tourists. One can hire a tuk-tuk and driver by the day.
Phnom Penh tuk-tuks are one piece. The one piece tuk-tuk is the front end of a motorcycle consisting of steering, tank and engine/gearbox with a covered tray mounted at the back. The power is transferred by chain to an axle mounted to the modified rear fork which drives the two rear wheels. Suspended upon the rear fork is an open cabin with an in-line seat on each side. This arrangement can carry 6 people at ease, with their luggage in the leg space. It is not unusual to see these vehicles greatly overloaded, especially in outer suburbs and around markets.
Sihanoukville tuk-tuks are generally a motorcycle and articulated trailer without rear brakes on the trailer. A minority of tuk-tuks are three wheeled. The rear wheel of the motorcycle is removed and the front of the bike is melded with a trailer. Power is supplied to the trailer wheels by a driveshaft and differential. Rear wheel brakes add significantly to the safety of this design, especially when going downhill.
Currently, Tuk Tuk in Cambodia is being developed to be more convenient and safer. It is also becoming a popular form of transportation for Phnom Penh residents.
Together with the recent boom of recreational facilities in Gaza for the local residents, donkey carts have all but been displaced by tuk-tuks in 2010. Due to the ban by Israel on the import of most motorised vehicles, the tuk-tuks have had to be smuggled in parts through the tunnel network connecting Gaza with Egypt.
Various types of auto rickshaw are used around China, where they are called 三轮 (Sān lún - three wheeler) or 嘟嘟车 (Dū dū chē - beep beep car).
In Hainan, the southernmost province, electric models are used in the capital Haikou. These may be heavy, purpose-built vehicles, or simple bicycles attached to a light chassis, with a small electric motor housed underneath.
Auto rickshaws are used in cities and towns for short distances; they are less suited to long distances because they are slow and the carriages are open to air pollution. Auto rickshaws (often called "autos") provide cheap and efficient transportation. Modern auto rickshaws run on CNG and are environmentally friendly compared to full-sized cars.[nb 1]
It is also not uncommon in many parts of India (including major cities like Delhi) to see primary school children crammed into an auto-rickshaw, transporting them between home and school.
Design and manufacture
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There are two types of autorickshaws in India. In older versions the engines were situated below the driver's seat, while in newer versions engines are located in the rear. They normally run on petrol, CNG and diesel. The seating capacity of a normal rickshaw is four, including the driver's seat. Six-seater rickshaws exist in different parts of the country, but the model was officially banned in the city of Pune 10 January 2003 by the Regional Transport Authority (RTA).
CNG autos are distinguishable from the earlier petrol-powered autos by a green and yellow livery, as opposed to the earlier black and yellow appearance. Certain local governments are advocating for four-stroke engines instead of the current two-stroke versions.
Auto rickshaw manufacturers in India include Bajaj Auto, Kumar Motors, Kerala Automobiles Limited, Force Motors (previously Bajaj Tempo), Mahindra & Mahindra, Piaggio Ape and TVS Motors.
Generally rickshaw fares are controlled by the government.
In Indonesia, auto rickshaws are popular in Jakarta, Medan, Java, and Sulawesi. In Jakarta, the auto rickshaws are similar to the ones in India but are colored blue and orange. Outside of Jakarta the bentor-style auto rickshaw is more ubiquitous, with the passenger cabin mounted as a sidecar to a motorcycle. Where these sidecar style auto rickshaws do occur in Jakarta they are not referred to as bentor, but rather as bajaj (bajai). They were also popular in East Java until the end of the 20th century and were known as a bemo. Google "Bemo" for photos.
Lao tuk-tuks come as tuk-tuks or jumbo tuk-tuks. Jumbos have a larger 3- or 4-cylinder four-stroke engine, and many are powered by Daihatsu engines. Jumbos' larger engine and cabin size allow for greater loads, up to 12 persons, and higher top speeds. Jumbos are (with few exceptions) only found in Vientiane and Luang Prabang.
Auto rickshaws were the popular mode of transport in Nepal during the 1980s and 1990s, till Nepal Government decided to ban the movement of 600 such vehicles in the early 2000. Earliest model of auto rickshaw running in Kathmandu were manufactured by Bajaj Auto.
Auto rickshaws are a popular mode of transport in Pakistani towns and is mainly used for traveling short distances within cities. One of the major brands of auto rickshaws is Vespa (an Italian Company). Lahore is hub of CNG Auto rikshaws manufacturers in Pakistan.The government of Pakistan is taking measures to convert all the gasoline run auto-rickshaws to more effective CNG rickshaw by 2015 in all the major cities of Pakistan by issuing easy loans through commercial banks. Environment Canada is implementing pilot projects in Lahore, Karachi and Quetta with engine technology developed in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada that uses compressed natural gas (CNG) instead of gasoline in the two-stroke engines, in an effort to combat environmental pollution and noise levels.
In many cities in Pakistan, there are also motorcycle rickshaws, usually called chand gari (moon car) or Chingchi (after the Chinese company Jinan Qingqi Motorcycle Co. Ltd who first introduced these to the market).
Auto rickshaws have had a history of displaying political statements. In February 2013, that legacy was modified to promote peace. According to Syed Ali Abbas Zaidi, head of the Pakistan Youth Alliance, "We need to take back this romanticized art form and use it for peace sloganeering and conflict resolution."
Manufacturers There are many companies involving in Rickshaw manufacturing in Pakistan, some of them are, AECO Export Company, STAHLCO Motors, Global Sources, Parhiyar Automobiles, Global Ledsys Technologies, Siwa Industries, Prime Punjab Automobiles, Murshid Farm Industries, Sazgar Automobiles, NTN Enterprises, Imperial Engineering Company
Auto rickshaws are an especially popular form of public transportation in the Philippines, where they are referred to as "tricycles" (Filipino: traysikel; Cebuano: traysikol). In the Philippines, the design and configuration of tricycles varies widely from place to place, but tends towards rough standardization within each municipality. The usual design is a passenger or cargo sidecar fitted to a motorcycle, usually on the right of the motorcycle. It is rare to find one with a left sidecar. Tricycles can carry five passengers or more in the sidecar, one or two pillion passengers behind the motorcycle driver, and even a few on the roof of the sidecar. Tricycles are one of the main contributors to air pollution in the Philippines, since majority of them employ two-stroke motorcycles. However, some local governments are working towards phasing out two-stroke-powered tricycles for ones with cleaner four-stroke motorcycles.
Auto rickshaws, commonly known as three-wheelers, can be found on all roads in Sri Lanka from the curvy roads through the hill country to the congested roads of Colombo transporting locals, foreigners, or freight about. Sri Lankan three-wheelers are of the style of the light Phnom Penh type. Most of the three-wheelers in Sri Lanka are a slightly modified Indian Bajaj model, imported from India though there are few manufactured locally and increasingly imports from other countries in the region and other brands of three-wheelers such as Piaggio. In 2007 January the Sri Lankan government imposed a ban on all 2-stroke three-wheelers, due to environmental concerns and therefore the ones imported to the island now are the ones with four-stroke engines. Most three-wheelers are available as hiring vehicles, with few being used to haul goods and as private company or advertising vehicles. Bajaj enjoys a virtual monopoly in the island, with its agent being David Pieries Motor Co Ltd. A few three-wheelers in Sri Lanka have distance meters, and in the capital city it is becoming more and more common, however the vast majority of charges are negotiated between the passenger and driver.
The auto rickshaw, called tuk-tuk (Thai: ตุ๊กตุ๊ก, pronounced "took-took") or sam-lor (Thai: สามล้อ) meaning three-wheeler in Thailand, is a widely used form of urban transport in Bangkok and other Thai cities. It is particularly popular where traffic congestion is a major problem, such as in Bangkok and Nakhon Ratchasima. The name is onomatopoeic, mimicking the sound of a small (often two-cycle) engine. An equivalent English term would be "putt-putt."
Bangkok and other cities in Thailand have many tuk-tuks which are a more open variation on the Indian auto-rickshaw. There are no meters, and trip costs are negotiated in advance. Bangkok fares have risen to nearly equal normal taxis due to uninformed foreigners willing to pay the asking price, but leaves passengers more exposed to environmental pollution than taxis. The solid roof is so low that the tuk-tuk is a difficult touring vehicle. Today few locals take one unless they are burdened with packages or travelling in a big group for short distances.
The Thai tuk-tuk is starting to change from the old smoke-spewing vehicle of yesteryear. Many Thai tuk-tuk manufacturers now produce low emission vehicles, and even old ones are having new engines fitted along with LPG conversions. In an early morning of Bangkok, these same passenger vehicles can be seen busily transporting fresh produce around the city. Newer tuk-tuks also have wet weather sides to keep passengers and drivers dry.
The Thai auto-rikshaw manufacturers are, Monika Motors Ltd., TukTuk (Thailand) Co., Ltd., TukTuk Forwerder Co., Ltd. Bangkok and MMW Tuk-Tuks Co.,Ltd. in Hua Hin. Smaller manufacturers are the Chinnaraje Co., Ltd. in Chiang Mai and the Expertise Co., Ltd. in Chonburi which manufactures its models in Komaki, Japan, also.
Known locally as xe lam, the vernacular pronunciation of the Lambro from the Lambretta line by Innocenti of Italy, these vehicles were very popular in the 1960s and 1970s, especially the urban centers of South Vietnam. Over time the authorities have moved to limit their use.
Xe lam with 1-wheel forward and 2-aft were designed to carry passengers whereas other variants with 2-forward and 1-aft, used mostly to transport goods are known as Xe ba gác máy. The motorized version of cycle rickshaw is the Xích lô máy is of the same design.
Auto rickshaws have been commonly used in Italy since the late 1940s, providing a low-cost means of transportation in the post-World-War-II years when the country was short of economic resources. The Piaggio Ape, designed by Vespa creator Corradino D'Ascanio and first manufactured in 1948 by the Italian company Piaggio, though primarily designed for carrying freight has also been widely used as an auto rickshaw. It is still extremely popular throughout the country, being particularly useful in the narrow streets found in the center of many little towns in central and southern Italy. Though it no longer has a key role in transportation, Piaggio Ape is still used as a minitaxi in some areas such as the islands of Ischia and Stromboli (on Stromboli no cars are allowed). It has recently been re-launched as a trendy-ecological means of transportation, or, relying on the role the Ape played in the history of Italian design, as a promotional tool. Since 2006 the Ape has been produced under licence in India.
Since 2007, tuk-tuks have been active in the Netherlands, starting with Amsterdam. They now operate in Amersfoort, Amsterdam, The Hague, Zandvoort, Bergen op Zoom, the popular beach resort Renesse and Rotterdam. The tuk-tuks in the Netherlands are imported from India and Thailand. They are fitted with CNG engines and have passed the EURO-4 rules.
The first Tuk Tuks to enter service in the United Kingdom were supplied and built by MMW Imports in 1999, under the brand name MMW Tuk Tuks. The very first Private Hire licence was issued to an MMW Tuk Tuk for tours of Bath in the year 2000, MMW also gained full Hackney license in Weston-super-Mare. MMW also now export Tuk Tuks from Thailand to the Netherlands, Germany, Spain, New Zealand and Australia. All the MMW range are built in their own factory in Thailand and are custom made for each customer's needs; hence no two tuk tuks are the same, and they come fully customized as per required spec.
Tukshop of Southampton started the commercial importing of Tuk Tuks into the UK in 2003, which resulted in many people being inspired to set up taxi-type operations in a number of cities including Blackpool, Brighton and Leeds. Tukshop failed to gain a taxi operator license for London after a number of media appearances in 2004. The company, founded by mrsteve, are specialists in experiential marketing using the iconic three-wheelers for street marketing campaigns. Clients of Tukshop include many household names, such as T Mobile, Harrods, Universal Pictures, O2, BBC, Freeview, Price Waterhouse Coopers, Tiger Beer & Grolsch lager. Tukshop have imported and put over one hundred tuk tuks on the roads of the UK and Europe between starting the business and Oct 2010. The company currently stocks models from Piaggio & Bajaj, including the commercial versions such as the TM Van.
A Bajaj tuk tuk is currently operated by Bangwallop of Salcombe, South Devon. Taking just two passengers at a time, the tuk tuk has an operator's licence issued by VOSA and trips can be booked in advance.
Auto rickshaws were introduced to the city of Brighton and Hove on 10 July 2006 by entrepreneur Dominic Ponniah's company Tuctuc Ltd, who had the idea after seeing the vehicles used in India and Sri Lanka. They were CNG-powered, using a four-speed (plus reverse) 175 cc engine. Under the terms of their license, the Bajas ran on a fixed single route, and stopped only at designated stops. They are of the same design as traditional auto rickshaws in other countries.
An investigation was launched into Tuctuc Ltd's operation of the service after complaints were raised, primarily by the city's taxi drivers, that routes, stopping points and timetables were not being adhered to. In November 2006, the company was fined £16,500 – the maximum penalty possible – by the South East Traffic Commissioner. After amendments were made to the timetable to reduce delays and improve reliability, the Commissioner allowed the company to keep its operating license. However, the company announced in January 2008 that it was ceasing operations, citing "archaic legislation" as the reason.
In the Scottish capital, Edinburgh, there is a new street food restaurant called Tuk Tuk Indian Street Food, that has its own branded Tuk Tuks, which are used for marketing around the town and picking up customers on special occasions.
The mototaxi or moto is the El Salvadoran version of the auto rickshaw. These are most commonly made from the front end and engine of a motorcycle attached to a two-wheeled passenger area in back. Commercially produced models, such as the Indian Bajaj brand, are also employed.
In Guatemala the commercial vehicles are referred to as tuk-tuks. Tuk-tuks operate, both as taxis and private vehicles, in Guatemala City, Guatemala, around the island town of Flores, Peten, in the mountain city of Antigua Guatemala, and in many small towns in the mountains. In 2005 the tuk-tuks prevalent in the Lago de Atitlán towns of Panajachel and Santiago Atitlán all appeared to be from India (Bajaj Auto).
Three-wheeled all-in-one tuk-tuks are used in the place of traditional taxis in most rural towns and villages.
As of 2011 there were an estimated 5,000 mototaxis, popularly known as "caponeras".
The mototaxi is the Ecuatorian version of the auto rickshaw. These are most commonly made from the front end and engine of a motorcycle attached to a two-wheeled passenger area in back.
It is a common sight in the rural areas, towns and cities of Peru to see auto rickshaws, locally known as "mototaxis," "motokars", "taxi cholo", or "cholotaxi" lining up to pick up passengers as their fares are generally lower than car taxis. They are also in the capital, Lima, but they are usually restricted to the peripheral districts. The "jungle" cities and towns in eastern Peru are famous for their prevalence of auto rickshaws. This vehicle, usually running on regular unleaded gasoline, is the main non-private transport vehicle, and is known as "motocarro", "mototaxi" or "tuk-tuk" (for foreigners).
Many of the jungle areas of eastern Peru can be extremely noisy as a result of poorly maintained auto rickshaws and other 2 or 3-wheel vehicles, especially in high traffic or hilly areas. Auto-rickshaw brands such as the Indian-made Bajaj, which use GLP [a form of liquified petroleum gas which some car taxis also use] are much quieter.
Tuk Tuks were introduced to the United States through Tuk Tuk North America of Swainsboro, Georgia. As early as 2006, Mr. Roy Jordan, the owner of Tuk Tuk North America, began working with both the U.S. federal government and manufacturers in Thailand to configure a tuk tuk that was cost effective but adaptable to meet or exceed U.S. Department of Transportation regulations. He was able to contract a manufacturer who could make imported tuk tuks that could meet all necessary federal regulations in the U.S. Original products were imported from Thailand and were gas propelled. Due to the changing regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency, the introduction of imported gas-propelled tuk tuks was short-lived. Due to such changes, in 2009 Tuk Tuk North America decided to go dormant in its importing of gas propelled tuk tuks into the U.S.
However, with the growing emphasis on sustainable “green” energy and the recognition of the continuing rising oil prices, in 2011 the project's short dormancy was rejuvenated being redirected towards introduction of a complete line of all-electric tuk tuks. The line included eight models of "street legal" tuk tuks including passenger, utility, and delivery vehicles. These were offered under the manufacturer’s new name, Electro Technologies LLC, and marketed and sold exclusively through Tuk Tuk Transport LLC of Lenoir City, Tennessee, under the leadership of C. Phillip Tallant.
Prior to 2013, the greatest obstacle to commercial transportation usage of the electric tuk tuks created by Electro Technologies was addressed in mid 2013 by providing a means by which ET Tuk Tuks could be in service 24/7. With this advancement grew the opportunity for formation of Tuk Tuk of America, a company by which partnering affiliates across the U.S. could begin their own local niche urban mobility transportation company with guaranteed protected territories.
Fuel efficiency and pollution
In July 1998, the Supreme Court of India ordered the Delhi government to implement CNG or LPG (Autogas) fuel for all autos and for the entire bus fleet in and around the city. Delhi's air quality has improved with the switch to CNG. Initially, auto rickshaw drivers in Delhi had to wait in long queues for CNG refueling, but the situation has improved with the increase of CNG stations. Certain local governments are pushing for four-stroke engines instead of the current two-stroke versions. Typical mileage for an Indian-made auto rickshaw is around 35 kilometers per liter of petrol (about 2.9 L per 100 km, or 82 miles per gallon [United States (wet measure), 100 miles per gallon Imperial (United Kingdom, Canada)]. Pakistan has passed a similar law prohibiting auto rickshaws in certain areas. CNG auto rickshaws have started to appear in huge numbers in many Pakistani cities.
In January 2007 the Sri Lankan government also banned two-stroke trishaws to reduce air pollution. In the Philippines there are projects to convert carburated two-stroke engines to direct-injected via Envirofit technology. Research has shown LPG or CNG gas direct-injection to be retrofit-able to existing engines in similar fashion to the Envirofit system. In Vigan City majority of tricycles-for-hire as of 2008 are powered by motorcycles with four-stroke engines, as tricycles with two-stroke motorcycles are prevented from receiving operating permits. Direct injection is standard equipment on new machines in India.
In March 2009 an international consortium coordinated by the International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies initiated a two-year public-private partnership of local and international stakeholders aiming at operating a fleet of 15 hydrogen-fueled three-wheeled vehicles in New Delhi's Pragati Maidan complex. As of January 2011, the project was upon completion.
In the meantime, in October, 2011, the Department of Transportation for the U.S. approved the complete 2012 series of American made, all-electric tuk tuks by Electro Technologies. Chassis were still being shipped in from Thailand, but now with the inclusion of all electrical components as manufactured only in the U.S. with assembly completed in Chattanooga, Tennessee. The American made electric tuk tuks were unique in that they were charged through common 110v outlets providing a range of 60 to 100(+) miles per charge (depending upon model and conditions) with a recharge time between 4 to 6 hours. The Electro Technologies Tuk Tuks topped out at 40 miles per hour which perfectly addresses the needs of their design; niche urban mobile transportation.
The greatest obstacle to daily usage in niche urban mobile commercial transportation was addressed in 2013 by Electro Technologies when they introduced their quick-release battery pack allowing for restoration of 100% power availability in just a few short minutes. This commercial upgrade allowed niche urban transportation businesses to operate 24/7 with no interruption to business.
Auto rickshaws have a top-speed of around 50 km/h (about 31 mph) and a cruising speed of around 35 km/h (22 mph), much slower than the automobiles they share the road with. Traffic authorities in big cities try to implement mechanisms to reduce the resulting traffic slowing, but none have proven effective.
The MMW Tuk Tuk has a top speed of around 70 mph and with the introduction of the new turbo will have much improved acceleration, to allow for increased speed these Tuk Tuks have anti-roll bars and are fitted with disc brakes.
The triangular form of the vehicle makes maneuvering easy, with the single front wheel negotiating the available gap, and the rear two wheels forcing a larger space. Care must be taken even at low speeds, however, because of the stability problems of three-wheeler vehicles with a single front wheel. Such a "delta"-configuration three-wheeler can easily roll if the driver turns while braking.
More powerful four-stroke motor tricycles such as Honda TMX & Yamaha STX & Bajaj CT-100 can give a top speed up to 70–85 km/h (special trip/one passenger) or 40–50 km/h (full passengers).
Due to their relatively low top-speed, auto rickshaws have never lent themselves to conventional road or street racing. However, their modest speed, simple construction and impressive fuel economy has endeared them to the international amateur adventuring community, most notably with the Rickshaw Run and also the Indian Autorickshaw Challenge, and even off-road racing with the Apecar competitions in Italy. A Tuk Tuk built by Art In Motion, LLC competed in the 2008 Fireball Run II – Back to the Track 
Portrayal in media
Auto rickshaws are often portrayed in Indian films (Auto Shankar, Basha, Aye Auto, Oram Po, Hero Hiralal) as well as some Hollywood and foreign productions such as the James Bond film Octopussy, the Canada-India film Amal and the Indonesian movie Pembalasan Rambu. Auto rickshaws are also prominent in the fuel-poor London of 2027 A.D. depicted in Children of Men. A memorable tuk-tuk chase features in the Thai film Ong-Bak: Muay Thai Warrior, climaxing with many of them driving off the edge of an unfinished elevated expressway. The video games Just Cause 2, Stuntman, and Battlefield: Bad Company 2: Vietnam feature Tuk-Tuks as drivable vehicles. James Bond (Pierce Brosnan) rides in a tuk-tuk in a Visa Card commercial.
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- "Microsoft Word - SETC_LPG2T.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-04-03.
- "Bajaj rolls out low-emission fuel-efficient autorickshaw". Blonnet.com. 2007-12-09. Retrieved 2010-04-03.[dead link]
- "Bajaj Begins Production of 2-Stroke Direct-Injection Auto Rickshaw". Green Car Congress. 2007-05-18. Retrieved 2010-04-03.
- "A fleet of hydrogen rickshaws to circulate in New Delhi by 2010". International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
- "Ape racing competition (in Italian)". Retrieved March 22, 2011.
- "Fireball Run II – Back to the Track". Retrieved January 28, 2012.
- "Visa Tuk Tuk carries Pierce Brosnan as Bond". The Inspiration Room. 2006-07-24. Retrieved 2010-04-03.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Auto-rickshaws.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tuk-tuks.|
- Article: Hybrid tuk-tuks are coming
- The India 1000 – an article in Wired about auto rickshaw racing
- Dial-a-rickshaw services changing the auto-rickshaw ecosystem