|- City -|
Location of Tula Oblast in Russia
|Administrative status (as of December 2011)|
|Federal subject||Tula Oblast|
|Administratively subordinated to||Tula City Under Oblast Jurisdiction|
|Administrative center of||Tula Oblast, Tula City Under Oblast Jurisdiction|
|Municipal status (as of July 2011)|
|Urban okrug||Tula Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Tula Urban Okrug|
|Mayor||Yevgeny Avilov|
|Representative body||City Duma|
|Area||153.52 km2 (59.27 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)||501,169 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||37th|
|Density||3,265 /km2 (8,460 /sq mi)|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+04:00)|
|First mentioned||1146 (disputed)|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 4872|
|Tula on WikiCommons|
Tula (Russian: Тула; IPA: [ˈtulə]) is an industrial city and the administrative center of Tula Oblast, Russia; it is located 193 kilometers (120 mi) south of Moscow, on the Upa River. Population: 501,169 (2010 Census); 481,216 (2002 Census); 539,980 (1989 Census).
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Administrative and municipal status
- 4 Economy
- 5 Culture
- 6 Education
- 7 Transportation
- 8 Religion
- 9 Sports
- 10 Notable people
- 11 Climate
- 12 International relations
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
The name of the city is of pre-Russian, probably Baltic, origin.
Tula was first mentioned in the Nikon Chronicle in relation to a military operation conducted in 1146. As the chronicle was written in the 16th century, the date is disputed. The first confirmed mention of Tula dates to 1382.
In the Middle Ages, Tula was a minor fortress at the border of the Principality of Ryazan. As soon as it passed to the Grand Duchy of Moscow, a brick citadel, or kremlin, was constructed in 1514–1521. It was a key fortress of the Great Abatis Belt and successfully resisted a siege by the Tatars in 1552. In 1607, Ivan Bolotnikov and his supporters seized the citadel and withstood a four-months siege by the Tsar's army. In the 18th century, some parts of the kremlin walls were demolished. Despite its archaic appearance, the five-domed Assumption Cathedral in the kremlin was built as late as 1764.
In 1712, Tula was visited by Peter the Great, who commissioned the Demidov blacksmiths to build the first armament factory in Russia. Several decades later, Tula was turned by the Demidovs into the greatest ironworking center of Eastern Europe. The oldest museum in the city, showcasing the history of weapons, was inaugurated by the Demidovs in 1724, and Nicholas-Zaretsky Church in the city houses their family vault. The first factory to produce samovars industrially was also established there in the course of the 18th century. After the Demidovs moved the center of their manufacture to the Urals, Tula continued as a center of heavy industry, particularly in the manufacture of matériel.
The city grew rapidly in the early 20th century as a result of arms production during the 1905 Russo-Japanese War and World War I. Tula's factories also manufactured weapons for the Red Army during the Russian Civil War of 1918–1921.
During the Great Patriotic War (World War II) of 1941–1945, the city was important in the production of armaments. Tula became the target of a German offensive to break Soviet resistance in the Moscow area between October 24 and December 5, 1941. The heavily fortified city held out, however, and Guderian's Second Panzer Army was stopped near Tula. The city secured the southern flank during the Battle of Moscow and the subsequent counter-offensive. Tula was awarded the title Hero City in 1976. It is home to the Klokovo air base and the Tula Arms Plant.
Administrative and municipal status
Tula serves as the administrative center of the oblast. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Tula City Under Oblast Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, Tula City Under Oblast Jurisdiction is incorporated as Tula Urban Okrug.
- Sergey Kazakov (1997–2005)
- Vladimir Mogilnikov (2005–2010)
- Alisa Tolkachyova (2010–2011)
- Yevgeny Avilov (2011–Present)
For more than four centuries Tula has been known as a center of crafts and metalworking. Tula is a developed industrial center. Importance in the industrial structure of Tula are metallurgy, machinery and metal with a high share of the military-industrial complex and food manufacturing.
A musical instrument, the Tula accordion, is named for the city, which is a center of manufacture for such instruments sold throughout Russia and the world. Tula is also renowned for traditional Russian pryaniki (gingerbread), cookies made with honey and spices (see Tula gingerbread). In the West, Tula is perhaps best known as the center of samovar production: the Russian equivalent of "coals to Newcastle" is "You don't take a samovar to Tula".
The most popular tourist attraction in Tula Oblast is Yasnaya Polyana, the home and burial place of the writer Leo Tolstoy. It is situated 14 kilometres (9 miles) south-west of the city. It was here that Tolstoy wrote his celebrated novels War and Peace and Anna Karenina.
Tula is home to:
- Tula State University
- Tula State Pedagogical University
- The Tula artillery and Engineering Institute
- A branch of the All Russia Economic and Finance Institute
- A branch of The Moscow Economics and Management Institute
Since 1867, there is a railway connection between Tula and Moscow. Tula is a major railway junction with trains to Moscow, Orel, Kursk and Kaluga. The Moscow to Simpheropol M2 motorway runs past the city. City transport is presented by trams, trolleybuses, buses, and marshrutkas. Tula trams, trolleybuses, and 14 of 26 bus routes are operated by "Tulgorelectrotrans" (Tula city electrotransport company), other 12 bus routes are operated by "Tulaavtotrans" (Tula automobile transport company).
All Orthodox organization Tula and the Tula Oblast included in the Diocese of Tula and Yefremov. Among the Tula Orthodox churches should mention Saints Cathedral (1776-1800), the oldest church in Tula - Annunciation (1692) and the Assumption Cathedral of the Tula Kremlin (1762-1764). In Tula also Old Believers' community services which are performed in the church of St. John Chrysostom.
In Tula is the only Catholic church area, the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul. Since the 1990s, Tula has several Protestant denominations, the largest of which is a Baptist church with a prayer house in Tula. Representatives of other Protestant trends in Tula are Seventh-day Adventists, Presbyterians (Church of the Holy Trinity, The Glorious Jesus the Lord, the Good News), Pentecostals (Tula Christian Center, Church of the New Testament) and other evangelical churches (Word of Life, the Vine Gypsy Church).
Also in town is a Synagogue and the Jewish Community House.
Ksenia Afanasyeva, Olympic artistic gymnast and world champion
Maria Ouspenskaya, Russian actress and acting teacher
|Climate data for Tula|
|Record high °C (°F)||7.0
|Average high °C (°F)||−4.0
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−6.8
|Average low °C (°F)||−9.7
|Record low °C (°F)||−34.3
|Precipitation mm (inches)||42
Twin towns and sister cities
- Albany, New York, United States
- Mogilev, Belarus
- Villingen-Schwenningen, Germany
- Banská Bystrica, Slovakia
- Law #954-ZTO
- Law #553-ZTO
- Official website of the Tula City Duma (Russian)
- Генеральный план города Тулы
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- Почтовые индексы России
- Деловой город: Телефонный код Тулы
- "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Е. М. Поспелов. "Географические названия мира". Москва: Русские словари, 1998, p. 423: "The earliest etymologies derived the place name from Russian dialectal tulá 'hidden, unreachable place'... The pre-Russian origin of the name of the river and town is no longer doubted [Maiorova 1985].... Since the name of the river Upa is certainly Baltic..., its tributary *Tula [the presumed earlier form of Tulitsa] may also be of Baltic origin, which is supported by a series of parallels in Lithuanian toponymy: the river Tule, the Tulis swamp, the Tulyte field, the meadow Tulejos, the valley Tulija, etc. [Vanagas, 1981]; the meaning of these toponyms is not entirely clear...."
- "Тула". Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Moscow.
- Biggart, John (1989). Alexander Bogdanov, Left-Bolshevism and the Proletkult 1904–1932 (Ph.D.). University of East Anglia. OCLC 556500696.
- Train Station in Tula (Russian)
- Русский кулачный бой: "Tula's fighters were always glorious, but every place had its heroes."
- Сказания о русских народных играх "Tula's fighters were considered the best one on one."
- "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved September 8, 2007.
- "Всего три побратима Тулы осталось в мире". Tula.rfn.ru. 2005-04-29. Retrieved March 23, 2012.
- Тульская областная Дума. Закон №954-ЗТО от 27 декабря 2007 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тульской области», в ред. Закона №2131-ЗТО от 11 июня 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Тульской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тульской области" и Закон Тульской области "Об установлении границ административно-территориальных единиц – районов в городе Туле"». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вестник Тульской областной Думы", №11–12(142–143), часть 4, ноябрь–декабрь 2007 г.. (Tula Oblast Duma. Law #954-ZTO of December 27, 2007 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Tula Oblast, as amended by the Law #2131-ZTO of June 11, 2014 On Amending the Law of Tula Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Tula Oblast" and the Law of Tula Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Administrative-Territorial Units–the Districts in the City of Tula". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication date.).
- Тульская областная Дума. Закон №553-ЗТО от 11 марта 2005 г. «О переименовании "муниципального образования город Тула Тульской области", установлении границы муниципального образования город Тула и наделении его статусом городского округа», в ред. Закона №1857-ЗТО от 17 декабря 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Тульской области "О переименовании "муниципального образования город Тула Тульской области", установлении границы муниципального образования город Тула и наделении его статусом городского округа"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тульские известия", №66–69, 22 марта 2005 г. (Tula Oblast Duma. Law #553-ZTO of March 11, 2005 On Renaming "Municipal Formation of the City of Tula of Tula Oblast", Establishing the Border of the Municipal Formation of the City of Tula, and on Granting It Urban Okrug Status, as amended by the Law #1857-ZTO of December 17, 2012 On Amending the Law of Tula Oblast "On Renaming "Municipal Formation of the City of Tula of Tula Oblast", Establishing the Border of the Municipal Formation of the City of Tula, and on Granting It Urban Okrug Status". Effective as of the day ten days after the official publication.).
- Annette M. B. Meakin (1906). "Tula". Russia, Travels and Studies. London: Hurst and Blackett. OCLC 3664651.
- "Tula". The Encyclopaedia Britannica (11th ed.). New York: Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1910. OCLC 14782424.