Lymphotoxin alpha

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Lymphotoxin alpha
Protein LTA PDB 1tnr.png
PDB rendering based on 1tnr.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols LTA ; LT; TNFB; TNFSF1
External IDs OMIM153440 MGI104797 HomoloGene497 ChEMBL: 2059 GeneCards: LTA Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE LTA 206975 at tn.png
PBB GE LTA gnf1h00007 x at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 4049 16992
Ensembl ENSG00000173503 ENSMUSG00000024402
UniProt P01374 P09225
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000595 NM_010735
RefSeq (protein) NP_000586 NP_034865
Location (UCSC) Chr 6:
31.54 – 31.54 Mb
Chr 17:
35.2 – 35.21 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Lymphotoxin-alpha (LT-alpha) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LTA gene.[1][2]

Function[edit]

Lymphotoxin alpha, a member of the tumor necrosis factor family, is a cytokine produced by lymphocytes. LTA is highly inducible, secreted, and exists as homotrimeric molecule. LTA forms heterotrimers with lymphotoxin-beta, which anchors lymphotoxin-alpha to the cell surface. LTA mediates a large variety of inflammatory, immunostimulatory, and antiviral responses. LTA is also involved in the formation of secondary lymphoid organs during development and plays a role in apoptosis.[3]

In LTα knockout mice, all Peyer's patches and lymph nodes will fail to develop indicating LTα's importance in immunological development.[4]

Interactions[edit]

Lymphotoxin alpha has been shown to interact with LTB.[5][6][7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nedwin GE, Naylor SL, Sakaguchi AY, Smith D, Jarrett-Nedwin J, Pennica D, Goeddel DV, Gray PW (November 1985). "Human lymphotoxin and tumor necrosis factor genes: structure, homology and chromosomal localization". Nucleic Acids Res 13 (17): 6361–6373. doi:10.1093/nar/13.17.6361. PMC 321958. PMID 2995927. 
  2. ^ Aggarwal BB, Eessalu TE, Hass PE (February 1986). "Characterization of receptors for human tumour necrosis factor and their regulation by gamma-interferon". Nature 318 (6047): 665–7. doi:10.1038/318665a0. PMID 3001529. 
  3. ^ "Entrez Gene: LTA lymphotoxin alpha (TNF superfamily, member 1)". 
  4. ^ Akirav, Eitan; Liao, Shan; Ruddle, Nancy (2008). "Chapter 2: Lymphoid Tissues and Organs". In Paul, William. Fundamental Immunology (Book) (6th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 27–55. ISBN 0-7817-6519-6. 
  5. ^ Williams-Abbott, L; Walter B N; Cheung T C; Goh C R; Porter A G; Ware C F (August 1997). "The lymphotoxin-alpha (LTalpha) subunit is essential for the assembly, but not for the receptor specificity, of the membrane-anchored LTalpha1beta2 heterotrimeric ligand". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 272 (31): 19451–19456. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.31.19451. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 9235946. 
  6. ^ Browning, J L; Sizing I D, Lawton P, Bourdon P R, Rennert P D, Majeau G R, Ambrose C M, Hession C, Miatkowski K, Griffiths D A, Ngam-ek A, Meier W, Benjamin C D, Hochman P S (October 1997). "Characterization of lymphotoxin-alpha beta complexes on the surface of mouse lymphocytes". J. Immunol. (UNITED STATES) 159 (7): 3288–98. ISSN 0022-1767. PMID 9317127. 
  7. ^ Browning, J L; Dougas I; Ngam-ek A; Bourdon P R; Ehrenfels B N; Miatkowski K; Zafari M; Yampaglia A M; Lawton P; Meier W (January 1995). "Characterization of surface lymphotoxin forms. Use of specific monoclonal antibodies and soluble receptors". J. Immunol. (UNITED STATES) 154 (1): 33–46. ISSN 0022-1767. PMID 7995952. 

Further reading[edit]