Turano-Mongolian cattle

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Turano-Mongolian cattle are a group of taurine cattle that are found in Northern and Eastern Asia. They are morphologically and genetically distinct from the Near Eastern group of taurine cattle (from which European cattle is descended) and may have been domesticated independently.[1]

Differences to Near Eastern/European cattle[edit]

Turano-Mongolian cattle are morphologically distinct from the European taurine cattle especially in the shape of their skull and their horns.[2][3] The skull is wedge-shaped and has a narrow crown and a depression on the frontal bone, the horns grow upwards instead of forwards.[3]

Genetically the difference can be seen in the mtDNA haplogroups. Of the five mtDNA haplogroups (T, T1, T2, T3, T4) found in existing taurine cattle breeds, T2, T3 and T4 appear in the Turano-Mongolian group. T4 is unique to the breeds of this group. T is found in both Near Eastern and European breeds, while T1 appears only in African and (at lower frequencies) in Near Eastern breeds. T2 is found in all three Eurasian regions, though only at low frequencies in European and Turano-Mongolian breeds. T3 finally is common to all Eurasian regions, but found only in very low numbers in Africa.[1][2][4][5]

Resistance to harsh climates and freezing temperatures[edit]

Many breeds of Turano-Mongolian cattle show a great hardiness and tolerance towards freezing temperatures as a result of adaption to harsh Asian climates. Especially the breeds of the Asian steppe and the Tibetan plateau are able to withstand temperature fluctuations from –50 °C to 35 °C (–60 °F to 95 °F).[6][7] A singular adaption is shown by the Yakutian cattle of northern Siberia, whose center of breeding lies close to the northern pole of cold (see climate data). A number of traits, such as a thick winter coat, a small, fur-covered udder resp. scrotum, efficient thermoregulation, and low metabolic rates at low temperatures, lead to their extreme tolerance towards freezing temperatures.[8][9][10] A compelling example of this is the case of several cows which survived on their own in the taiga forest for three months in late 2011 in deep snows and temperatures reaching as low as –40 °C (–40 °F).[11]

Status[edit]

In the wake of modernization and specialization in animal husbandry, many Turano-Mongolian breeds have been replaced either outright or through extensive crossbreeding by modern international breeds and become extinct.[2] Thus, for example, of the Siberian breeds only the Yakutian cattle remain, and at that only in very small numbers.[10] Others, like Japanese Black cattle and the Kazakh Whitehead, have been diluted by crossbreeding with international breeds to varying degrees and often are threatened by further crossbreeding.[2]

Many southern Turano-Mongolian breeds, especially the Central plain and Southern varieties of Chinese yellow cattle, while showing pure taurine phenotypes, have in prehistorical and historical times been influenced by an admixture of zebu cattle.[2][12]

Only a very few breeds of Turano-Mongolian cattle, as for example the Yakutian cattle, can still be called purebred.[2]

Scientific name[edit]

Turano-Mongolian cattle are a subgroup of domestic cattle, Bos primigenius forma taurus, and as such often called the Bos taurus turano-mongolicus group.[13] They have previously also been classified as a distinct subspecies and even as a distinct species. The invalid scientific names resulting from these classifications are [14]

List of breeds[edit]

(not necessarily comprehensive)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Hideyuki Mannen et al. (August 2004). "Independent mitochondrial origin and historical genetic differentiation in North Eastern Asian cattle". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Volume 32, issue 2. pp. 539–544. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Juha Kantanen et al. (2009). "Maternal and paternal genealogy of Eurasian taurine cattle (Bos taurus)". Heredity, 103. pp. 404–415. Pdf-version. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  3. ^ a b Kranky Kids (July 2009). "My daily cow: Kazakh". Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  4. ^ O. Cortés et al. (December 2008). "Ancestral matrilineages and mitochondrial DNA diversity of the Lidia cattle breed". Animal Genetics, vol. 39, no. 6. pp. 649–654. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  5. ^ Marina S. Ascunce et al. (2007). "An Unusual Pattern of Ancient Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups in Northern African Cattle". Zoological Studies, vol. 46, no. 1. pp. 123–125. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  6. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations / Domestic Animal Diversity Information System. "Mongolian/Mongolia". Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Kranky Kids (w/o date). "My daily cow A-Z Alphabetical Cattle Breed Reference Page: Turano-Mongolian cattle". Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  8. ^ L.K. Ernst, N.G. Dmitriev (1989): ″Yakut (Yakutskii skot).″ In: N.G. Dmitriev, L.K. Ernst (eds.) (1989): Animal genetic resources of the USSR. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper 65. FAO Corporate Document Repository, Agriculture and Consumer Protection Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Pp. 92–93. ISBN 92-5-102582-7. Pdf-version. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  9. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations / Domestic Animal Diversity Information System. "Yakutskii Skot/Russian Federation". Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  10. ^ a b Ilma Tapio et al. (30 June 2010). "Estimation of relatedness among non-pedigreed Yakutian cryo-bank bulls using molecular data: implications for conservation and breed management". Genetics Selection Evolution – GSE Journal, 2010, 42:28. pp. 1–9. Pdf-version. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  11. ^ Владимир Степанов (Vladimir Stepanov) (4 December 2011). "Рекорд выживаемости в экстремальных условиях в Эвено-Бытантайском районе поставили коровы якутской породы". Sakha News. 3 pictures. Retrieved 30 June 2013. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Qiu Huai, Ju Zhiyong, Chang Zhijie (1993). "A survey of cattle production in China". World Review Animal. FAO. 76 - 1993/3. More attention to animal genetic resources. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  13. ^ M.N. Ruzina et al. (April 2010). "Polymorphism of the BoLA-DRB3 gene in the Mongolian, Kalmyk, and Yakut cattle breeds". Genetika, volume 46, issue 4. pp. 517–525. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  14. ^ M.N. Ruzina et al. (2011). "Diversity-11369 Supplemental Information and Appendices". Diversity, 2011, 3. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h The Animal Health & Production Compendium (AHPC). "Site Search: Turano-Mongolian". Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  16. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations / Domestic Animal Diversity Information System. "Breeds reported by China". Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  17. ^ a b c d Japan Meat Information Service Center (w/o date). "What is Wagyu?". Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations / Domestic Animal Diversity Information System. "Breeds reported by Japan". Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  19. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations / Domestic Animal Diversity Information System. "Breeds reported by Korea, Republic of". Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  20. ^ EunHee Kim et al. (23 April 2010). "Identification of genetic polymorphisms in bovine mtDNA". Journal of Animal Science. Pdf-version. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  21. ^ C. Jo et al. (October 2012). "Keys to production and processing of Hanwoo beef: A perspective of tradition and science". Animal Frontiers, vol. 2 no. 4. pp. 32–38. Pdf-version. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  22. ^ a b c d e f Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations / Domestic Animal Diversity Information System. "Breeds reported by Russian Federation". Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  23. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations / Domestic Animal Diversity Information System. "Breeds reported by Mongolia". Retrieved 8 July 2013.