A 2011 review said tumescent liposuction was safe. Deaths were reported in 1999; as of 2002, 23 deaths in five years had been reported in the European literature. Tierney et al (2011) said, "The most frequent complications were bacterial infections such as necrotizing fasciitis, gas gangrene, and different forms of sepsis. Further causes of lethal outcome were hemorrhages, perforation of abdominal viscera, and pulmonary embolism."
In many U.S. states, physicians are not required to have training to perform this cosmetic surgery procedure.
Jeffrey Klein, a dermatologic surgeon, is credited as the originator of the tumescent technique.
- Hanke W, Cox SE, Kuznets N, Coleman WP (July 2004). "Tumescent liposuction report performance measurement initiative: national survey results". Dermatol Surg 30 (7): 967–77; discussion 978. doi:10.1111/j.1524-4725.2004.30300.x. PMID 15209785.
- Tierney EP, Kouba DJ, Hanke CW (December 2011). "Safety of tumescent and laser-assisted liposuction: review of the literature". J Drugs Dermatol 10 (12): 1363–9. PMID type=Review 22134559 type=Review Check
- Rao RB, Ely SF, Hoffman RS (May 1999). "Deaths related to liposuction". N. Engl. J. Med. (Case reports) 340 (19): 1471–5. doi:10.1056/NEJM199905133401904. PMID 10320385.
- O'Donnell, Jayne (September 15, 2100). "Lack of training can be deadly in cosmetic surgery". USA Today. Retrieved December 15, 2013.
- Flynn TC, Coleman WP, Field LM, Klein JA, Hanke CW (June 2000). "History of liposuction". Dermatol Surg (Historical article) 26 (6): 515–20. PMID 10848930.