Tunstall Tower Square
Tunstall shown within Staffordshire
|OS grid reference|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|EU Parliament||West Midlands|
|UK Parliament||Stoke-on-Trent North|
Tunstall is an area in Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, England. It was one of the original six towns that federated to form the city. Tunstall is the most northern, and fourth largest town of the Potteries. It is situated in the very north west of the city borough, with its north and west boundaries being the city limit. It stands on a ridge of land between Fowlea Brook to the west and Scotia Brook to the east, surrounded by old tile making and brick making sites, some of which date back to the Middle Ages.
Tunstall's industries were served by the Trent and Mersey Canal, constructed over 11 years from 1766. The canal was designed by James Brindley, resident of Turnhurst Hall in nearby Chell. Just north of Tunstall lies one of Brindley's greatest achievements, the Harecastle tunnel, which takes the Trent and Mersey Canal underneath Goldenhill. Barges were 'legged' through by men lying on their backs on top of the barges and pushing against the roof with their feet. This was a physically demanding and slow, causing major delays, so in 1827 leading civil engineer Thomas Telford was commissioned to provide a second, and wider, parallel tunnel with a towpath. Today the Harecastle Tunnels are the fourth longest canal tunnels in the UK.
Tunstall was served by a railway station, which was opened by the North Staffordshire Railway on 1 December 1873. This closed under the Beeching Axe in 1965 with the removal of the Potteries Loop Line. Today Tunstall lies roughly equidistant between Longport and Kidsgrove railway stations on the Stafford to Manchester Line, a branch of the West Coast Main Line (Network Rail Route 18). There are also direct services to Crewe and Derby. It is also well served by buses provided by: Baker Coaches, Clowes Coaches, D&G Coaches, Wardle Transport and First Potteries, connecting Tunstall to all surrounding settlements.
The A50 is the main arterial route through Tunstall, running from Warrington to Leicester via Stoke and Derby. Tunstall is linked to the A500 "D-road", which passes just west of the town, by the new A527 linkway the town connecting Tunstall and the rest of Stoke-on-Trent to the M6 motorway. Slightly further east the A34 runs north-south, towards Manchester and Newcastle-under-Lyme respectively.
There is no independent record of Tunstall in the Domesday Book; it is believed to have formed part of the lands of Richard the forester, centred on Thursfield. However, Tunstall Manor quickly became powerful. Between 1212 and 1273, Tunstall, Bemersley, Burslem, Chatterley, Chell, Oldcott, and Thursfield, Whitfield and Bemersley are mentioned as distinct manors or vills; all but Chell had merged within the manor of Tunstall by the end of the 13th century. From the 16th century, Tunstall Manor covered an area which extended to the Cheshire border and included the following additional townships: Chell, Ravenscliffe, Sneyd, Brieryhurst, Stadmorslow and Wedgwood. Records mention that iron and coal was being mined and processed in the town as far back as 1282.
The appointment of a market-reeve by the manor court in 1525 is the earliest indication of a market in Tunstall manor. In 1816, a market square of nearly an acre (now Tower Square) was laid out on land called Stony Croft which was leased from the lord of the manor, and small-scale markets began to be held. Today, Tunstall Market is the smallest of the four markets in Stoke-on-Trent (Fenton and Burslem not having markets).
Tunstall remained a linear village until the industrial revolution. Tunstall's main make-up is now of rows of Victorian terraced houses, which were a built during the pottery boom to house workers. There are a number of new estates that have been built in the area. Park Terrace consists of elegant Victorian and Edwardian town houses and is a designated conservation area, as is the housing around Victoria Park.
The town was granted Urban District Council status in 1894 and quickly set about expanding itself, acquiring amongst others Pitts Hill from Chell civil parish in 1899. On 1 April 1910, the UDC dissolved itself and the town was federated into the county borough of Stoke-on-Trent. By 1925 the borough was granted city status. Tunstall has however, remained distinct and retained its own shopping and business district, adding to Stoke-on-Trent's polycentric nature.
On 27 November 1916, German Zeppelin LZ 61 (L21) bombed Tunstall during its return leg to Germany, dropping three bombs. However, it was shot down the following day before it could reach the coast at Lowestoft.
Trade journals and gazetteers
The village of Tunstall was described in 1795 as 'the pleasantest village in the pottery'.
"Tunstall, including its environs, is the pleasantest village in the pottery. It stands on high ground and commands pleasing prospects. The manufactories in it are respectable and do considerable business. There are a number of brick and tile works here; the clay being of a superior kind for such articles; so that with good management the tiles made from it look as well as moderate slate. The Methodists have a large neat Chapel in this place. which is well attended. They have lately established a Sunday School, supported by voluntary contributions, and the teachers give their labours gratis." The Staffordshire Potteries by J Allbut (1802)
"TUNSTALL is a considerable village within the township of Tunstall Court, a liberty in the parish of Woolstanton, four miles from Newcastle, pleasantly situated on an eminence, deriving its name from the Saxon word, tun or ton, a town, and stall, an elevated place, seat or station." "In this township abounds coal, ironstone, marl and fine cannel coal; and the manufactories of earthenware are very extensive here." 1828 journal
"TUNSTALL, a town, a township, a chapelry, and a sub-district, in Wolstanton parish and district, Stafford. The town stands near the Grand Trunk canal, and near the Crewe, Stoke, and Uttoxeter railway, 4¼ miles N by W of Stoke-upon-Trent; shares largely in the industry of the Potteries, carries on manufactures of earthenware, porcelain, bricks, tiles, chemicals, and iron; is well built and well-paved; and has a post-office‡ under Stoke-upon-Trent, a r. station with telegraph, three banking offices, a town hall, a market place, two churches, several dissenting chapels, a literary institute, public schools, and markets on Mondays and Saturdays. ..." John Marius Wilson's Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales (1870–72)
"Tunstall.-- town with ry. sta., Wolstanton par., Staffordshire, on the Grand Trunk Canal, 2½ miles NE. and within the parliamentary limits of Newcastle under Lyme, 690 ac., pop. 14,244; P.O., T.O., 3 Banks. Tunstall shares in the industries of the Potteries. It has rapidly risen from a village to a considerable town, with a fine town hall in the centre of a spacious market-place." John Bartholomew, Gazetteer of the British Isles (1887)
"Tunstall (Q), mkt. and manufacturing to. rapidly increasing in importance pa. of Wolstanton (q.v.), N.W. Staffs., now included within the parl. bor. of Newcastle-under-Lyme (q.v.). There are eccl. pas. with modern churches, a Catholic chapel, and places of worship for various Nonconformist bodies. The old court-house, a plain building formerly in the centre of the Market Square, has been removed. The town hall (1885) which occupies part of the site formerly devoted to market purposes, is a structure of red brick and stone in the Renaissance style; it includes an assembly room, board room, court room, committee rooms, local board office and lock-up; a portion of the building is used as a bank, and there are a few shops. The Victoria Institute (1889) is also in Renaissance style; it comprises on the ground. floor public lecture rooms and free library; on the first floor a. school of art, and on the second floor a. school of science. An open space at the end of the Institute has been laid out for public recreation. The Public Library, inaugurated in the old town hall in 1885 was removed to the Institute in 1891. There is a spacious market, erected in 1858. The market clays are Saturday and Monday, the former being the principal. There are no fairs., In the Market Square is a clock-tower (1893) commemorating Sir Smith Child, of Stallington Hall, a great benefactor to the to. The chief manufacture of the to. is earthenware; there are also extensive iron work for the manufacture of pig, bar, and sheet iron. The raising of coal for the use of the manufacturers is extensively carried on in the to. and its immediate neighbourhood, as well as the raising and calcining of ironstone. Bricks and tiles are also largely manufactured The charities are devoted to educational purposes." Cassell's 'Gazetteer of Great Britain & Ireland' (1898)
Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb". (Marine West Coast Climate).
|Climate data for Tunstall, Staffordshire|
|Average high °C (°F)||5
|Average low °C (°F)||0
|Precipitation cm (inches)||5
There is evidence of small scale pottery manufacturing in Tunstall from the 14th century. However, Tunstall was one of the last of towns in the Potteries to begin large scale pottery manufacturing, with the main focus being on farming, and to a lesser extent, coal & iron mining and mills. Thus Tunstall was not affected by the 1842 Pottery Riots. However, Tunstall still has a rich industrial heritage. At the start of the 19th century there were 3 pottery works in the town, by the close of the century that number had risen to 13. Famous potters located in the town have been the Adams dynasty of potters founded by William Adams, as well as Alfred Meakin, Booths founded by Enoch Booth, and Enoch Wedgwood. Robert Beswick, father of Beswick Pottery founder James Wright Beswick, began making pottery in Tunstall. Jabez Vodrey is a noted emigrant potter, the first English potter west of the Appalachian Mountains. Clarice Cliff (20 January 1899 – 23 October 1972) was an English ceramic industrial artist active from 1922 to 1963. Charles Shaw was a 19th-century potter who's in-depth autobiography has given some of the clearest insights into the Victorian Potteries, and provided Arnold Bennett with inspiration for his Clayhanger novels. Tunstall became widely known for its tiles, regarded to be as good as slate. Decorative ceramic tiles are still made in Tunstall by H and R Johnson-Richards Tiles Ltd.
The outskirts of Tunstall will become home to a new public art statue called Golden by the end of 2013. The 69ft (21m) steel work of art by Wolfgang Buttress was privately funded with £180,000 Section 106 monies secured during the construction of the Blue Planet eco-warehouse.
The Phoenix Trust, an independent not-for-profit foundation, is campaigning to turn Tunstall and the wider North Staffordshire Coalfield into a World Heritage Site due to its historic economic significance, leading role in the industrial revolution and status as the birthplace of Primitive Methodism.
Tunstall has had a rise in well-known shops in recent years, notably with the construction of Alexandra Retail Park. A new Morrison's is also to be built. These developments have, however, been to the detriment of Tunstall's traditional town centre shops and market. The town's shops got together in 2003-4 to buy a good amount of Christmas décor and now it is traditional to go and watch Tunstall lights have their grand switch on.
There are a number of Grade II listed buildings in Tunstall, notably: Tunstall Market Hall, Tunstall Town Hall, Christ Church, Church of the Sacred Heart, the world's first Primitive Methodist chapel, the Clock Tower in Tower Square, Tunstall library & public baths, Victoria Park and structures, and the Lodge & canal portals at Harecastle Tunnel. There are also three conservation areas: Tower Square, Park Terrace and Victoria Park & surrounding housing.
By closing years of the 19th century, most urban areas in the UK were suffering from pollution and poor health. To this end Tunstall UDC began a series of improvements works shortly after its foundation, including the Victoria Public Baths- opened in 1897. In this year, work commenced on Victoria Park, also known as Tunstall Park. The park was devised by the council's architect Absalom Reade Wood (1851–1922). By 1914 the park had largely taken its present form, covering 21 acres. It is now Grade II listed. Tunstall Victoria Park Trust, a registered charity, was founded in 2009 to engage the public and help decide how the money donated by the Reginald Johnson Foundation for improving the park should be used.
The Golden Torch, on Hose Street, was a famous Northern Soul club, founded by Christopher Burton, a contemporary of Ivor Abadi (founder of the Twisted Wheel club), and Russ Winstanley of the famous Wigan Casino. It opened on 30 January 1965 with the headline act of Billy J. Kramer and the Dakotas. Initially a mod club, it did not begin regular soul nights until 1969. It played host to DJs such as Peter Stringfellow. Following the closure of Manchester's Twisted Wheel soul club, in 1971 The Torch began putting on its own Soul All-Nighters. However, it became a victim of its own success, with regular police presences, drug taking and over crowding. When the club came to renew its licence on 16 March 1973 Stoke-on-Trent council refused the renewal, without a licence the club simply fizzled out, paving the way for the Wigan Casino.
The Tunstall Wakes were held on the first Sunday after the feast of St. Margaret (20 July), the saint to whom Wolstanton church is dedicated. The wakes were abolished in 1879, but soon revived by popular demand.
Tunstall was home to the independent Frink School of Figurative Sculpture, which occupied a fine old factory (and former Old Court) in Roundwell Street for a number of years until about 2004. The Frink School was named after Elisabeth Frink, British sculptress, and was a small intimate academy with a specific discipline of study closer in spirit to a master and apprentice structure than an educational institution. This has since moved to nearby Leek.
Given its size, Tunstall is the birthplace of an unusually large number of professional football players.
- Professional Footballer Martin Paterson was born in the town.
- John "Jack" Farrell (1873 – 22 February 1947) was an English professional footballer.
- John Hodgkinson was an English professional footballer.
- Henry "Harry" O'Grady (16 March 1907 – 12 April 1990) was an English footballer.
- Selwyn Davies Whalley (24 February 1934 – 8 August 2008) was a former English footballer.
- Reginald Dean(1902–2013), who was the oldest living man in Britain by the time of his death in January 2013 at the age of 110.
- Jabez Vodrey (1795–1861) was the first English potter west of the Appalachian Mountains.
- Enoch Wedgwood (1813–1879) was an English potter, founder in 1860 of the pottery firm Wedgwood & Co.
- Clarice Cliff (1899–1972) a famous ceramic artist was born in the town.
- William Adams (1746–1805) was a maker of fine jasperware.
- Susie Cooper (1902–1995), ceramic artist & designer.
- Charles Shaw (1832–1906) a potter whose autobiography, first printed in 1892/3, provided one of the clearest insights into the Victorian Potteries and Tunstall in particular.
- Hugh Bourne (1772–1852) was the joint founder of Primitive Methodism.
- George Elsby (6 June 1902 – 20 June 1953) was an English cricketer.
- Wilfred Lewis Warren (24 August 1929 – 19 July 1994) was an historian of medieval England.
- Robbie Williams, famous pop star, also grew up in Tunstall and was educated in nearby Chell.
- Frink School of Sculpture, in Old Court, Roundwell Street (1999–2005)
- Golden (Sculpture)
- The Golden Torch
- Zeppelin LZ 61
- People From Tunstall
- Federation of Stoke-on-Trent
- The Potteries
- Visions of Britain – Tunstall
- Pubs Symbolised Town's Reliance on Railways
- Domesday Book entry for Thursfield
- Tunstall – Manors
- Tunstall – Economic History
- Stoke Markets
- Stoke City Council Conservation Areas
- Tunstall – Local Government
- Zeppelin LZ 61
- L21's final flight
- ISBN 978-0-7153-4237-4 J. Aikin, The Country around Manchester (1795)
- Climate Summary for Tunstall, Staffordshire
- "Weatherbase.com". Weatherbase. 2013. Retrieved on 8 May 2013.
- Tunstall – Pottery
- Charles Shaw's Autobiography
- Tunstall prepares for one of Britain's tallest artworks
- "North Staffordshire Coalfield – Potential World Heritage Site". The Phoenix Trust. July 2010. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
- Dransfield Properties Ltd – Alexandra Park, Tunstall, Stoke on Trent
- Shoppers receive first look of proposed Morrisons store for Tunstall
- Arnold Bennett's Tunstall
- Tunstall's Listed Buildings
- Stoke-on-Trent City Council Conservation Areas
- Parks And Gardens UK – Tunstall/Victoria Park History
- Tunstall Victoria Park Trust
- The Golden Torch
- Tunstall – Social History
- Create Stoke Interview with Rosemary Barnett, head of The Frink School of Figurative Sculpture
- "Oldest man marks 110th birthday for Britain's". BBC News. 4 December 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
- Susie Cooper
- Charles Shaw's Autobiography
- The Golden Torch
- Tunstall Victoria Park Trust
- Pits n Pots entries on Tunstall
- Tunstall – one of the Six Towns
- More on Tunstall in Trade Journals
- Charles Shaw's Autobiography Online
- Breaking News for Tunstall from The Sentinel
- My Tunstall – Local community site for people living in Tunstall
- Use interactive maps to find historic artefacts and photographs of old Tunstall