|Motto: حرية، نظام، عدالة
"Ḥurriyyah, Niẓām, ‘Adālah"
"Liberty, Order, Justice"
|Anthem: Humat al-Hima
Defenders of the Homeland
Location of Tunisia in northern Africa.
and largest city
|Spoken languages||Tunisian Arabic|
|Ethnic groups (2003)||
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential republic|
|-||Prime Minister||Mehdi Jomaa|
|-||Husainid Dynasty inaugurated||15 July 1705|
|-||Independence from France||20 March 1956|
|-||Republic declared||25 July 1957|
|-||Revolution Day||14 January 2011|
|-||Total||163,610 km2 (93rd)
63,170 sq mi
|-||2012 estimate||10,777,500 (77th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2012 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2012 estimate|
|HDI (2013)|| 0.712
high · 94th
|Currency||Tunisian dinar (
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||TN|
Tunisia (US i// too-NEE-zhə or UK // tew-NIZ-i-ə; Arabic: تونس Tūnis pronounced [ˈtuːnɪs]; French: Tunisie;[Notes 1] Berber: ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ), officially the Tunisian Republic (though often referred to in English as the "Republic of Tunisia"; Arabic: الجمهورية التونسية al-Jumhūriyyah at-Tūnisiyyah; French: République tunisienne; is the northernmost country in Africa[Notes 2] and, at almost 165,000 square kilometres (64,000 sq mi) in area, the smallest country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is bordered by Algeria to the west, Libya to the southeast and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. As of 2013, its population is estimated at just under 10.8 million. Its name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, located on the country's northeast coast.
Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its 1,300 kilometres (810 mi) of coastline includes the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, features the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar.
Tunisia has an association agreement with the European Union and is a member of La Francophonie, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League and the African Union. Close relations with Europe – in particular, with France – have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization.
In 2011, a revolution resulted in the overthrow of the autocratic President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali followed by the country's first free elections. Since then, Tunisia has been consolidating its young democracy.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Law
- 6 Administrative divisions
- 7 Economy
- 8 Demographics
- 9 Culture
- 10 Science and technology
- 11 Health
- 12 See also
- 13 Notes
- 14 References
- 15 External links
The word Tunisia is derived from Tunis; a central urban hub and the capital of modern-day Tunisia. The present form of the name, with its Latinate suffix -ia, evolved from French Tunisie. The French derivative Tunisie was adopted in some European languages with slight modifications, introducing a distinctive name to designate the country. Other languages remained untouched, such as the Russian Туни́с (Tunís) and Spanish Túnez. In this case, the same name is used for both country and city, as with the Arabic تونس, and only by context can one tell the difference.
The name Tunis can be attributed to different origins. It is generally associated with the Berber root tns, which means "to lie down" or "encampment". It is sometimes also associated with the Phoenician goddess Tanith (aka Tunit), ancient city of Tynes
Farming methods reached the Nile Valley from the Fertile Crescent region about 5000 BC, and spread to the Maghreb by about 4000 BC. Agricultural communities in the humid coastal plains of central Tunisia then were ancestors of today's Berber tribes.
It was believed in ancient times that Africa was originally populated by Gaetulians and Libyans, both nomadic peoples. According to the Roman historian Sallust, the demigod Hercules died in Spain and his polyglot eastern army was left to settle the land, with some migrating to Africa. Persians went to the West and intermarried with the Gaetulians and became the Numidians. The Medes settled and were known as Mauri latter Moors.
The Numidians and Moors belonged to the race from which the Berbers are descended. The translated meaning of Numidian is Nomad and indeed the people were semi-nomadic until the reign of Masinissa of the Massyli tribe.
At the beginning of recorded history, Tunisia was inhabited by Berber tribes. Its coast was settled by Phoenicians starting as early as the 10th century BC. The city of Carthage was founded in the 9th century BC by Phoenician and Cypriot settlers. Legend says that Dido from Tyre, now in modern day Lebanon, founded the city in 814 BC, as retold by the Greek writer Timaeus of Tauromenium. The settlers of Carthage brought their culture and religion from the Phoenicians.
After the series of wars with Greek city-states of Sicily in the 5th century BC, Carthage rose to power and eventually became the dominant civilization in the Western Mediterranean. The people of Carthage worshipped a pantheon of Middle Eastern gods including Baal and Tanit. Tanit's symbol, a simple female figure with extended arms and long dress, is a popular icon found in ancient sites. The founders of Carthage also established a Tophet, which was altered in Roman times.
A Carthaginian invasion of Italy led by Hannibal during the Second Punic War, one of a series of wars with Rome, nearly crippled the rise of Roman power. From the conclusion of the Second Punic War in 202 BC, Carthage functioned as a client state of the Roman Republic for another 50 years.
Following the Battle of Carthage in 149 BC, Carthage was conquered by Rome. After the Roman conquest, the region became one of the main granaries of Rome and was fully Latinized.
During the Roman period the area of what is now Tunisia enjoyed a huge development. The economy, mainly during the Empire, boomed: the prosperity of the area depended on agriculture. Called the Granary of the Empire, the area of actual Tunisia and coastal Tripolitania, according to one estimate, produced one million tons of cereals each year, one-quarter of which was exported to the Empire. Additional crops included beans, figs, grapes, and other fruits.
By the 2nd century, olive oil rivalled cereals as an export item. In addition to the cultivations, and the capture and transporting of exotic wild animals from the western mountains, the principal production and exports included the textiles, marble, wine, timber, livestock, pottery such as African Red Slip, and wool.
There was even a huge production of mosaics and ceramics, exported mainly to Italy, in the central area of El Djem (where there was the second biggest amphitheater in the Roman Empire).
Berber bishop Donatus Magnus was the founder of a Christian group known as the Donatists. During the 5th and 6th centuries (from 430 to 533 AD), the Germanic Vandals invaded and ruled over a kingdom in North Africa that included present-day Tripoli. The region was easily reconquered in 533–534 AD, during the rule of Emperor Justinian I, by the Eastern Romans led by General Belisarius.
Around the second half of the 7th century and the beginning of the 8th century, the region was conquered by Arab Muslims, who founded the city of Kairouan, which became the first city of Islam in North Africa. In 670 AD, the Great Mosque of Kairouan was erected; it has the oldest standing minaret in the world. This mosque, also called the Mosque of Uqba, is the most ancient and most prestigious sanctuary in the Muslim West; it is also considered a masterpiece of Islamic art and architecture.
The Arab governors of Tunis founded the Aghlabid Dynasty, which ruled Tunisia, Tripolitania and eastern Algeria from 800 to 909. Tunisia flourished under Arab rule, as extensive irrigation installations were constructed to supply towns with water and promote agriculture (especially olive production). This prosperity permitted luxurious court life and was marked by the construction of new palace cities such as al-Abassiya (809) and Raqadda (877).
After conquering Cairo, the Fatimids abandoned Tunisia and parts of Eastern Algeria to the local Zirids (972–1148). Zirid Tunisia prospered, with agriculture, industry, trade and learning, both religious and secular, all flourishing. Management of the later Zirid emirs was neglectful though, and political instability was connected to the decline of Tunisian trade and agriculture.
The invasion of Tunisia by the Banu Hilal, a warlike Arab Bedouin tribe encouraged by the Fatimids of Egypt to seize North Africa, sent the region's urban and economic life into further decline. The Arab historian Ibn Khaldun wrote that the lands ravaged by Banu Hilal invaders had become completely arid desert.
The coasts were held briefly by the Normans of Sicily in the 12th century, but following the conquest of Tunisia in 1159–1160 by the Almohads the last Christians in Tunisia disappeared either through forced conversion or emigration. The Almohads initially ruled over Tunisia through a governor, usually a near relative of the Caliph. Despite the prestige of the new masters, the country was still unruly, with continuous rioting and fighting between the townsfolk and wandering Arabs and Turks, the latter being subjects of the Armenian adventurer Karakush.
The greatest threat to Almohad rule in Tunisia was the Banu Ghaniya, relatives of the Almoravids, who from their base in Mallorca tried to restore Almoravid rule over the Maghreb. Around 1200 they succeeded in extending their rule over the whole of Tunisia, until they were crushed by Almohad troops in 1207. After this success, the Almohads installed Walid Abu Hafs as the governor of Tunisia. Tunisia remained part of the Almohad state, until 1230 when the son of Abu Hafs declared himself independent. During the reign of the Hafsid dynasty, fruitful commercial relationships were established with several Christian Mediterranean states. In the late 16th century the coast became a pirate stronghold (see: Barbary States).
The first Ottoman conquest of Tunis took place in 1534 under the command of Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, the younger brother of Oruç Reis, who was the Kapudan Pasha of the Ottoman Fleet during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. However, it wasn't until the final Ottoman reconquest of Tunis from Spain in 1574 under Kapudan Pasha Uluç Ali Reis that the Ottomans permanently acquired the former Hafsid Tunisia, retaining it until the French occupation of Tunisia in 1881.
Initially under Turkish rule from Algiers, soon the Ottoman Porte appointed directly for Tunis a governor called the Pasha supported by janissary forces. Before long, however, Tunisia became in effect an autonomous province, under the local Bey. Under its Turkish governors, the Beys, Tunisia attained virtual independence. The Hussein dynasty of Beys, established in 1705, lasted until 1957. This evolution of status was from time to time challenged without success by Algiers. During this era the governing councils controlling Tunisia remained largely composed of a foreign elite who continued to conduct state business in the Turkish language.
Attacks on European shipping were made by corsairs, primarily from Algiers, but also from Tunis and Tripoli, yet after a long period of declining raids the growing power of the European states finally forced its termination. Under the Ottoman Empire, the boundaries of Tunisia contracted; it lost territory to the west (Constantine) and to the east (Tarabulus).
In the 19th century, the rulers of Tunisia became aware of the ongoing efforts at political and social reform in the Ottoman capital. The Bey of Tunis then, by his own lights but informed by the Turkish example, attempted to effect a modernizing reform of institutions and the economy. Tunisian international debt grew unmanageable. This was the reason or pretext for French forces to establish a Protectorate in 1881.
In 1869, Tunisia declared itself bankrupt and an international financial commission took control over its economy. In 1881, using the pretext of a Tunisian incursion into Algeria, the French invaded with an army of about 36,000 and forced the Bey to agree to the terms of the 1881 Treaty of Bardo (Al Qasr as Sa'id). With this treaty, Tunisia was officially made a French protectorate, over the objections of Italy. Under French colonization, European settlements in the country were actively encouraged; the number of French colonists grew from 34,000 in 1906 to 144,000 in 1945. In 1910 there were 105,000 Italians in Tunisia.
In 1942–1943, Tunisia was the scene of the Tunisia Campaign, a series of battles between the Axis and Allied forces. The battle opened with initial success by the German and Italian forces, but the massive supply and numerical superiority of the Allies led to the Axis's surrender on 13 May 1943.
Tunisia achieved independence from France in 1956 led by Habib Bourguiba, who later became the first Tunisian President. The secular Constitutional Democratic Rally (RCD), formerly Neo Destour, controlled the country as one of the most repressive regimes in the Arab World since its independence in 1956.
In November 1987, doctors declared Bourguiba unfit to rule and, in a bloodless coup d'état, Prime Minister Zine El Abidine Ben Ali assumed the presidency. President Ben Ali, previously Habib Bourguiba's minister and a military figure, held office from 1987 to 2011, having acceded to the executive office of Habib Bourguiba after a team of medical experts judged Bourguiba unfit to exercise the functions of the office in accordance with Article 57 of the Tunisian constitution. The anniversary of Ben Ali’s succession, 7 November, was celebrated as a national holiday. He was consistently re-elected with enormous majorities every election, the last being 25 October 2009, until he fled the country amid popular unrest in January 2011.
Ben Ali and his family were accused of corruption and plundering the country's money. Corrupt members of the Trabelsi family, most notably in the cases of Imed Trabelsi and Belhassen Trabelsi, controlled much of the business sector in the country. The First Lady Leila Ben Ali was described as an "unabashed shopaholic" who used the state airplane to make frequent unofficial trips to Europe's fashion capitals. Tunisia refused a French request for the extradition of two of the President's nephews, from Leila's side, who were accused by the French State prosecutor of having stolen two mega-yachts from a French marina. Ben Ali's son-in-law Sakher El Materi was rumoured as being primed to eventually take over the country.
Independent human rights groups, such as Amnesty International, Freedom House, and Protection International, documented that basic human and political rights were not respected. The regime obstructed in any way possible the work of local human rights organizations. In 2008, in terms of Press freedom, Tunisia was ranked 143rd out of 173.
The Tunisian Revolution was an intensive campaign of civil resistance that were precipitated by high unemployment, food inflation, corruption, a lack of freedom of speech and other political freedoms and poor living conditions. Labour unions were said to be an integral part of the protests. The protests inspired the Arab Spring, a wave of similar actions throughout the Arab world.
The catalyst for mass demonstrations was the death of Mohamed Bouazizi, a 26-year old Tunisian street vendor, who set himself afire on 17 December 2010 in protest at the confiscation of his wares and the humiliation inflicted on him by a municipal official. Anger and violence intensified following Bouazizi's death on 4 January 2011, ultimately leading longtime President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali to step down on 14 January 2011, after 23 years in power.
Protests continued for banning of the ruling party and the eviction of all its members from the transitional government formed by Mohammed Ghannouchi. Eventually the new government gave in to the demands. A Tunis court banned the ex-ruling party RCD and confiscated all its resources. A decree by the minister of the interior banned the "political police", special forces which were used to intimidate and persecute political activists.
On 3 March 2011, the president announced that elections to a Constituent Assembly would be held on 23 October 2011. International and internal observers declared the vote free and fair. The Ennahda Movement, formerly banned under the Ben Ali regime, won a plurality of 90 seats out of a total of 217. On 12 December 2011, former dissident and veteran human rights activist Moncef Marzouki was elected president.
In March 2012, Ennahda declared it will not support making sharia the main source of legislation in the new constitution, maintaining the secular nature of the state. Ennahda's stance on the issue was criticized by hardline Islamists, who wanted full-blown sharia, and was welcomed by secular parties. On 6 February 2013, Chokri Belaid, the leader of the leftist opposition and prominent critic of Ennahda, was assassinated.
Tunisia is situated on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa, midway between the Atlantic Ocean and the Nile Delta. It is bordered by Algeria on the west and Libya on the south east. It lies between latitudes 30° and 38°N, and longitudes 7° and 12°E. An abrupt southward turn of the Mediterranean coast in northern Tunisia gives the country two distinctive Mediterranean coasts, west-east in the north, and north-south in the east.
Though it is relatively small in size, Tunisia has great environmental diversity due to its north-south extent. Its east-west extent is limited. Differences in Tunisia, like the rest of the Maghreb, are largely north-south environmental differences defined by sharply decreasing rainfall southward from any point. The Dorsal, the eastern extension of the Atlas Mountains, runs across Tunisia in a northeasterly direction from the Algerian border in the west to the Cape Bon peninsula in the east. North of the Dorsal is the Tell, a region characterized by low, rolling hills and plains, again an extension of mountains to the west in Algeria. In the Khroumerie, the northwestern corner of the Tunisian Tell, elevations reach 1,050 metres (3,440 ft) and snow occurs in winter.
The Sahel, a broadening coastal plain along Tunisia's eastern Mediterranean coast, is among the world's premier areas of olive cultivation. Inland from the Sahel, between the Dorsal and a range of hills south of Gafsa, are the Steppes. Much of the southern region is semi-arid and desert.
Tunisia has a coastline 1,148 kilometres (713 mi) long. In maritime terms, the country claims a contiguous zone of 24 nautical miles (44.4 km; 27.6 mi), and a territorial sea of 12 nautical miles (22.2 km; 13.8 mi).
Tunisia's climate is temperate in the north, with mild rainy winters and hot, dry summers. The south of the country is desert. The terrain in the north is mountainous, which, moving south, gives way to a hot, dry central plain. The south is semiarid, and merges into the Sahara. A series of salt lakes, known as chotts or shatts, lie in an east-west line at the northern edge of the Sahara, extending from the Gulf of Gabes into Algeria. The lowest point is Shatt al Gharsah, at 17 metres (56 ft) below sea level and the highest is Jebel ech Chambi, at 1,544 metres (5,066 ft).
Tunisia is a constitutional republic, with a president serving as head of state, prime minister as head of government, a bicameral parliament and a court system influenced by French civil law. The Constitution of Tunisia, adopted 26 January 2014, guarantees rights for women and states that the President's religion "shall be Islam".
The number of legalized political parties in Tunisia has grown considerably since the revolution. There are now over 100 legal parties, including several that existed under the former regime. During the rule of Ben Ali, only three functioned as independent opposition parties: the PDP, FDTL, and Tajdid. While some older parties are well-established and can draw on previous party structures, many of the 100-plus parties extant as of February 2012 are small.
Rare for the Arab world, women hold more than 20% of seats in both chambers of parliament.
Tunisia is included in the European Union's European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), which aims at bringing the EU and its neighbours closer.
A Code of Personal Status was adopted shortly after independence in 1956, which, among other things, gave women full legal status (allowing them to run and own businesses, have bank accounts, and seek passports under their own authority). The code outlawed the practices of polygamy and repudiation and a husband’s right to unilaterally divorce his wife. Further reforms in 1993 included a provision to allow Tunisian women to transmit citizenship even if they are married to a foreigner and living abroad. The Law of Personal Status is applied to all Tunisians regardless of their religion. The Code of Personal Status remains one of the most progressive civil codes in the Middle East and the Muslim world.
After the revolution, a number of Salafist groups emerged and in some occasions have violently repressed artistic expression that is viewed to be hostile to Islam.
Since the revolution, some non-governmental organizations have reconstituted themselves and hundreds of new ones have emerged. For instance, the Tunisian Human Rights League, the first human rights organization in Africa and the Arab world, operated under restrictions and state intrusion for over half of its existence, but is now completely free to operate. Some independent organizations, such as the Tunisian Association of Democratic Women, the Association of Tunisian Women for Research and Development, and the Bar Association also remain active.
As of 2008, Tunisia had an army of 27,000 personnel equipped with 84 main battle tanks and 48 light tanks. The navy had 4,800, operating 25 patrol boats and 6 other craft. The Tunisian Air Force has 154 aircraft and 4 UAVs. Paramilitary forces consisted of a 12,000-member national guard. Tunisia's military spending was 1.6% of GDP as of 2006. The army is responsible for national defence and also internal security. Tunisia has participated in peacekeeping efforts in the DROC and Ethiopia/Eritrea. United Nations peacekeeping deployments for the Tunisian armed forces have been in Cambodia (UNTAC), Namibia (UNTAG), Somalia, Rwanda, Burundi, Western Sahara (MINURSO) and the 1960s mission in the Congo, ONUC.
The military has historically played a professional, apolitical role in defending the country from external threats. Since January 2011 and at the direction of the executive branch, the military has taken on increasing responsibility for domestic security and humanitarian crisis response.
Tunisia is subdivided into 24 governorates, which are further divided into 264 "delegations" or "districts" (mutamadiyat), and further subdivided into municipalities (shaykhats) and sectors (imadats).
Tunisia now finds itself as an export-oriented country in the process of liberalizing and privatizing an economy that, while averaging 5% GDP growth since the early 1990s, has suffered from corruption benefiting politically connected elites. Tunisia has a diverse economy, ranging from agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and petroleum products, to tourism. In 2008 it had a GDP of US$41 billion (official exchange rates), or $82 billion (purchasing power parity). The agricultural sector stands for 11.6% of the GDP, industry 25.7%, and services 62.8%. The industrial sector is mainly made up of clothing and footwear manufacturing, production of car parts, and electric machinery. Although Tunisia managed an average 5% growth over the last decade it continues to suffer from a high unemployment especially among youth.
Tunisia was in 2009 ranked the most competitive economy in Africa and the 40th in the world by the World Economic Forum. Tunisia has managed to attract many international companies such as Airbus and Hewlett-Packard.
Tourism accounted for 7% of GDP and 370,000 jobs in 2009.
The European Union remains Tunisia's first trading partner, currently accounting for 72.5% of Tunisian imports and 75% of Tunisian exports. Tunisia is one of the European Union's most established trading partners in the Mediterranean region and ranks as the EU’s 30th largest trading partner. Tunisia was the first Mediterranean country to sign an Association Agreement with the European Union, in July 1995, although even before the date of entry came into force, Tunisia started dismantling tariffs on bilateral EU trade. Tunisia finalised the tariffs dismantling for industrial products in 2008 and therefore was the first Mediterranean country to enter in a free trade area with EU.
Tunis Sports City is an entire sports city currently being constructed in Tunis, Tunisia. The city that will consist of apartment buildings as well as several sports facilities will be built by the Bukhatir Group at a cost of $5 Billion. The Tunis Financial harbour will deliver North Africa’s first offshore financial centre at Tunis Bay in a project with an end development value of US$ 3 billion. The Tunis Telecom City is a US$ 3 billion project to create an IT hub in Tunis.
Among Tunisia's tourist attractions are its cosmopolitan capital city of Tunis, the ancient ruins of Carthage, the Muslim and Jewish quarters of Jerba, and coastal resorts outside of Monastir. According to The New York Times, Tunisia is "known for its golden beaches, sunny weather and affordable luxuries." 
The majority of the electricity used in Tunisia is produced locally, by state-owned company STEG (Société Tunisienne de l´Electricité et du Gaz). In 2008, a total of 13,747 GWh was produced in the country.
Oil production of Tunisia is about 97,600 barrels per day (15,520 m3/d). The main field is El Bourma.
Oil production began in 1966 in Tunisia. Currently there are 12 oil fields.
Tunisia has plans for two nuclear power stations, to be operational by 2019. Both facilities are projected to produce 900–1000 MW. France is set to become an important partner in Tunisia's nuclear power plans, having signed an agreement, along with other partners, to deliver training and technology.
The Desertec project is a large-scale energy project aimed at installing solar power panels in northern Africa, with a power line connection between it and southern Europe. Tunisia will be a part of this project, but exactly how it may benefit from this remains to be seen.
The country maintains 19,232 kilometres (11,950 mi) of roads, with the A1 Tunis-Sfax, P1 Tunis-Libya and P7 Tunis-Algeria being the major highways. There are 29 airports in Tunisia, with Tunis Carthage International Airport and Djerba–Zarzis International Airport being the most important ones. A new airport, Enfidha – Hammamet International Airport, was completed at the end of October 2009 but was delayed in opening and did not open fully until 2011. The airport is located north of Sousse at Enfidha and is to mainly serve the resorts of Hamammet and Port El Kantaoui, together with inland cities such as Kairouan. There are four airlines headquartered in Tunisia: Tunisair, Karthago Airlines, Nouvelair and Tunisair express. The railway network is operated by SNCFT and amounts to 2,135 kilometres (1,327 mi) in total. The Tunis area is served by a tram network, named Metro Leger.
The population of Tunisia, from a sociological, historical and genealogical standpoint, are made up of people of mainly distinct and mixed Arab, Berber, and Turkish descent. By 1870 the distinction between the Arab mass and the Turkish elite had blurred and today the overwhelming majority, of about 98%, simply identify themselves as Arabs. There is also a small purely Berber (1% at most) population located in the Dahar mountains and on the island of Djerba in the south-east and in the Khroumire mountainous region in the north-west.
From the late 19th century to after World War II, Tunisia was home to large populations of French and Italians (255,000 Europeans in 1956), although nearly all of them, along with the Jewish population, left after Tunisia became independent. The history of the Jews in Tunisia goes back some 2,000 years. In 1948 the Jewish population was an estimated 105,000, but by 2003 only about 1,500 remained.
The first people known to history in what is now Tunisia were the Berbers. Numerous civilizations and peoples have invaded, migrated to, and been assimilated into the population over the millennia, with influences of population via conquest from Phoenicians/Carthaginians, Romans, Vandals, Alans, Arabs, Spaniards, Ottoman Turks and Janissaries, and French. There was a continuing inflow of nomadic Arab tribes from Arabia.
Additionally, after the Reconquista and expulsion of non-Christians and Moriscos from Spain, many Spanish Muslims and Jews also arrived. According to Matthew Carr, "As many as eighty thousand Moriscos settled in Tunisia, most of them in and around the capital, Tunis, which still contains a quarter known as Zuqaq al-Andalus, or Andalusia Alley."
The government has supported a remarkably successful family planning program that has reduced the population growth rate to just over 1% per annum, contributing to Tunisia's economic and social stability.
The majority of Tunisia's population (around 98%) are Muslims while about 2% follow Christianity and Judaism or other religions. The bulk of Tunisians belong to the Maliki School of Sunni Islam and their mosques are easily recognizable by square minarets. However, the Turks brought with them the teaching of the Hanafi School during the Ottoman rule, which still survives among the Turkish descended families today, and their mosques traditionally have octagonal minarets. Sunnis form the majority with non-denominational Muslims being the second largest group of Muslims.
Tunisia has a sizable Christian community of around over 25,000 adherents, mainly Catholics (22,000) and to a lesser degree Protestants. Berber Christians continued to live in Tunisia up until the early 15th century. Judaism is the country's third largest religion with 1,500 members. One-third of the Jewish population lives in and around the capital. The remainder lives on the island of Djerba, with 39 synagogues, and where the Jewish community dates back 2,500 years.
Djerba, an island in the Gulf of Gabès, is home to El Ghriba synagogue, which is one of the oldest synagogues in the world. Many Jews consider it a pilgrimage site, with celebrations taking place there once every year. In fact, Tunisia along with Morocco has been said to be the Arab countries most accepting of their Jewish populations.
The constitution declares Islam as the official state religion and requires the President to be Muslim. Aside from the president, Tunisians enjoy a significant degree of religious freedom, a right enshrined and protected in its constitution, which guarantees the freedom to practice one's religion.
Before post-revolution period under Ben Ali, the country had a secular culture where religion was separated from not only political, but in public life. There were restrictions in the wearing of Islamic head scarves (hijab) in government offices and on public streets and public gatherings. The government believed the hijab is a "garment of foreign origin having a partisan connotation". There were reports that the Tunisian police harassed men with "Islamic" appearance (such as those with beards), detained them, and sometimes compelled men to shave their beards off. In 2006, the former Tunisian president declared that he would "fight" the hijab, which he refers to as "ethnic clothing". Mosques were restricted from holding communal prayers or classes. After the revolution however, a moderate Islamist government was elected leading to more freedom in the practice of religion. It has also led to the rise of fundamentalist groups such as the Salafists, who call for a strict interpretation of Sharia law.
Individual Tunisians are tolerant of religious freedom and generally do not inquire about a person's personal beliefs.
Arabic is the official language, and Tunisian Arabic, known as Derja, is the local, vernacular variety of Arabic and is used by the public. There is also a small minority of speakers of Shelha[disambiguation needed], a Berber language.
French also plays a major role in Tunisian society, despite having no official status. It is widely used in education (e.g., as the language of instruction in the sciences in secondary school), the press, and in business. In 2010, there were 6,639,000 French-speakers in Tunisia, or about 64% of the population. Italian is understood and spoken by a small part of the Tunisian population. Shop signs, menus and road signs in Tunisia are generally written in both Arabic and French. There are also thousands of English or 20% of the population can speak or at least make a conversation with the language specifically those who are in 20s of their ages do speak the language fluently.
Largest cities or towns of Tunisia
Institut national de la statistique (2011)
|1||Tunis||Tunis||1 002 900||11||Kasserine||Kasserine||437 200||
|2||Sfax||Sfax||944 500||12||Jendouba||Jendouba||426 000|
|3||Nabeul||Nabeul||762 600||13||Sidi Bouzid||Sidi Bouzid||415 900|
|4||Sousse||Sousse||622 100||14||Mahdia||Mahdia||400 400|
|5||Ben Arous||Ben Arous||588 700||15||Manouba||Manouba||375 300|
|6||Kairouan||Kairouan||564 900||16||Gabès||Gabès||366 100|
|7||Bizerte||Bizerte||551 500||17||Gafsa||Gafsa||341 600|
The culture of Tunisia is mixed due to their long established history of conquerors such as Phoenicians, Romans, Vandals, Byzantines, Arabs, Turks, Italians, Spaniards, and the French who all left their mark on the country.
The birth of Tunisian contemporary painting is strongly linked to the School of Tunis, established by a group of artists from Tunisia with united by the desire to incorporate native themes and rejecting the influence of Orientalist colonial painting. It was founded in 1949 and brings together French and Tunisian Muslims, Christians and Jews. Pierre Boucherle was its main instigator, along with Yahia Turki, Abdelaziz Gorgi, Moses Levy, Ammar Farhat and Jules Lellouche. Given its doctrine, some members have therefore turned to the sources of aesthetic Arab-Muslim art: such as miniature Islamic architecture, etc. Expressionist paintings by Amara Debbache, Jellal Ben Abdallah and Ali Ben Salem are recognized while abstract art captures the imagination of painters like Edgar Naccache, Nello Levy and Hedi Turki.
After independence in 1956, the art movement in Tunisia was propelled by the dynamics of nation building and by artists serving the state. A Ministry of Culture was established, under the leadership of ministers such as Habib Boularès who saw art and education and power. Artists gained international recognition such as Hatem El Mekki or Zoubeir Turki and influenced a generation of new young painters. Sadok Gmech draws his inspiration from national wealth while Moncef Ben Amor turns to fantasy. In another development, Youssef Rekik reused the technique of painting on glass and founded Nja Mahdaoui calligraphy with its mystical dimension.
Tunisian literature exists in two forms: Arabic and French. Arabic literature dates back to the 7th century with the arrival of Arab civilization in the region. It is more important in both volume and value than French literature, introduced during the French protectorate from 1881. Among the literary figures include Ali Douagi, who has produced more than 150 radio stories, over 500 poems and folk songs and nearly 15 plays, Khraief Bashir, an Arabic novelist who published many notable books in the 1930s and which caused a scandal because the dialogues were written in Tunisian dialect, and others such as Moncef Ghachem, Mohamed Salah Ben Mrad or Mahmoud Messaadi. As for poetry, Tunisian poetry typically opts for nonconformity and innovation with poets such as Aboul-Qacem Echebbi. As for literature in French, it is characterized by its critical approach. Contrary to the pessimism of Albert Memmi, who predicted that literature Tunisian was sentenced to die young, a high number of Tunisian writers are abroad including Abdelwahab Meddeb, Bakri Tahar, Mustapha Tlili, Hele Beji or Mellah Fawzi. The themes of wandering, exile and heartbreak are the focus of their creative writing.
The national bibliography lists 1249 non-school books published in 2002 in Tunisia, with 885 titles in Arabic. In 2006 this figure had increased to 1,500 and 1,700 in 2007. Nearly a third of the books are published for children.
At the beginning of 20th century, musical activity was dominated by the liturgical repertoire associated with different religious brotherhoods and secular repertoire which consisted of instrumental pieces and songs in different Andalusian forms and styles of origins, essentially borrowing characteristics of musical language. In 1930 "The Rachidia" was founded well known thanks to artists from the Jewish community. The founding in 1934 of a musical school help revive Arab Andalusian music largely to a social and cultural revival led by the elite of the time who became aware of the risks of loss of the musical heritage and which they believed threatened the foundations of Tunisian national identity. The institution did not take long to assemble an elite group of musicians and poets and scholars. The creation of Radio Tunis in 1938 allowed musicians are greater opportunity to disseminate their works.
The 1960s and 1970s witnessed the emergence of composers and performers working mostly in the orchestra of the Tunisian Radio and Television. Song using melodies and popular rhythms experienced a significant rise. From the 1980s, the music scene saw the emergence of a generation of musicians, composers and performers of Arab and Western musical training who believed that Tunisian music needed new song writing techniques. The emergence of new patterns of racial and improvised music since the late 1990s changed the musical landscape of Tunisia. At the same time, the majority of the population is attracted by the music of Arab origin (Egyptian, Lebanese or Syrian). Popular western music has also had major success with the emergence of many groups and festivals, including rock music, hip-hop, reggae and jazz.
Among the major Tunisian contemporary artists include Saber Rebai, Dhafer Youssef, Belgacem Bouguenna, Sonia M'Barek and Latifa. Other notable musicians include Salah El Mahdi, Anouar Brahem, and Lotfi Bouchnak.
The TV media has long remained under the domination of the Establishment of the Broadcasting Authority Tunisia (ERTT) and its predecessor, the Tunisian Radio and Television, founded in 1957. On 7 November 2006, President Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali announced the demerger of the business, which became effective on 31 August 2007. Until then, ERTT managed all public television stations (Télévision Tunisienne 1 and Télévision Tunisienne 2, which had replaced the defunct RTT 2) and four national radio stations (Radio Tunis, Tunisia Radio Culture, Youth and Radio RTCI) and five regional Sfax, Monastir, Gafsa, Le Kef and Tataouine. Most programs are in Arabic but some are in French. Since 2003, a growth in private sector broadcasting is underway, witnessing the creation of Radio Mosaique FM, Jawhara FM and Zaytuna FM and Hannibal TV and Nessma TV.
In 2007, some 245 newspapers and magazines (compared to only 91 in 1987) are 90% owned by private groups and independents. The Tunisian political parties have the right to publish their own newspapers, but those of the opposition parties have very limited editions (like Al Mawkif or Mouwatinoun). Freedom of the press is guaranteed by the constitution although almost all newspapers following the government line report without critical approach to the activities of the president, government and the Constitutional Democratic Rally Party (in power) through the Agence Tunis Afrique Presse.
Football is the most popular sport in Tunisia. The Tunisia national football team, also known as "The Eagles of Carthage," won the 2004 African Cup of Nations (ACN), which was held in Tunisia. They also represented Africa in the 2005 FIFA Cup of Confederations, which was held in Germany, but they could not go beyond the first round. The Eagles of Carthage have participated in four World Cup Championships.
The premier football league is the "Tunisian Ligue Professionnelle 1". The main clubs are Espérance Sportive de Tunis, Étoile Sportive du Sahel, Club Africain, and Club Sportif Sfaxien. The first and second teams participated in the World Cup for clubs.
The Tunisia national handball team has participated in several handball world championships. In 2005, Tunisia came fourth. The national league consists of about 12 teams, with ES. Sahel and Esperance S.Tunis dominating. The most famous Tunisian handball player is Wissem Hmam. In the 2005 Handball Championship in Tunis, Wissem Hmam was ranked as the top scorer of the tournament. The Tunisian national handball team won the African Cup eight times, being the team dominating this competition. The Tunisians won the 2010 African Cup in Egypt by defeating the host country.
In the 2008 Summer Olympics, Tunisian Oussama Mellouli won a gold medal in 1500m freestyle. In the 2012 Summer Olympics, he won a bronze medal in the 1500m freestyle and a gold medal in the 15 km marathon totaling 3 Olympic medals in his life.
In 2012, Tunisia participated for the seventh time in her history in the summer paralympic games. She finished the competition with 19 medals; 9 golds, 5 silvers and 5 bronzes. Tunisia was classified 14th in the Paralympics medal table and 5th in athletics, which is the only field in which she participated.
Tunisia was suspended from Davis Cup play for the year 2014, because the Tunisian Tennis Federation was found to have ordered Malek Jaziri not to compete against an Israeli tennis player, Amir Weintraub. ITF president Francesco Ricci Bitti said: "There is no room for prejudice of any kind in sport or in society. The ITF Board decided to send a strong message to the Tunisian Tennis Federation that this kind of action will not be tolerated."
Science and technology
The adult literacy rate in 2008 was 78%. Education is given a high priority and accounts for 6% of GNP. A basic education for children between the ages of 6 and 16 has been compulsory since 1991. Tunisia ranked 17th in the category of "quality of the [higher] educational system" and 21st in the category of "quality of primary education" in The Global Competitiveness Report 2008-9, released by The World Economic Forum.
While children generally acquire Tunisian Arabic at home, when they enter school at age 6, they are taught to read and write in Standard Arabic. From the age of 8, they are taught French while English is introduced at the age of 12.
The four years of secondary education are open to all holders of Diplôme de Fin d’Etudes de l’Enseignement de Base where the students focus on entering university level or join the workforce after completion. The Enseignement secondaire is divided into two stages: general academic and specialized. The higher education system in Tunisia has experienced a rapid expansion and the number of students has more than tripled over the past 10 years from approximately 102,000 in 1995 to 365,000 in 2005.The gross enrollment rate at the tertiary level in 2007 was 31 percent, with gender parity index of GER of 1.5.
In 2010, spending on healthcare accounted for 3.37% of the country's GDP. In 2009, there were 12.02 physicians and 33.12 nurses per 10,000 inhabitants. The life expectancy at birth was 74.60 years in 2010, or 72.60 years for males and 76.70 years for females. Infant mortality in 2004 was 25 per 1,000.
- Index of Tunisia-related articles
- Outline of Tunisia
- EU Neighbourhood Info Centre: Country profile of Tunisia
- "Tunisia Constitution, Article 4". 1957-07-25. Archived from the original on 6 April 2006. Retrieved 23 December 2009.
- "Tunisia Constitution, Article 1". 1957-07-25. Archived from the original on 6 April 2006. Retrieved 23 December 2009. Translation by the University of Bern: "Tunisia is a free State, independent and sovereign; its religion is the Islam, its language is Arabic, and its form is the Republic."
- "National Institute of Statistics-Tunisia". National Institute of Statistics-Tunisia. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
- "Tunisia". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- "GINI index". World Bank. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- "Human Development Report 2011". United Nations. 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
- "Report on the Delegation of تونس.". Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. 2010. Retrieved 8 November 2010.
- "Portal of the Presidency of the Government of Tunisia". Pm.gov.tn. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- Room, Adrian (2006). Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features, and Historic Sites. McFarland. p. 385. ISBN 0-7864-2248-3.
- Rossi, Peter M.; White, Wayne Edward (1980). Articles on the Middle East, 1947–1971: A Cumulation of the Bibliographies from the Middle East Journal. Pierian Press, University of Michigan. p. 132.
- Taylor, Isaac (2008). Names and Their Histories: A Handbook of Historical Geography and Topographical Nomenclature. BiblioBazaar, LLC. p. 281. ISBN 0-559-29668-1.
- Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor (1987). E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936. Brill. p. 838. ISBN 90-04-08265-4.
- Livy, John Yardley, Dexter Hoyos (2006). Hannibal's War: Books Twenty-one to Thirty. Oxford University Press. p. 705. ISBN 0-19-283159-3. and others associated with the word "تؤنس" (different from تونس) in Arabic which is a verb that means to socialize and to be friendly. It's also
- Mughal, Muhammad Aurang Zeb. 2012. Tunisia. Steven Danver (ed.), Native Peoples of the World: An Encyclopedia of Groups, Cultures, and Contemporary Issues, Vol. 3. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, pp. 688–689.
- "Carthage and the Numidians". Hannibalbarca.webspace.virginmedia.com. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- "LookLex / Tunisia / Dougga / Numidian Wall". Looklex.com. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- "Numidians (DBA II/40) and Moors (DBA II/57)". Fanaticus.org. 12 December 2001. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- "LookLex / Tunisia / Chemtou / Numidian Altar & Roman Temple". Looklex.com. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- "Numidia (ancient region, Africa)". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- "The City of Carthage: From Dido to the Arab Conquest" (PDF). Retrieved 8 January 2013.
- "Donatist". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Linda Kay Davidson; David Martin Gitlitz (1 November 2002). Pilgrimage: From the Ganges to Graceland : An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 302. ISBN 978-1-57607-004-8. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
- Clifford Edmund Bosworth (2007). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. BRILL. p. 264. ISBN 978-90-04-15388-2. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
- "Kairouan inscription as World Heritage". Kairouan.org. Archived from the original on 22 April 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- Lapidus, Ira M. (22 August 2002). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press. pp. 302–303. ISBN 978-0-521-77933-3. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- Ham, Anthony; Hole, Abigail; Willett, David. (2004). Tunisia (3 ed.). Lonely Planet. p. 65. ISBN 1-74104-189-9.
- Stearns, Peter N.; Leonard Langer, William (2001). The Encyclopedia of World History: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, Chronologically Arranged (6 ed.). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 129–131. ISBN 0-395-65237-5.
- M. Th Houtsma (1987). E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936. BRILL. p. 852. ISBN 978-90-04-08265-6. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
- Singh, Nagendra Kr (2000). International encyclopaedia of islamic dynasties. 4: A Continuing Series. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD. pp. 105–112. ISBN 81-261-0403-1.
- J. Ki-Zerbo, G. Mokhtar, A. Adu Boahen, I. Hrbek. General history of Africa. James Currey Publishers. pp. 171–173. ISBN 0-85255-093-6.
- "Populations Crises and Population Cycles, Claire Russell and W.M.S. Russell". Galtoninstitute.org.uk. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- Clifford Edmund Bosworth (2004). The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual. Edinburgh University Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-7486-2137-8. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
- Clifford Edmund Bosworth (2004). The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual. Edinburgh University Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-7486-2137-8. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
- Nancy Elizabeth Gallagher (25 July 2002). Medicine and Power in Tunisia, 1780–1900. Cambridge University Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-521-52939-6. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
- Daniel Panzac (2005). Barbary Corsairs: The End of a Legend, 1800–1820. BRILL. p. 309. ISBN 978-90-04-12594-0. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
- Julia A. Clancy-Smith (1997). Rebel and Saint: Muslim Notables, Populist Protest, Colonial Encounters (Algeria and Tunisia, 1800–1904). University of California Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-520-92037-8. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- Eamonn Gearon (9 November 2011). The Sahara: A Cultural History. Oxford University Press. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-19-986195-8. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
- Ion Smeaton Munro (1933). Through fascism to world power: a history of the revolution in Italy. A. Maclehose & co. p. 221.
- Gordon Williamson (26 September 1991). Afrikakorps 1941–43. Osprey Publishing. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-85532-130-4. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
- Michael A. Palmer (12 November 2010). The German Wars: A Concise History, 1859–1945. Zenith Imprint. p. 199. ISBN 978-0-7603-3780-6. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
- "Habib Bourguiba: Father of Tunisia". BBC. 6 April 2000.
- Ian Black, Middle East editor. "Amnesty International censures Tunisia over human right". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- AP (7 November 1987). "A Coup Is Reported In Tunisia". NYtimes.com. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- Yannick Vely (23 November 2009). "Ben Ali, sans discussion". ParisMatch.com. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- Elaine Ganley; Jenny Barchfield. "Tunisians hail fall of ex-leader's corrupt family". Sandiegounion-tribune.com. Retrieved 28 October 2011.[dead link]
- "Tunisie: comment s'enrichit le clan Ben Ali?" (in French). RadicalParty.org. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- "Caught in the Net: Tunisia's First Lady". Foreign Policy. 13 December 2007.
- "Ajaccio – Un trafic de yachts entre la France et la Tunisie en procès" (in French). 30 September 2009.
- Florence Beaugé (24 October 2009). "Le parcours fulgurant de Sakhr El-Materi, gendre du président tunisien Ben Ali". LeMonde.fr. Archived from the original on 21 January 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- "Tunisia". Amnesty.org. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- "Protectionline.org". Protectionline.org. 18 January 2010. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- "Droits de l’Homme : après le harcèlement, l’asphyxie". RFI.fr. 16 December 2004. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- "Dans le monde de l’après-11 septembre, seule la paix protège les libertés". RSF.org. 22 October 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- Yasmine Ryan (26 January 2011). "How Tunisia's revolution began – Features". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
- "Wikileaks might have triggered Tunis’ revolution". Alarabiya. 15 January 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
- Spencer, Richard (13 January 2011). "Tunisia riots: Reform or be overthrown, US tells Arab states amid fresh riots". Telegraph (London). Retrieved 14 January 2011.
- Ryan, Yasmine (14 January 2011). "Tunisia's bitter cyberwar". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- "Trade unions: the revolutionary social network at play in Egypt and Tunisia". Defenddemocracy.org. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
- "When fleeing Tunisia, don't forget the gold". Korea Times. 25 January 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- El Amrani, Issandr; Lindsey, Ursula (8 November 2011). "Tunisia Moves to the Next Stage". Middle East Report (Middle East Research and Information Project).
- Zavis, Alexandra (13 December 2011). "Former dissident sworn in as Tunisia's president". Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles Times). Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- "Tunisia’s constitution will not be based on Sharia: Islamist party". Al Arabiya. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- "Tunisian opposition leader Chokri Belaid shot dead outside his home". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- Ewan W., Anderson (1 November 2003). International Boundaries: Geopolitical Atlas. Psychology Press. p. 816. ISBN 978-1-57958-375-0. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "Climate of Tunisia". Bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- Ali Aldosari. Middle East, western Asia, and northern Africa. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 1270–. ISBN 978-0-7614-7571-2. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
- "The Constitution of Tunisia" (PDF). Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- "Tunisia (03/09/12)". US Department of State. 9 March 2012.
- Inter-Parliamentary Union. "TUNISIA. Majlis Al-Nuwab (Chamber of Deputies)". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- "Tunisia". Reunite International. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- "State Department page on Tunisia". State.gov. 19 March 2009. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document. United Nations Publications. 2003. p. 190. ISBN 978-92-1-130252-3. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- Tamanna, Nowrin (2008). "Personal Status Laws in Morocco and Tunisia: A Comparative Exploration of the Possibilities for Equality-Enhancing Reform in Bangladesh". Feminist Legal Studies 16 (3): 323–343. doi:10.1007/s10691-008-9099-9.
- "Scores arrested after Tunis art riots". AlJazeera. 12 June 2012.
- International Institute for Strategic Studies (February 2008). The Military Balance 2008. Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN 978-1-85743-461-3.
- "Tunisia – Armed forces". Nationsencyclopedia.com. 18 January 2011. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
- "Tunisia Governorates". Statoids.com. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- "Portail de l'industrie Tunisienne" (in French). Tunisieindustrie.nat.tn. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- "GTZ in Tunisia". gtz.de. GTZ. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
- "CIA world factbook, Tunisia". Retrieved 16 September 2009.
- "The Global Competitiveness Index 2009–2010 rankings". Retrieved 16 September 2009.
- "Airbus build plant in tunisia". Eturbonews. 29 January 2009. Retrieved 16 September 2009.
- "HP to open customer service center in Tunisia". africanmanager.com. Retrieved 16 September 2009.
- "Trouble in paradise: How one vendor unmasked the 'economic miracle'". Mobile.france24.com. 11 January 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- "Bilateral relations Tunisia EU". Retrieved 16 September 2009.
- "Tunis Sport City". Retrieved 16 September 2009.
- "Tunis Financial Harbour". Retrieved 16 September 2009.
- "Vision 3 announces Tunis Telecom City". Retrieved 16 September 2009.
- Elaine Glusac (22 November 2009). "A Night, and Day, In Tunisia at a New Resort". The New York Times.
- M. Othman Ben Arfa. "EFFORT NATIONAL DE MAITRISE DE L’ENERGIE : CONTRIBUTION DE LA STEG". steg.com.tn. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
- "STEG, company website". Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
- "Oil and Gas in Tunisia". Retrieved 9 October 2009.
- "MBendi oilfields in Tunisia". Retrieved 31 October 2009.
- "Reuters, Tunisias nuclear plans". 23 April 2009. Retrieved 4 November 2009.
- "Tunisia : A civil nuclear station of 1000 Megawatt and two sites are selected". Retrieved 4 November 2009.
- The Rotarian (1969), Focus of Tunisia 115 (6), p. 56
- Green, Arnold H. (1978), The Tunisian Ulama 1873–1915: Social Structure and Response to Ideological Currents, BRILL, p. 69, ISBN 9004056874
- Turchi, C; Buscemi, L; Giacchino, E; Onofri, V; Fendt, L; Parson, W; Tagliabracci, A (2009). "Polymorphisms of mtDNA control region in Tunisian and Moroccan populations: An enrichment of forensic mtDNA databases with Northern Africa data". Forensic science international. Genetics 3 (3): 166–72. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2009.01.014. PMID 19414164.
- "Le Tunisien: une dimension méditerranéenne qu’atteste la génétique" (in French). Lapresse.tn. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- "Q&A: The Berbers". BBC News. 12 March 2004. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- Angus Maddison (20 September 2007). Contours of the World Economy 1–2030 AD:Essays in Macro-Economic History: Essays in Macro-Economic History. OUP Oxford. p. 214. ISBN 978-0-19-922721-1. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
- "The Jews of Tunisia". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- Carr, Matthew (2009). Blood and faith: the purging of Muslim Spain. The New Press. p. 290. ISBN 1-59558-361-0.
- Jacobs, Daniel; Morris, Peter (2002). The Rough Guide to Tunisia. Rough Guides. p. 460. ISBN 1858287480.
- Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation retrieved 4 September 2013
- Fr Andrew Phillips. "The Last Christians Of North-West Africa: Some Lessons For Orthodox Today". Orthodoxengland.org.uk. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
- Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (2008). "Report on Tunisia". International Religious Freedom Report 2008. US State Department.
- Harris, David A. (13 March 2010). "Usurping History". Aish.com. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- "US Department of State". State.gov. 17 November 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
- "Tunisia: War over hijab". Ynetnews.com. 20 June 1995. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- "Who Are Tunisia's Salafis?". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
- Albert J. Borg; Marie Azzopardi-Alexander (1997). Maltese. Routledge. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-415-02243-9. Retrieved 24 February 2013. "The immediate source for the Arabic vernacular spoken in Malta was Muslim Sicily, but its ultimate origin appears to have been Tunisia. In fact, Maltese displays some areal traits typical of Maghrebine Arabic, although during the past eight hundred years of independent evolution it has drifted apart from Tunisian Arabic."
- "An outline of the Shilha (Berber) vernacular of Douiret (Southern Tunisia)". Australian Digital Theses Program. 26 May 2008. Archived from the original on 26 May 2008. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- "Le dénombrement des francophones". Organisation internationale de la Francophonie.
- Justin McGuinness (1 November 2002). Footprint Tunisia Handbook: The Travel Guide. Globe Pequot Press. ISBN 978-1-903471-28-9. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
- "Tunisian Languages". Tunisia-tourism.org. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
- "Un pays pour les peintres". Guide Tangka. 7 October 2011. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
- "Culture de la Tunisie". Tunisia Online. 10 February 2001. Archived from the original on 10 February 2001. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- "La littérature tunisienne de langue française (Mémoire vive)". Web.archive.org. 24 December 2007. Archived from the original on 24 December 2007. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
- "Fantaisie arabe et poésie". Guide Tangka. 7 October 2011. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
- "Littérature francophone". Guide Tangka. 7 October 2011. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
- "Littérature tunisienne". Ministère de la Culture et de la Sauvegarde du patrimoine. 29 December 2005. Archived from the original on 29 December 2005. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- « 2009, l’année des rendez-vous culturels importants », Réalités, 18 novembre 2008[dead link]
- "Presse et communication en Tunisie" (in French). Tunisie.com. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- Houda Trabelsi (5 October 2010). "Shems FM hits Tunisia airwaves". Magharebia.com. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- "Television TV in Tunisia". TunisPro. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- "Tunisia win Cup of Nations". BBC News. 14 February 2004. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- "Previous winners of major international cups And tournaments : the African Cup Of Nations". Napit.co.uk. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
- "Tunisian handball team wins 2010 African Cup of Nations". Tunisia Daily. 20 February 2010. Retrieved 8 January 2013.[dead link]
- Gilbert E. Odd (1 June 1989). Encyclopedia of Boxing. Book Sales. p. 108. ISBN 978-1-55521-395-4.
- John Lohn (1 September 2010). Historical Dictionary of Competitive Swimming. Scarecrow Press. pp. 95–. ISBN 978-0-8108-6775-8. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
- "Tunisia suspended from Davis Cup over Malek Jaziri order | Tennis News". Sky Sports. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
- "National adult literacy rates (15+), youth literacy rates (15–24) and elderly literacy rates (65+)". UNESCO Institute for Statistics.
- "The Global Competitiveness Report 2008-2009". Weforum.org. Archived from the original on 19 June 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- "Health". SESRIC.
- "Demography". SESRIC.
- WHO Tunisia Country Cooperation Strategy. 2006.
|Find more about Tunisia at Wikipedia's sister projects|
|Definitions and translations from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
- Government of Tunisia (official website).
- Tunisia entry at The World Factbook
- Tunisia web resources provided by GovPubs at the University of Colorado–Boulder Libraries
- Tunisia at DMOZ
- Tunisia profile from BBC News.
- Wikimedia Atlas of Tunisia
| Italy Malta