- "Tulcan" is also an alternative spelling of tulchan
|Nickname(s): "Heir of the Sun, and Earth"|
|• Mayor||Julio Robles|
|• Total||344.5 km2 (133.0 sq mi)|
|Elevation||2,980 m (9,780 ft)|
|• Density||250/km2 (650/sq mi)|
|Area code(s)||(+593) 6|
Tulcán is the capital of the province of Carchi in Ecuador. The population of Tulcán is approximately 83,000. Tulcán is known for its hot springs, deep wells, and a 3-acre topiary garden cemetery, the most elaborate topiary in the New World, created in Cupressus sempervirens by José Maria Azael Franco since 1936. The city is the highest in Ecuador, at 2,950 meters above sea level.
The name is a spaniard extract of the settled peoples original name Hul-Can, which in Mayan means "Warrior".
The known history of the aboriginal occupants of this lands begins with the conquest of the Incas, who never definitively conquered this people. The Spanish seeking gold, became interested in the Quillasinga (name given to the land), meaning "Gold Noses". Quillasinga was named without distinction of the ethnic occupants including the Pastos. Upon assuming the sovereignty for the Spanish crown, the territory is divided into provinces Quillasinga road to Quito, Quillasinga road to Popayan, Quillasinga road to Almaguer, and Quillasinga road of the mountains. Without proper certification Tulcan's foundation is sustained to have been on June 11, 1535. With the impulse of colonizer and more Spaniards conquistadors, it's growth increased and immediately passed to serve the Township of Otavalo, until 1600 when it passed to the township of Ibarra. During the colonial age it remained under the authority of the Real Audiencia de Quito, in which it increased it's economic importance, until becoming the most significant in the region.
Independence movements and proclamations sparked through the region, and in Carchi it was lead by Alejandro Ruano, Antonio Baca, Cecilio Arciniegas, Esteban Baca, Leandro Campiño, José María Pava, Antonio Rueda, and Ramón Montenegro. In April 14, 1814 with charges of conspiracy of fight for independence they were shot in Bolivar. Apart of this the population continued it's rebealry and in 1820, it pegged to the Declaration of Independence of 9 de Octubre. Upon becoming a republic Tulcan retained it's importance because it became a border town. 
Proximity to Colombia
It is 7 km from the Colombian border; the international bridge Rumichaca is shared by the two countries. Residents of Tulcán do not have to present a passport when traveling the international bridge. Bounded on the north by the municipality of Ipiales (Colombia), on the south by the Huaca Canton to the east by the Amazonian provinces of Sucumbios and west to the coastal province of Esmeraldas. This city is known for its civic culture and modern business, similar to that of Colombia because of its proximity to and significant trade with that country.
Tulcan is very well connected in terms of land and air transport: the Panamerican Highway and Luis A. Mantilla airport.
- According to Dr Edgar Anderson, directoir of the Missouri Botanical Garden, quoted in Charles B. Heiser, Jr., "Topiary in Tulcán", American Horticulturist, April 1985:28-31.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tulcán.|