Abdul Razak Hussein
|Yang Amat Berbahagia Tun
Abdul Razak Hussein
|2nd Prime Minister of Malaysia|
22 September 1970 – 14 January 1976
|Deputy||Ismail Abdul Rahman
|Preceded by||Tunku Abdul Rahman|
|Succeeded by||Hussein Onn|
|1st Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia|
31 August 1957 – 22 September 1970
|Prime Minister||Abdul Rahman|
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Ismail Abdul Rahman|
11 March 1922|
Pekan, Pahang, FMS (now Malaysia)
|Died||14 January 1976
London, United Kingdom
|Political party||United Malays National Organisation (1953–1976)|
|Labour Party (Before 1953)|
|Alma mater||Raffles College
Tun Razak was the Prime Minister responsible in setting up Barisan Nasional, which is the ruling coalition of political parties that have held power in Malaysia till today, taking over from its predecessor, the Alliance. He is also renowned for launching the Malaysian New Economic Policy (MNEP).
Born in Pekan, Pahang on 11 March 1922, Tun Razak is the first of two children to Dato' Hussein bin Mohd Taib and Datin Hajah Teh Fatimah bt Daud. Of aristocratic descent, Abdul Razak studied at the Malay College Kuala Kangsar.
After joining the Malay Administrative Service in 1939, he was awarded a scholarship to study at Raffles College in Singapore in 1940. His studies at the college ceased with the onset of the Second World War. During the war he helped organise the Wataniah resistance movement in Pahang.
After World War II, Tun Razak left for Britain in 1947 to study law. In 1950 he received a law degree and qualified as barrister at Lincoln's Inn in London. During his student days in England, Tun Razak was a member of the British Labour Party and a prominent student leader of the Kesatuan Melayu Great Britain (Malay Association of Great Britain). He also formed the Malayan Forum, an organisation for Malayan students to discuss their country's political issues.
Upon his return from the United Kingdom, in 1950, Tun Razak joined the Malayan Civil Service. Owing to his political calibre, he became the youth chief for United Malays National Organisation (UMNO). Two years later, he worked as the Assistant State Secretary of Pahang and in February 1955, at just 33 years of age, became Pahang's Chief Minister.
Razak stood in and won a seat in Malaysia's first general elections in July 1955 and was appointed as the Education Minister. He was instrumental in the drafting of the Razak Report which formed the basis of the Malayan education system. Tun Razak was also a key member of the February 1956 mission to London to seek the independence of Malaya from the British.
After the general elections in 1959, he became the Minister of Rural Development in addition to holding the portfolios of Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defence, which he held from 1957. His achievements include formulating the development policy known as the Red Book.
Infusing Young Blood
At the time of Separation of Singapore from the Federation of Malaysia in 1965, Tun Razak realised that UMNO needed more young leaders in the party. Faced with, amongst other things Lee Kuan Yew's considerable rhetorical skills, Razak wanted young Malay leaders – grounded in their own faith and culture – who would be able to speak and if necessary debate both in the Malay language and English language.
Razak understood that power resided in the Malay community and that for this power to be wielded effectively, the elite among the Malays had to be an elite determined by ability, aptitude and commitment to the nation as a whole. Class, birth and money were secondary in his calculations.
As a consequence of this initiative, the then young leaders of mixed heritage in UMNO, such as Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad, were drafted into higher echelons of the political establishment.
In 1967 he was awarded the Ramon Magsaysay Award for community leadership.
After the 13 May Incident in 1969, his faction in UMNO overthrew Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra and imposed a State of Emergency, ruling by decree as the National Operations Council until 1970. On September 1970, Tun Razak succeeded Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra as the Prime Minister of Malaysia.
Tun Razak set up the Barisan Nasional or National Front on 1 January 1973 to replace the ruling Alliance Party. He increased the membership of its parties and coalitions in an effort to establish "Ketahanan Nasional" (National Strength) through political stability.
Tun Razak is also renowned for launching the Malaysian New Economic Policy (MNEP) in 1971. He and the "second generation" of Malay politicians saw the need to tackle vigorously the economic and social disparities which fuelled racial antagonism. The MNEP set two basics goals – to reduce and eventually eradicate poverty, and to reduce and eventually eradicate identification of economic function with race.
Due in part to leukaemia, Abdul Razak died on 14 January 1976 while seeking medical treatment in London. He was posthumously granted the soubriquet Bapa Pembangunan (Father of Development). He is laid to rest in Heroes Mausoleum near Masjid Negara, Kuala Lumpur.
Tun Abdul Razak was descended from a long line of Pahang chieftains of Bugis descent. He was married to Tun Rahah Mohammad Noah; daughter of Tan Sri Haji Mohamad Noah Omar, the former Minister of Home Affairs and first Speaker of the Dewan Rakyat. He was the brother in law of Tun Hussein Onn, his successor as Prime Minister, who also married another Tan Sri Haji Mohamad Noah Omar's daughter, Tun Suhaila Mohamad Noah.
Abdul Razak's eldest son, Najib Razak, became the 6th Prime Minister of Malaysia on 3 April 2009, succeeding Abdullah Badawi. He has four other sons, Datuk Ahmad Johari Razak, Mohamed Nizam, Mohamed Nazim and Mohamed Nazir.
Awards and recognition
- Malaysia Malaya
- Seri Maharaja Mangku Negara (1959)
- Tun Razak was posthumously granted the soubriquet Bapa Pembangunan (Father of Development).
Places after him
Several places were named after him, including:
- There are several roads and highways in Malaysia and one in Indonesia named after Tun Razak such as Tun Razak Highway (Federal Route connecting Segamat, Johor to Gambang, Pahang), Jalan Tun Razak in Kuala Lumpur (part of Kuala Lumpur Middle Ring Road 1), Jalan Tun Abdul Razak in Johor Bahru (part of Skudai Highway), Jalan Tun Abdul Razak in Ipoh (also known as Maxwell Road), Jalan Tun Abdul Razak in Melaka City (street name for Melaka Bypass), Jalan Tun Razak in Kota Kinabalu and Jalan Tun Abdul Razak in Gowa, Indonesia (known as Jalan Hertasning Baru and Jalan Aroepala)
- Bandar Tun Razak in Kuala Lumpur and Bandar Tun Abdul Razak, Pahang are the towns named after Tun Razak.
- The most prominent landmark in Georgetown, Penang is the KOMTAR building, the Tun Abdul Razak Complex, housing stores and offices. Another building of the same name was also built in Johor Bahru.
- The SK Tun Abdul Razak primary schools in Kuala Kubu Bharu, Selangor.
- The SMK Tun Abdul Razak secondary schools both in Selekoh, Perak and Kuching, Sarawak.
- The Tun Abdul Razak Research Centre in Brickendonbury, England, is named in his.
- KD Tun Abdul Razak, a Scorpene class submarine of the Royal Malaysian Navy
- Tun Abdul Razak Chancellor Hall (DECTAR) at the National University of Malaysia (UKM) in Bangi, Selangor
- Tun Abdul Razak Library (PTAR) at MARA University of Technology (UiTM), Shah Alam, Selangor
- Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Abdul Razak bin Hussein, Tun Haji". Encyclopedia Britannica. I: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
- 1967 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Community Leadership – Tun Abdul Razak
- Anak Gemilang Malaysia
- M'SIAN DEPUTY PM TO ATTEND BUGIS MAKASSAR BIZMEN'S MEETING.
- Tun Razak’s legacy – his vision, The Star, 2 March 2008.
- The band of brothers C. S. TAN, The Star, 2 March 2008.
|New office||Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia
Ismail Abdul Rahman
|Prime Minister of Malaysia