||This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2008)|
|Halil Turgut Özal|
|8th President of the Republic of Turkey|
November 9, 1989 – April 17, 1993
|Preceded by||Kenan Evren|
|Succeeded by||Süleyman Demirel|
|Prime Minister of Turkey|
December 13, 1983 – October 31, 1989
|Preceded by||Bülend Ulusu|
|Succeeded by||Yıldırım Akbulut|
October 13, 1927|
|Died||April 17, 1993
|Spouse(s)||Ayhan İnal (m. 1952, div. 1952)
Semra Özal (m. 1954)
|Alma mater||Istanbul Technical University|
Halil Turgut Özal (Turkish pronunciation: [tuɾˈɡut øˈzaɫ]; October 13, 1927 – April 17, 1993) was Prime Minister of Turkey (1983–1989) and President of Turkey (1989–1993). As Prime Minister, he transformed the economy of Turkey by paving the way for the privatization of many state enterprises.
Early life and career 
Turgut Özal was born in Malatya. He completed elementary school in Silifke, middle school in Mardin, and high school in Kayseri. Özal studied electrical engineering at Istanbul Technical University, graduating in 1950.
Between 1950 and 1952, he worked in the State Electrical Power Planning Administration and continued his studies in the United States on electrical energy and engineering management between 1952–1953. After his return to Turkey, he worked in the same organization again on electrification projects until 1958. Özal was in the State Planning Organization in 1959, and in the Planning Coordination Department in 1960. After his military service in 1961, he worked at several state organizations in leading positions and lectured at ODTÜ (Middle East Technical University). The World Bank employed him between 1971–1973. Then, he was chairman of some private Turkish companies until 1979. Back to the state service, he was undersecretary to the Prime minister Süleyman Demirel until the military coup on September 12, 1980.
Political career 
Motherland Party era 
On May 20, 1983 he founded the Motherland Party (Turkish: Anavatan Partisi) and became its leader. His party won the elections and he formed the government to become the 19th Prime minister on December 13, 1983. In 1987 he again became prime minister after winning elections.
Assassination attempt 
On June 18, 1988 he survived an assassination attempt during the party congress. One bullet wounded his finger while another bullet missed his head. The assassin, Kartal Demirağ, was captured and sentenced to life imprisonment but pardoned by Özal in 1992.
Demirağ was allegedly a Counter-Guerrilla, contracted by the movement's hawkish leader, General Sabri Yirmibeşoğlu. Two months later, Yirmibeşoğlu became the secretary general of the National Security Council. During Yirmibeşoğlu's tenure as secretary general, Özal heard about the allegations of Yirmibeşoğlu's role in the affair and forced him into retirement.
In late 2008, Demirağ was retried by the Ankara 11th Heavy Penal Court and sentenced to twenty years in prison.
Presidency era 
On November 9, 1989, Özal became the eighth president of Turkey elected by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey and the first president to be born in the Republic of Turkey rather than the Ottoman Empire.
President Turgut Ozal agreed to negotiations with the Kurdish PKK. Apart from Özal, himself half-Kurdish, few Turkish politicians were interested, nor was more than a part of the PKK itself. A first round occurred in the early 90s. After the president’s death on 17 April 1993, in suspicious circumstances, the hope of reconciliation evaporated.
Death and exhumation 
On April 17, 1993, Özal died of a suspicious heart attack while still in office, leading some to suspect an assassination. His wife Semra Özal claimed he had been poisoned by lemonade and she questioned the lack of an autopsy. The blood samples taken to determine cause of death were lost or disposed of. Özal had sought to create a Turkic union, and had obtained the commitment of several presidents. His wife Semra alleged that the perpetrator might have wanted to foil the plan.
On the fourteenth anniversary of his death, thousands gathered in Ankara in commemoration. Investigators wanted to exhume the body to examine it for poisoning. In September 2012, a court ruled that the grave be opened for another autopsy. On 3 October 2012 his body was exhumed. It contained the banned insecticide DDT at ten times the normal level. According to press reports, the "partially embalmed" remains were found to be well preserved, much to the experts' and public's surprise. It is reported that while the lower half of the body was subject to skeletonization, the upper half was preserved due to adipocere.
- Anderson, Perry (2008-09-25). "After Kemal". London Review of Books. Retrieved 2008-12-29.
- Purvis, Andrew (2003-07-27). "Not Just Business As Usual". TIME. Retrieved 2008-08-14.
- "Kartal Demirağ'a 20 yıl hapis cezası". Hürriyet (in Turkish). Anadolu Agency. 2008-12-31. Retrieved 2009-01-04.
- Dündar, Can (2002-01-08). "'Özel Harp'çinin tırmanış öyküsü". Milliyet (in Turkish). Retrieved 2006-01-28.
- It's an Honour: AC
- Soncan, Emre; Çelen, Nergihan (2007-04-18). "‘People’s president Özal’ commemorated at his grave [http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkish-president-ozals-death-suspicious-state-audit-board-.aspx?pageID=238&nID=23053&NewsCatID=338.html]". Today's Zaman. Retrieved 2008-08-14.[dead link]
- Dolmaci, Emine (2008-09-07). There are plans to exhume his body for forensic examination to see if they can prove that he was poisononed [http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkish-president-ozals-death-suspicious-state-audit-board-.aspx?pageID=238&nID=23053&NewsCatID=338.html "Apo Ergenekon'un Truva Ati"]. Zaman (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-10-10. "Tıpkı onun gibi Turgut Özal, Cem Ersever ve Eşref Bitlis de barışçıl çözüm istedikleri ve bu yönde adım atmaya hazırlandıkları için öldürüldü."
- Düzel, Neşe (2008-11-24). "Nurettin Yılmaz: ‘Talabani federasyonu kabul etmişti’". Taraf (in Turkish). Retrieved 2009-01-06. "Ölüm nedenini anlamak için Turgut Bey’den kan aldılar. Ama hemen sonra ‘şişenin hemşirenin elinden kaydığını, kırıldığını’ söylediler. Bir süre sonra bundan da vazgeçtiler. 'Şişe kayboldu' dediler."
- Uğur, Fatih (2007-04-16). "Büyük Türkiye Cumhuriyeti'ni kuracaktı". Aksiyon (in Turkish) (Feza Gazetecilik A.Ş.) 645. Retrieved 2009-01-08.[dead link]
- Pope, Hugh (April 23, 1993). "Thousands of Turks Join Funeral March for Reformist President". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
- "Press Roundup". Today's Zaman. 2007-04-17. Retrieved 2008-08-14.[dead link]
- (Turkey exhumes ex-President Ozal's remains)
- Doktorlarının ve ailesinin ağır ihmalleri var in Zaman 2012-11-26
- "Turkish ex-leader's body shows poison, death cause unclear: media". Reuters. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
See also 
|Party political offices|
Suleyman Demirel of Justice Party
|Leader of the Motherland Party (ANAP)
May 20, 1983 – October 31, 1989
|Deputy Prime Minister of Turkey
September 20, 1980 – July 14, 1982
|Prime Minister of Turkey
December 13, 1983 – October 31, 1989
|President of Turkey
November 9, 1989 – April 17, 1993
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Turgut Özal|
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