Possession of the Duchy of Lithuania Tulchin came into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569 as royal town and only in 1609 king Sigismund III Vasa granted the town to Walenty Aleksander Kalinowski, Kalinowa coat of arms. Until 1728 Tulchin was part of the estates of the Polish magnates of the Kalinowski family (other distinguished members of Tulchin family were Adam Kalinowski and Marcin Kalinowski), and then passed into the hands of Stanisław Potocki bypassing other Kalinowskis' branch, then in 1734 to Franciszek Salezy Potocki and his son Stanisław Szczęsny Potocki, who was the most memorable and infamous member of the Tulczyn branch of the Potocki family. During the Targowica confederation Tulchin was the headquarters of the confederates. Mieczysław Potocki sold Tulchin to his brother-in-law Grzegorz Strogonow, who sold it to Piotr Oldenburski, who in turn sold it to Russian Imperial Treasury. Ancient archives of the Polish magnate families of Struś, Łaszcz, Mniszech, Modrzewski, Potocki, and Tarło collected at the palace, were lost during these transfers in ownership, while furniture and art collections were shipped to Paris where Mieczysław Potocki resided. After the Kiev-Odessa train line had been built Tulchin went into economic decay. There were instances when the Polish soldiers would purposely leave town, abandoning the Jews to the mercy (or lack thereof) of the Ukrainians. This happened, for example, in 1648 in the city of Tulchin. The Polish soldiers made a deal with the Cossacks and left town. The Jews defended the city by themselves until it fell and they were all slaughtered. Prior to October Revolution Tulchin was home a large Jewish population, and there were two trade fairs, July 24 and October 1 each year, and separate 26 market days annually. The current estimated population is around 13,500 (as of 2005).