Turin King List

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The Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is an Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio (Egyptian Museum)[1] in Turin. The papyrus is the most extensive list available of kings compiled by the Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II.

Drawing of the The Turin King list

Creation and use[edit]

The papyrus is believed to date from the reign of Ramesses II, during the middle of the New Kingdom, or the 19th Dynasty. The beginning and ending of the list are now lost; there is no introduction, and the list does not continue after the 19th Dynasty. The composition may thus have occurred at any subsequent time, from the reign of Ramesses II to as late as the 20th Dynasty.

The papyrus lists the names of rulers, the lengths of reigns in years, with months and days for some kings. In some cases they are grouped together by family, which corresponds approximately to the dynasties of Manetho’s book. The list includes the names of ephemeral rulers or those ruling small territories that may be unmentioned in other sources.

The list also is believed to contain kings from the 15th Dynasty, the Hyksos who ruled Lower Egypt and the River Nile delta. The Hyksos rulers do not have cartouches (enclosing borders which indicate the name of a king), and a hieroglyphic sign is added to indicate that they were foreigners, although typically on King Lists foreign rulers are not listed.

The papyrus was originally a tax roll, but on its back is written a list of rulers of Egypt – including mythical kings such as gods, demi-gods, and spirits, as well as human kings. That the back of an older papyrus was used may indicate that the list was not of great formal importance to the writer, although the primary function of the list is thought to have been as an administrative aid. As such, the papyrus is not supposed to be biased against certain rulers and is believed to include all the kings of Egypt up through at least the 19th Dynasty.

Discovery and reconstruction[edit]

The papyrus was found by the Italian traveler Bernardino Drovetti in 1820 at Luxor (Thebes), Egypt and was acquired in 1824 by the Egyptian Museum in Turin, Italy and was designated Papyrus Number 1874. When the box in which it had been transported to Italy was unpacked, the list had disintegrated into small fragments. Jean-Francois Champollion, examining it, could recognize only some of the larger fragments containing royal names, and produced a drawing of what he could decipher. A reconstruction of the list was created to better understand it and to aid in research.

The Saxon researcher Gustav Seyffarth (1796–1885) re-examined the fragments, some only one square centimeter in size, and made a more complete reconstruction of the papyrus based only on the papyrus fibers, as he could not yet determine the meaning of the hieratic characters. Subsequent work on the fragments was done by the Munich Egyptologist Jens Peter Lauth, which largely confirmed the Seyffarth reconstruction.

In 1997 prominent Egyptologist Kim Ryholt published a new and better interpretation of the list in his book, "The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c.1800-1550 B.C." After another study of the papyrus, an updated version from Ryholt is expected. Egyptologist Donald Redford has also studied the papyrus and has noted that although many of the list’s names correspond to monuments and other documents, there are some discrepancies and not all of the names correspond, questioning the absolute reliability of the document for pre-Ramesses II chronology.

Despite attempts at reconstruction, approximately 50% of the papyrus remains missing. This papyrus as presently constituted is 1.7 m long and 0.41 m wide, broken into over 160 fragments. In 2009 previously unpublished fragments were discovered in the storage room of the Egyptian Museum of Turin, in good condition.[2] A new edition of the papyrus is expected.

The name Hudjefa, found twice in the papyrus, is now known to have been used by the royal scribes of the Ramesside era during the 19th dynasty of Ancient Egypt when the scribes compiled king lists such as the royal table of Sakkara and the royal canon of Turin and the name of a deceased pharaoh was unreadable, damaged, or completely erased.

Contents of the papyrus[edit]

The papyrus is divided into eleven columns, distributed as follows. The names and positions of several kings are still being disputed, since the list is so badly damaged.

  • Column 1 — Gods of Ancient Egypt
  • Column 2 — Rows 1-10 Spirits and mythical kings
  • Column 2 — Rows 11-25 (Dynasties 1-2)
  • Column 3 — Rows 1-25 (Dynasties 2-5)
  • Column 4 — Rows 1-26 (Dynasties 6-8/9/10)
  • Column 5 — Rows 12-25 (Dynasties 11-12)
  • Column 6 — Rows 1-2 (Dynasties 12-13)
  • Column 7 — Rows 1-23 (Dynasty 13)
  • Column 8 — Rows 1-27 (Dynasty 13-14)
  • Column 9 — Rows 1-30 (Dynasty 14)
  • Column 10 — Rows 1-30 (Dynasties 14-15)
  • Column 11 — Rows 1-17 (Dynasties 16-17)
Turin King List with latest corrections of positions for some fragments - table representation of rows from the original papyrus, translated into hieroglyphs

These are the actual names written on the papyrus, omitting the years, summations and headings:

Second Column
Row Common name Name in list Transliteration Manuel de Codage Unicode Representation
11 Menes Meni mni <-Y5:N35-M17-> 𓏠𓈖𓇋
12 Hor-Aha Teti ttij <-X1:X1-M17-Z4-> 𓏏𓏏𓇋𓏭
13 Djer Iti, Ita iti <-M17-X1-//-G7-> 𓇋𓏏…𓅆
15 Djet Itui itjwi <-//-G4#12-M17-> …𓅂𓇋
16 Den Qenti qntj <-Aa8:X1*Z4-> 𓐖𓏏𓏭
17 Anedjib Merbiapen mr-biA-pn <-U7:D21-U17-Q3:N35-//-> 𓌻𓂋𓍅𓊪𓈖…
18 Semerkhet Semsem smsm <-S29-G17-S29-G17-> 𓋴𓅓𓋴𓅓
19 Qa'a (Qe)beh qbH <-//-D58-V28-G7-> …𓃀𓎛𓅆
20 Hotepsekhemwy Baunetjer bAw-nTr <-//-G30-R4:Q3-G7-> …𓅢𓊵𓊪𓅆
21 Nebre Kakau kA-kAw <-//-E2-D52:Z1*Z1*Z1-G7-> …𓃓𓂸𓏤𓏤𓏤𓅆
22 Nynetjer Banetjer bA-nTr <-//-R8-D21:N35-G7-> …𓊹𓂋𓈖𓅆
23 Wadjnes ..s ..s <-//-//-S29-G7-> … …𓋴𓅆
24 Senedj Sened.. snDi <-G54-//-> 𓅾…
25 Neferkara I Neferka nfr-kA <-O29-D28-Z1-> 𓉼𓂓𓏤
Third Column
Row Common name Name in list Transliteration Manuel de Codage Unicode Representation
2 Neferkasokar Neferkasokar nfr-kA-skr <-F35-D28-Z1-O34:V31:D21-Z5-G7-> 𓄤𓂓𓏤𓊃𓎡𓂋𓏯𓅆
3 Khasekhemwy Bebti bbtj <-D58-D58-N21-G7-> 𓃀𓃀𓈅𓅆
4 Sanakhte Nebka nbkA <-V30-D28-Z1-> 𓎟𓂓𓏤
5 Djoser Djoser..it Dsr..it <-D45:D21-M17-.:X1#12-G7-> 𓂦𓂋𓇋𓏏𓅆
6 Sekhemkhet Djoserti Dsrti <-D45:D21-X1:Z4-G7-> 𓂦𓂋𓏏𓏭𓅆
7 Hudjefa II Hudjefa HwDfA <-O34-I10-S29-> 𓊃𓆓𓋴
8 Huni Huni Hwni <-V28-Z5-A25-//-G7-> 𓎛𓏯𓀝…𓅆
9 Sneferu Senefer snfr <-S29-F35-I9:D21-G7-> 𓋴𓄤𓆑𓂋𓅆
10 Khufu //-// … …
11 Djedefre <-//-//-G7-> … …𓅆
12 Khafre ..kha.. ..xa.. <-//-N28-D36-//-G7-> …𓈍𓂝…𓅆
13 Lost <-//-//-G7-> … …𓅆
14 Menkaure <-//-//-G7-> … …𓅆
15 Shepseskaf <-//-//-G7-> … …𓅆
16 Unknown
17 Userkaf ..kaf ..kAf <-//-//-D28:I9-G7-> … …𓂓𓆑𓅆
18 Sahure
19 Neferirkare Kakai
20 Shepseskare
21 Neferefre
22 Nyuserre
23 Menkauhor Menkahor mn-kA-Hr G5-<-G7-Y5:N35-D28-Z1-G7-> 𓅃𓅆𓏠𓈖𓂓𓏤𓅆
24 Djedkare Djed Dd <-R11-R11-> 𓊽𓊽
25 Unas Unis wnis <-E34:N35-M17-S29-> 𓃹𓈖𓇋𓋴
Fourth Column
Row Common name Name in list Transliteration Manuel de Codage Unicode Representation
1 Teti
2 Userkare
3 Pepi
4 Merenre Nemtyemsaf I
5 Pepi II
6 Merenre Nemtyemsaf II
7 Lost
8 Neterikare Neitiqerty ntiqrti <-N35:X1*Z5-M17-N29-D21:X1*Z4-G7-> 𓈖𓏏𓏯𓇋𓈎𓂋𓏏𓏭𓅆
9 Menkare Neferka nfr-kA <-F35-D28-Z1-G7-> 𓄤𓂓𓏤𓅆
10 Neferkare II Nefer nfr <-F35-I9:D21-G7-> 𓄤𓆑𓂋𓅆
11 Ibi Ibi ibi <-M17-D58-E8-> 𓇋𓃀𓃙
12 Lost
13 Lost
18 Lost
19 Lost
20 Neferkare III Neferkare nfr-kA-ra <-N5-F35-D28-Z1-G7#12-> 𓇳𓄤𓂓𓏤𓅆
21 Nebkaure Khety Khety Xti <-F32:X1-A50-M17-M17-G7-> 𓄡𓏏𓀻𓇌𓅆
22 Senenh.. Senenh.. snnh.. <-S29-M22-M22-N35:N35-A53-.:O4-//> 𓋴𓇒𓈖𓈖𓀾𓉔 …
23 Lost
24 Mer.. Mer.. mrr.. <-U7:D21-//-> 𓌻𓂋 …
25 Shed.. Shed.. Sd.. <-F30:D46#24-//-> 𓄞𓂧 …
26 H.. H.. H.. <-V28-//-> 𓎛 …
Fifth Column
Row Common name Name in list Transliteration Manuel de Codage Unicode Representation
1 Lost
2 Lost
3 Lost
4 Lost
5 Lost
6 Lost
7 Lost
8 Lost
9 Lost
12 Mentuhotep I Wah.. wAH.. <-V28#1234-//-> 𓎛𓏏…
13 Intef I
14 Intef II ..n.. ..n.. <-//-N35-//-> …𓈖…
15 Intef III
16 Mentuhotep II Nebhepetre nb-hpt-ra <-N5:V30-P8-> 𓇳𓎟𓊤
17 Mentuhotep III Seankhkare s-anx-kA-ra <-S29#34-S34#34-N35:Aa1-D28#34-> 𓋴𓋹𓈖𓐍𓂓
20 Amenemhat I ..pib.. ..p-ib.. <-//-.:Q3-.:F34-.:Z1-G7-> …𓊪𓄣𓏤𓅆
21 Sesostris I ..ka.. ..kA.. <-//-D28-Z1-> …𓂓𓏤
22 Amenemhat II
23 Sesostris II
24 Sesostris III
25 Amenemhat III
Sixth Column
Row Common name Name in list Transliteration Manuel de Codage Unicode Representation
1 Amenemhet IV Maakherure mAa-xrw-ra <-N5-U5:D36-P8-V1-A2-> 𓇳𓌷𓂝𓊤𓍢𓀁
2 Sobekneferu Sobeknefrure ..nfrw-ra 𓇳𓄤𓄤𓄤𓆊𓅆
5 Wegaf or Sobekhotep I Khutawire xwt-Awi-ra <-N5-D43:N17:N17#1234-> 𓇳𓂤𓇿𓇿
6 Sekhemkare Sonbef Sekhemkare sxm-kA-ra <-N5#123-Y8#1234-D28#1234-Z1-> 𓇳𓏣𓂓𓏤
7 Sekhemkare Amenemhat V Amenemhat..re imn-m-HAt N5-Y5:.#34-G17-F4:X1*Z1-G7 𓇳𓏠𓅓𓄂𓏏𓏤𓅆
8 Hotepibre Sehetepibre sHtp-ib-ra N5-S29-R4:X1*Q3-F34 𓇳𓋴𓊵𓏏𓊪𓄣𓏤
9 Iufni Iufeni iwfni i-Z7-f-n:A1 𓇋𓏲𓆑𓈖𓀀
10 Amenemhet VI Seankhibre s-anx-ib-ra ra-s-anx-ib 𓇳𓋴𓋹𓈖𓐍𓄣𓏤
11 Semenkare Nebnuni Semenkare smn-kA-ra ra-s-mn:n-kA 𓇳𓋴𓏠𓈖𓂓
12 Sehetepibre Sehetepibre sHtp-ib-ra N5-s-R4:t*p-ib-Z1 𓇳𓋴𓊵𓏏𓊪𓄣𓏤
13 Sewadjkare Sewadjkare swAD-kA-ra ra-s-wAD-kA 𓇳𓋴𓇅𓂓
14 Nedjemibre Nedjemibre nDm-ib-ra ra-nDm-m-mDAt-ib 𓇳𓇛𓅓𓏛𓄣
15 Khaankhre Sobekhotep Sebek..p..re sbk-(Htp)-ra //-N5-I4-// …𓇳𓆋…
16 Renseneb Renseneb rn..nbw r:n-A2-//-n:b-Y1 𓂋𓈖𓀁…𓈖𓃀𓏛
17 Awybre Hor I Autibre Awt-ib-ra ra-Aw-Z7:t-Y1:Z2-ib-Z1 𓇳𓄫𓏲𓏏𓏛𓏥𓄣𓏤
18 Amenemhat VII Sedjefakare sDfa-kA-ra ra-s-D:f-A-//-kA 𓇳𓋴𓆓𓆑…𓂓𓏤
19 Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep Amenemhatsebekhotep imn-m-hAt-sbk-Htp M17-Y5:N35-G17-F4:X1-I4-R4:X1-Q3 𓇋𓏠𓈖𓅓𓄂𓏏𓆋𓊵𓏏𓊪
20 Khendjer User..re ..djer wsr..ra..nDr N5-F12-//-Z1-N5:N35-M36:D21 𓇳𓄊…𓏤𓇳𓈖𓇥𓂋
21 Imyremeshaw ..kare ..kA-ra <-N5-//-D28-G7-> 𓇳…𓂓𓅆
22 Intef IV ..re ..ra //-D28-Z1-G7-W25:N35-X1:I9-G7 …𓂓𓏤𓅆𓏎𓈖𓏏𓆑𓅆
23 Seth Meribre ..ibre..seth ..ib-ra..stX N5-Y8-//-I5-Htp:t-p 𓇳𓏣…𓆌𓊵𓏏𓊪
25 Neferhotep I Khamaatreneferhotep xa..ra..nfr-Htp N5-N28:D36:Y1-//-F35-R4:X1-Q3 𓇳𓈍𓂝𓏛…𓄤𓊵𓏏𓊪
26 Sihathor (Re)Sahathor sA-Hwt-Hr <-N5-O6-X1:O1-G5-G7-G38-Z1-G7-> 𓇳𓉗𓏏𓉐𓅃𓅆𓅬𓏤𓅆
27 Sobekhotep IV Khaneferre-Sobekhotep xa-nfr-ra-sbk-Htp <-N5-N28:D36-Y1-F35-I3-R4:X1-Q3-> 𓇳𓈍𓂝𓏛𓄤𓆊𓊵𓏏𓊪
Seventh Column
Row Common name Name in list Transliteration Manuel de Codage
1 Sobekhotep V Khaheteprehotep xa-Htp-ra-Htp N5-N28:D36*Y1-R4:X1-Q3-G7
2 Wahibre Ibiau Wahibreibiau wAH-ib-ra-ibiaw ra-wAH-H-Y1-ib-Z1-i-a:mw-A24-ib-Z1
3 Merneferre Ay Merneferre mr-nfr-ra N5-U7:D21-F35
4 Merhotepre Ini Merhetepre mr-Htp-ra N5-U6-R4:X1*Q3
5 Sankhenre Sewadjtu Seankhenresewadjtu s-anx-n-ra-swDtwi ra-s-anx-n:x-n-s-wAD-t-Z7
6 Mersekhemre Ined Mersekhemre Ined mr-sxm-ra-ind ra-U7:r-sxm-Z1-i-in:n-d:wr
7 Hori Sewadjkare Hori swAD-kA-ra-Hri N5-S29-M13-S28-Z1-G7-G5-M17
8 Merkawre Sobekhotep Merkawre Sobek.. mr-kAw-ra-sbk.. N5-U7:D21-Z1-D28-Z1-//-I3-//
9 Lost
10 Lost
11 Lost
12 Lost
13 Djedneferre Dedumose ..mose i-m-s-s //-F31-S29-Z5
14 Ibi ..maat..re Ibi ..mAat-ra-ibi <-N5-//-X1-H6->-G7-M17-E8-M17-A1
15 Hor Webenre Hor ..wbn-Hr <-N5-//-G43-D58-N35:N5->-G7-G5
16 Se..kare Se..kare s..kA-ra N5-S29-//-D28-Z1-G7
17 Seheqenre Sankhptahi ..enre ..enra N5-//-Y1:N35
18 Lost
19 Lost
20 Sekhaenre  ?  ? <-//-Y1:.#34-G7->
21 Lost
22 Merkheperre Merkheperre mr-xpr-ra N5-U7:D21-L1
23 Merkare Merka.. mr..kA.. //-U7:.#234-D28-Z1
Eighth Column
Row Common name Name in list Transliteration Manuel de Codage
1 Nehesy Nehesy nḥsi G21-V28-S29-Z4-T14
2 Khatyre Khatyre xa.ti-ra N5-N28:D36*Y1-U33-Z4
3 Nebfautre Nebfaure nb-fAw-t-ra N5-V30:I9-F40-Z7:X1-Y1:Z2
4 Sehebre Sehabre sHb-ra N5-S29-V28-b-W3:N5
5 Merdjefare Merdjefare mr-DfA-ra N5-U7:D21-G42-G41:G37
6 Sewadjkare III Sewadjkare swAD-kA-ra N5-S29-M13-D28-Z1
7 Nebdjefare Neb("erased")re nb-DfA-ra N5-N5:V30-I10:I9-G42-Z7-G41:G37
8 Webenre Webenre wbn-ra N5-Z7-D58-N35:N5-G7
9 Lost
10 ..re ("erased")re ..ra..dfA N5-//-G41:G37
11 ..webenre ..wbn..ra //-D58#3-N35:N5-G7
12 Autibre Autibre Aw-t-ib-ra N5-F40-Z7:X1-Y1:Z2-F34-Z1
13 Heribre Heribre hr-ib-ra N5-O4-D21:Y1-F34-Z1
14 Renebsen Nebsenra nb-sn-ra N5-V30-S29-N35:Z2
15 Lost
16 Sekheperenre Sekheperenre s-xpr-n-ra N5-S29-L1-D21:N35
17 Djedkherure Djedkherure Dd-xrw-ra N5-R11-G7-P8-Z7
18 Seankhibre Seankhibre s-anx-ib-ra N5-S29-S34-N35:Aa1-F34-Z1
19 Kanefertemre (Ka)nefertemre kA-nfr-tm-ra N5-F35-X1:U15-//-G7
20 Sekhem..re Sekhem..re sxm..ra N5-S42-G17-//
21 Kakemure Ka..kemure kA..kmw-ra N5-D28-D52:E1-//-I6-Z7:X1-E1
22 Neferibre Neferib..re nfr-ib-ra N5-F35-F34-//
23 I..re I..re i..ra N5-M17-A2-//
24 Kha..re Kha..re xa..ra N5-N28:D36*Y1-//
25 Aakare Aakare aA-kA-ra N5-O29v-D28-//
26 Semen..re Semen..re smn..ra N5-S29-Y5:N35-//
27 Djed..re Djed..re Dd..ra <-N5-R11-R11-//
Ninth Column
Row Common name Name in list Transliteration Manuel de Codage
1 Lost N5-//
2 Lost
3 Lost
4 Lost
5 Lost N5-//
6 Lost N5-//
7 Senefer..re Senefer..re s-nfr..ra N5-S29-F35-//
8 Men..re Men(ib)..re mn-ib..ra N5-Y5:N35-ib*Z1#1234
9 Djed.. Djed.. Dd.. R11*R11#34-//
10 Lost
11 Lost
12 Lost
13 Lost
14 Inenek Inenek in-n-k M17-K1:N35:V31A-//
15 Ineb Ineb inbi M17-A1-V30-//
16 'Apepi Ip.. ip.. M17-A1-Q3-//
17 Hab Hab hbi M17-O4-G1-D58
18 Sa Sa sA G39-Z1
19 Hepu Hepu Hpw Aa5:Q3-Z7-E1
20 Shemsu Shemsu Smsw T18-S29-Z7-D54
21 Meni Meni mni Y5:N35-M17-//
22 Werqa.. werqa.. wr-qAi G36:D21-N29-A28
23 Lost
24 Lost
25 ..ka ..ka ..kA.. <-//-A2-D28-Z1->
26 ..ka ..ka ..kA.. <-//-D28-Z1->
27 Lost .. .. <-//-Z1-G7->
28 ..ren..hepu ..ren..hepu.. ..rn-Hpw.. <-//-D21:N35->-G7-Aa5:Q3-Z7-Y1
29 Anati Anati in-nti <-//-D28-Z1-G7->-G7-V30:N35-N35:G1-U33-M17-D54
30 Bebnum ..ka.. Bebnem ..kA..bbnm <-//-D28-Z1-G7->-G7-D58-D58-N35:Z2-G17-D54
31 Lost ..
Tenth Column
Row Common name Name in list Transliteration Manuel de Codage
1 I.. I.. iwf.. M17-//
2 Seth II Seth stH.. <-C7-G7-//->
3 Sunu.. Sunu.. swnw <-T11-W24-Z7-//->
4 Hor.. Hor.. ḥr.. <-G5-G7://-//->
5 Lost
6 Lost
7 Nib.. Nib.. nib.. <-D35-M17-D58-E8-N35A#24-/->
8 Mer..en.. Mer..en.. mr..n.. <-U6://-N35://-G7->
9 Penensetensepet Penensetensepet pnnstt-n-spt Q3:N35:N35-S29-K3:X1*X1-N35-S29-Q3:X1
10 Kherethebshepesu Kherethebshepesu xrt-Hb-Spsw <-T28:D21-W3:X1*B1-Z3A-A50-Z3A-//->
11 Khut..hemet Khut..hemet xw..Hmt.. <-Aa1:D43-Z7-//-N42:X1-B1-//->
12 Lost
15 Semqen?
16 Aperanat?
17 Sakir-Har
18 Khyan
19 Apepi
20 Khamudi Khamudi xA-mdw-i xA-A-m-Z7-d:y-T14
23 Lost
24 Lost
25 Zeket.. Zeket.. skt.. <-O34:V31:X1*Z5-//-Z1-G7-//->
26 Ar.. Ar.. Ar.. <-D36:D21-//->
27 Lost
28 Lost
29 ..nia.. ..nia.. ..niA.. //-G7-N35-M17-G1-//
Eleventh Column
Row Common name Name in list Transliteration Manuel de Codage
1 Sekhemre Sementawy Djehuti Sekhem..re sxm..ra <-N5-S42-Z1-//->
2 Sekhemre Susertawi Sobekhotep VIII Sekhem..re sxm..ra <-N5-S42-Z1-G7-//->
3 Sekhemre Sankhtawy Neferhotep III Sekhemre S.. sxm-ra-s.. <-N5-S42-Z1-G7-S29-//->
4 Sewadjenre Nebiryraw I Sewadjenre.. swAD-n-ra.. <-N5-S29-M13-N35:.#234-//->
5 Nebiriaure Nebiriaure nb-iri-Aw-ra #b-<-N5-V30-M17-D21:Z4-F40-Z7-Y1:Z2->#e
6 Nebiretaure Nebiretaure nb-iri-Awt-ra #b-<-N5-V30-M17-D21:Z4-X1:.-F40-Z7-Y1:Z2->#e
7 Semenre Semenre smn-ra #b-<-N5-S29-Y5:N35-U32-Y1:.*Z1->#e
8 Seuserenre Bebiankh Seuserre.. s-wsr-ra.. #b-<-N5-S29-F12-S29-D21:D36->#e
9 Sekhemre Shedwaset Sekhemre Shedwaset sxm-ra-Sd-wAst <-N5-S42-F30:D46-A24-R19-X1:O49-G7->
10 Lost
11 Lost
12 Lost
13 Lost
14 Lost
16 User..re User..re wsr..ra <-N5-F12-D21:.#1234-//->
17 User.. User.. wsr.. <-F12#3-//->
  • The Manuel de Codage text was written using the Open Source hieroglyphic editor JSesh.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Museo Egizio homepage". Retrieved 20 December 2010.  (Italian) (English)
  2. ^ [1] wayback machine: [2] (in Italian)


  • Alan Gardiner, editor. Royal Canon of Turin. Griffith Institute, 1959. (Reprint 1988. ISBN 0-900416-48-3)
  • Beckerath, Jürgen von. “Some remarks on Helck's 'Anmerkungen zum Turiner Konigspapyrus‘.“ Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 81, (1995): 225-227.
  • Beckerath, Jürgen von. “The Date of the End of the Old Kingdom of Egypt.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 21, no. 2 (April 1962): 140-147.
  • Bennett, Chris. “A Genealogical Chronology of the Seventeenth Dynasty.” Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 39, (2002): 123-155.
  • George Adam Smith, "Chaldean Account of Genesis" (Whittingham & Wilkins, London, 1872) (Reprint 2005. Adamant Media Corporation, ISBN 1-4021-8590-1) p290 Contains a different translation of the Turin Papyrus in a chart about "dynasty of gods".
  • Kenneth A. Kitchen "King Lists" The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Ed. Donald B. Redford. Copyright © 2001, 2005 by Oxford University Press, Inc.. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press.
  • K. Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period. Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997. ISBN 87-7289-421-0.
  • K. Ryholt, ‘The Turin King-List’, Ägypten und Levante 14, 2004, pp. 135–155. This is a detailed description of the king-list, the information it provides, and its sources.
  • Málek, Jaromír. “The Original Version of the Royal Canon of Turin.” Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 68, (1982): 93-106.
  • Spalinger, Anthony. “Review of: ‘The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800-1550 B. C.’ by K.S.B. Ryholt.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 60, no. 4 (October 2001): 296-300.

External links[edit]