|Tupolev Tu-4 at Monino Central Air Force Museum, Moscow|
|First flight||19 May 1947|
|Retired||mid-1960s (Soviet Union)|
|Primary users||Soviet Air Force
PLA Air Force
|Developed from||Boeing B-29 Superfortress|
The Tupolev Tu-4 (NATO reporting name: Bull) was a piston-engined Soviet strategic bomber that served the Soviet Air Force from the late 1940s to mid-1960s. It was a reverse-engineered copy of the U.S.-made Boeing B-29 Superfortress.
Design and development 
Towards the end of World War II, the Soviet Union saw the need for a strategic bombing capability similar to that of the United States Army Air Forces. The Soviet VVS air arm did have their own-design Petlyakov Pe-8 four-engined "heavy" in service at the start of the war, but only 93 were built by the end of the war as the type had been equipped with unreliable turbocharged V12 diesel engines at the start of its service to give it long range. The U.S. regularly conducted bombing raids on Japan, extremely close to the Soviet Union's borders, from distant Pacific forward bases using B-29 Superfortresses. Joseph Stalin ordered the development of a comparable bomber.
The U.S. twice refused to supply the Soviet Union with B-29s under Lend Lease. However, on four occasions during 1944, individual B-29s made emergency landings in Soviet territory and one crashed after the crew bailed out. In accordance with the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact, the Soviets were neutral in the Pacific War and the bombers were therefore interned and kept by the Soviets. Despite Soviet neutrality, America demanded the return of the bombers, but the Soviets refused. Three repairable B-29s were flown to Moscow and delivered into Tupolev OKB. One B-29 was dismantled, the second was used for flight tests and training, and the third one was left as a standard for cross-reference. With the Russian declaration of war against Japan (at about 11pm on August 8, 1945 -- two days after the U.S. bombing of Hiroshima) and the subsequent entente with Japan ending, a fifth B-29 was returned to the US along with its crew.
Stalin tasked Tupolev with cloning the Superfortress in as short a time as possible instead of continuing with his own comparable ANT-64 or samolet (aircraft) 64, and Soviet industry was to produce 20 copies of the aircraft ready for State acceptance trials in just two years.
The Soviet Union used the metric system, thus 1/16 inch (1.5875 mm) thick sheet aluminum and proper rivet lengths were unavailable. The corresponding metric-gauge metal was of different thicknesses and alloys and other materials new to the Soviet Union had to be brought into production. Extensive re-engineering had to take place to compensate for the differences, and Soviet official strength margins had to be decreased to avoid further redesign, yet despite these challenges the prototype Tu-4 only weighed about 750 lb (340 kg) more than the B-29, a difference of less than 1%.
The engineers and suppliers of components were under pressure from Tupolev, Stalin and the government to create an exact clone of the original B-29 to facilitate production and Tupolev had to overcome substantial resistance in favor of using equipment that was not only already in production but in some cases better than the American version. Each component made and each alteration was scrutinized and was subject to a lengthy bureaucratic process. Differences were limited to the engines, the defensive weapons, the radio (a later model used in lend-lease B-25s was used in place of the radio in the interned B-29s) and the identification friend or foe (IFF) system – the American IFF being unsuitable. The Soviet engine, the Shvetsov ASh-73 was a development of the Wright R-1820 but was not otherwise related to the B-29s Wright R-3350. and the remote-controlled gun turrets were redesigned to accommodate the harder hitting and longer ranged Soviet Nudelman NS-23 23mm cannon. Kerber, Tupolev's deputy at the time, recalled in his memoirs that engineers needed authorization from a high-ranking general to use Soviet-made parachutes. Additional changes were made as a result of problems encountered during testing, related to engine and propeller failures and equipment changes were made throughout the aircraft's service life. Although it has been widely quoted, the Tu-4 did not have a random hole drilled in the wing either to emulate a bullet hole or because a Boeing engineer made a mistake – the Russians had three complete aircraft and the wreckage of a fourth and the likelihood of all four having a hole in the same place is too small to be credible. The aircraft included 1 Boeing-Witchita −5-BW, 2 Boeing Witchita −15-BWs and the wreckage of 1 Boeing-Renton −1-BN – three different models from two different production lines. Only one of the 4 had de-icing boots as used on the Tu-4.
The Tu-4 first flew on 19 May 1947, piloted by test pilot Nikolai Rybko. Serial production started immediately, and the type entered large-scale service in 1949. Entry into service of the Tu-4 threw the USAF into a panic, since the Tu-4 possessed sufficient range to attack Chicago or Los Angeles on a one-way mission, and this may have informed the maneuvers and air combat practice conducted by US and British air forces in 1948 involving fleets of B-29s. Some attempts to develop midair refueling systems were made to extend the bomber's range, but these were fitted to only a few aircraft.
Public display surprises the West 
The aircraft was first displayed during a flyover at the Aviation Day parade on 3 August 1947 at the Tushino Airport in Moscow. Three aircraft flew overhead. It was assumed that these were merely the three B-29 bombers that were known to have been diverted to the USSR during World War II. Minutes later a fourth aircraft appeared. Western analysts realized that the Soviets must have reverse-engineered the B-29. The appearance of an obviously Superfortress-derived Tu-70 transport over the crowd removed any doubt about the success of the reverse-engineering.
People's Republic of China 
In 1967, China attempted to develop its first Airborne Early Warning aircraft, based on the Tu-4 airframe outfitted with turboprop engines. The project was named KJ-1, with a Type 843 rotordome mounted on top of the aircraft. However, the radar and equipment was too heavy and the KJ-1 did not meet PLAAF's requirements, thus the project was cancelled in 1971. That aircraft is now on display at the PLAAF museum north of Beijing.
Operational history 
Eight hundred and forty-seven Tu-4s had been built when production ended in the Soviet Union in 1952, some going to China during the later 1950s. Many experimental variants were built and the valuable experience launched the Soviet strategic bomber program. Tu-4s were withdrawn in the 1960s, being replaced by more advanced aircraft: the Tupolev Tu-16 (starting in 1954) and the Tupolev Tu-95 (starting in 1956). By the beginning of the 1960s, the only Tu-4s still operated by the Soviets were used for transport or airborne laboratory purposes. A Tu-4A was the first Soviet aircraft to drop a nuclear weapon, the RDS-1.
- main production version, originally designated B-4
- Tu-4 Variants without special designations:
- Tu-4 ELINT and ECM
- Tu-4 mothership for DFS 346.
- Tu-4 escort fighter mothership (Project Burlaki)
- Tu-4 remotely controlled target drone converted from time expired bombers.
- Tu-4 fuel carrier
- Tu-4 in-flight refuelling testbeds (4 different systems were trialled)
- Tu-4 radiation reconnaissance aircraft
- Tu-4 communications relay aircraft
- nuclear capable bomber used to test Soviet RDS-1 RDS-3 and RDS-5 nuclear bombs. The standard Tu-4 was not capable of carrying these weapons.
- troop transport (300 conversions).
- anti-shipping version, armed with KS-1 Komet missiles carried between the engines under the wings.
- engine testbed for the Mikulin AM-3 jet engine, the Ivchenko AI-20, Kuznetsov NK-4 and Kuznetsov 2TV-2F turboprop engines, the Dobrynin VD-3K radial engine and AV-28 contra-rotating propellers.
- drone launcher aircraft with Lavochkin La-17 unmanned aerial vehicles carried underwing
- long range reconnaissance.
- paratroop transport (1 example only)
- liquid oxygen tanker aircraft.
- navigational trainer.
- testbed for Myasishchev M-4 to develop a bicycle type landing gear.
- testbed for Myasishchev M-4 powered controls.
- Tu-4 AWACS
- Chinese prototype with KJ-1 AEWC, "AWACS" radar and powered by Ivchenko AI-20K turboprop engines. 2 converted to allow the Chinese to monitor US nuclear weapons tests in the Pacific.
- Airliner derivative, never reached mass production.
- Cargo aircraft derivative, never reached mass production.
- Tu-4 with M-49TK engines.
- Bomber derivative, never reached mass production.
- Bomber derivative, never reached mass production.
- Tu-4 with turboprop engines.
The Soviet Air Force operated 847 Tupolev Tu-4 bombers between 1948 and early 1960. They were initially used as long range bombers. In 1954 the Soviets began phasing out the Tu-4; units upgraded to Tupolev Tu-16 bombers and, beginning in 1956, to Tupolev Tu-95 bombers. Tu-4s withdrawn from front line units were used for transport duties.
On 28 February 1953, Joseph Stalin endowed China with 10 Tu-4 heavy bombers. These Tu-4's were refitted with AI-20K turboprop engines in 1966. In 1967 China attempted to develop its first airborne early warning aircraft, based on the Tu-4 airframe. The project was named KJ-1 and mounted a Type 843 rotordome on top of the aircraft. However, the radar and equipment was too heavy, and the KJ-1 did not meet PLAAF's requirements. The project was canceled in 1971. All Tu-4 bombers of PLAAF retired in 1988.
- Tu-4 4114 (c/n 2805601), ex-KJ-1 AEWC, "4114"
- Stored at Datangshan, China 
- Tu-4 4134 (c/n 2205008), "4134"
- Stored at Datangshan, China 
- Tu-4 unknown (c/n 2805103), "01"
- Stored at the Central Air Force Museum, Monino, Russia 
Specifications (Tu-4) 
Data from 
- Crew: 11
- Length: 30.179 m (99 ft 0 in)
- Wingspan: 43.047 m (141 ft 3 in)
- Height: 8.46 m (27 ft 9 in)
- Wing area: 161.7 m2 (1,741 sq ft)
- Aspect ratio: 11.5
- Empty weight: 36,850 kg (81,240 lb)
- Gross weight: 47,850 kg (105,491 lb)
- Max takeoff weight: 55,600 kg (122,577 lb) – 63,600 kg (140,214 lb)
- Powerplant: 4 × Shvetsov ASh-73TK 18-cyl. air-cooled radial piston engines, 1,790 kW (2,400 hp) each
- Propellers: 4-bladed V3-A3 or V3B-A5, 5.06 m (16 ft 7 in) diameter
- Maximum speed: 558 km/h (347 mph; 301 kn) at 10,250 m (33,629 ft)
- Range: 5,400 km (3,355 mi; 2,916 nmi) at 3,000 m (9,843 ft) with 63,600 kg (140,214 lb) take-off weight including 3,000 kg (6,614 lb) of bombs and 10% fuel reserves
- Service ceiling: 11,200 m (36,745 ft)
- Rate of climb: 4.6 m/s (910 ft/min) at 1,000 m (3,281 ft)
- Time to altitude: 5,000 m (16,404 ft) in 18.2 minutes
- Wing loading: 400 kg/m² (82 lb/sq ft)
- Power/mass: 0.11 kW/kg
- 10 × 23 mm Nudelman-Suranov NS-23 aircraft cannon, two cannon in each of the four turrets and two cannon in the tail barbette
- 2 × KS-1 Komet standoff missiles (Tu-4K only; these anti-ship missiles resembled a scaled-down MiG-15)
- 6 × 1,000 kg (2,205 lb) bombs
See also 
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- Gordon, 2002, p.3
- "Aircraft Deliveries." airforce.ru. Retrieved: 21 September 2007.
- Gordon, 2002, p.8-10
- "Soviet Union Impounds and Copies B-29." National Museum of the USAF. Retrieved: 21 September 2007.
- Kerber, Leonid. "Tu-4 bomber epic". militera.lib.ru: a compilation of articles published in 1988–1990 (in Russian). Retrieved: 29 December 2009.
- Gordon, 2002, p.11
- Gordon, 2002, p.14
- Gordon, 2002, p.26
- Gordon, 2002, p.20
- Gordon, 2002, p.24
- Gordon, 2002, pp.15–25
- Gordon, 2002, pp.24–25
- Gordon, 2002, pp.21 & 24
- Gordon, 2002, p.25
- Gordon, 2002, p.27
- Gordon, 2002, pp.66–68
- Gordon, 2002, p.9-10
- Duffy and Kandalov 1996, p. 98.
- "Archival RAF film of combat with B-29s." google.com. Retrieved: 29 December 2009.
- Dow, James. "Parade." The Arrow. Retrieved: 29 December 2009.
- "Chinese Airborne Early Warning (AEW)." fas.org. Retrieved: 29 December 2009.
- Duffy, 1996, p.98
- Gordon, 2002, pp.42–43
- Gordon, 2002, p.54
- Gordon, 2002, pp.43–47
- Gordon, 2002, p.53
- Gordon, 2002, pp.50–53
- Gordon, 2002, p.43
- Gordon, 2002, pp.34–36
- Gordon, 2002, pp.37&40
- Gordon, 2002, pp.36–39
- Gordon, 2002, pp.55–57
- Gordon, 2002, pp.53, 54 & 57
- Gordon, 2002, pp.42
- Gordon, 2002, p.41
- Gordon, 2002, p.42
- Gordon, 2002, pp.54–55
- "Tu-4." simonb6.co.uk. Retrieved: 29 December 2009.
- Duffy, 1996, p.99
- Nowicki 1994, p. 17.
- Rigmant 1996, p. 66.
- "Chinese Airborne Early Warning (AEW)." fas.org. Retrieved: 31 July 2011.
- Photo of the Tu-4 (c/n 286501) at the FAS.org website
- "Photo of the Tu-4 (4114, cn 2806501) AWACS example exhibited in the Datangshan Museum, China." airliners.net. Retrieved: 29 December 2009.
- "Photo of the Tu-4 (4134, cn 225008) "missile carrier" exhibited in the Datangshan Museum, China." airliners.net. Retrieved: 29 December 2009.
- "Photo of the Tu-4 exhibited in the Central Air Force Museum in Monino, Russia." airliners.net. Retrieved: 29 December 2009.
- Gordon, Yefim (2002). Tupolev Tu-4 Soviet Superfortress. Red Star 7. Hinkley: Midland publishing. p. 34. ISBN 1-85780-142-3.
- Bowers, Peter M. Boeing B-29 Superfortress. Stillwater, Minnesota: Voyageur Press, 1999. ISBN 0-933424-79-5.
- Duffy, Paul and A. I. Kandalov. Tupolev: The Man and his Aircraft. Warrendale, Pennsylvania: SAE, 1996. ISBN 1-56091-899-3.
- Gordon, Yefim and Vladimir Rigmant. Tupolev Tu-4: Soviet Superfortress. Hinckley, Leicestershire: Midland Counties Publications Ltd., 2002. ISBN 1-85780-142-3.
- Hess, William N. Great American Bombers of WW II. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International, 1999. ISBN 0-7603-0650-8.
- Nowicki, Jacek. B-29 Superfortress. Gdansk, Poland: AJ Press, 1994. ISBN 978-83-86208-09-8.
- Pace, Steve. Boeing B-29 Superfortress. Ramsbury, Marlborough, Wiltshire, UK: Crowood Press, 2003. ISBN 1-86126-581-6.
- Rigmant, Vladimir. B-29, Tу-4 – стратегические близнецы – как это было (Авиация и космонавтика 17 (Крылья 4)) (in Russian). Moscow, Russia, 1996.
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