Turks in the Netherlands

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Turkish-Dutch)
Jump to: navigation, search
A Turkish Foundation in Amsterdam
Turks in the Netherlands
Total population
395,302a (2013 CBS estimate)[1]
Other estimates 400,000[2][3] to 500,000[4][5][6]
Languages
Religion
Footnotes
a This figure only includes people whose origins are from Turkey. 197,107 people had a first generation background and 195,816 had a second generation background. The CBS has not provided any figures for further generations.[1]

Turks in the Netherlands (occasionally Dutch Turks or Turkish-Dutch) (Dutch: Turkse Nederlander; Turkish: Hollanda Türkleri) are the ethnic Turks living in the Netherlands who form the third largest ethnic group after the Dutch people, other European Union people and Indonesians.[11]

History[edit]

Number of Turkish-Dutch
according to Statistics Netherlands[1][12]
Year Population Year Population
1996 271,514 2005 358,846
1997 279,708 2006 364,333
1998 289,777 2007 368,600
1999 299,662 2008 372,714
2000 308,890 2009 378,330
2001 319,600 2010 383,957
2002 330,709 2011 388,967
2003 341,400 2012 392,923
2004 351,648 2013 395,302

Until 1961, more people left the Netherlands than moved into the country. It began to face a labour shortage by the mid 1950s, which became more serious during the early 1960s, as the country experienced economic growth rates comparable to the rest of Europe.[13] At the same time, Turkey had a problem of unemployment, low GNP levels and high population rates. So the import of labour solved problems on both ends.[14] The first Turkish immigrants arrived in the Netherlands in the beginning of the 1960s at a time were the Dutch economy was wrestling with a shortage of workers.[15] On 19 August 1964, the Dutch government entered into a 'recruitment agreement' with Turkey.[16] Thereafter, the number of Turkish workers in the Netherlands increased rapidly.[17]

There were two distinct periods of recruitment. During the first period, which lasted until 1966, a large number of Turks came to the Netherlands through unofficial channels. An economic recession began in 1966. Some of the labour migrants were forced to return to Turkey. In 1968, the economy picked up again and a new recruitment period, which was to last until 1974, commenced. The peak of Turkish labour migration occurred during these years. The Turks surpassed other nationalities in numbers and came to represent the Dutch image of guest workers.[15]

Demographics[edit]

Turkish flag and Dutch flag hanging side by side in the multi-ethnic neighborhood Kruidenbuurt, Eindhoven.

Turkish immigrants first began to settle in big cities in the Netherlands such as Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht as well as the regions of Twente and Limburg, where there was a growing demand for industrial labour. However, not only the capital cities but also medium-sized cities, and even small villages attracted the Turks.[18]

The Turkish population is mostly concentrated in large cities in the west of the country[19] some 36% of Turks live in the Randstad region.[20] The second most common settlements are in the south, in the Limburg region, in Eindhoven and Tilburg, and in the east, in Twente region, in Enschede, Deventer, and Almelo.[18]

According to Statistics Netherlands, as of 2009, the total population of the Netherlands is 16,485,787.[21] The Turkish population is 378,330, thus 2.29% of the total population. This consisted of some 196,000 first generation Turks[22] and 183,000 second generation Turks whose parents originated from Turkey.[23] The total number of third generation Turks is not recorded in Statistics Netherlands. However, Turkish language is spoken by 700,000 people in the Netherlands.[24]

Significant population centers (2013)
City Population city ratio
Rotterdam 47,900 7.8%
Amsterdam 42,500 5.3%
The Hague 38,300 7.5%
Utrecht 13,700 4.2%
Zaanstad 11,500 7.7%
Eindhoven 10,500 4.8%
Enschede 9,200 5.8%
Arnhem 8,500 5.5%
Tilburg 8,000 3.8%
Deventer 6,900 7%
Almelo 6,000 8.3%
Hengelo 4,800 5.9%
Oldenzaal 1,300 4%
Spijkenisse 1,000 1.4%

[citation needed]

Other Turkish communities[edit]

The official estimates of the Turkish immigrant population in the Netherlands does not include Turkish minorities whose origins go back to the Ottoman Empire. In the Netherlands, there are also Bulgarian Turks and Western Thracian Turks. These populations, which have different nationalities, share the same ethnic, linguistic, cultural and religious origins as Turkish nationals.

Bulgarian Turks[edit]

10,000-30,000 people from Bulgaria live in the Netherlands. The majority, of about 80%, are ethnic Turks from Bulgaria; most of them have come from the south-eastern Bulgarian district of Kardzhali (Kırcaali)[25] and are the fastest-growing group of immigrants in the Netherlands.[26]

Western Thrace Turks[edit]

A minority of Western Thrace Turks can be found in the Netherlands, especially in the Randstad region. They are registered as Greeks due to their Greek nationality. After Germany, the Netherlands is the most popular destination for Turkish immigrants from Western Thrace.[27]

Culture[edit]

Language[edit]

The first generation of Turkish immigrants is predominantly Turkish-speaking and has only limited Dutch competence.[28] Thus, for immigrant children, their early language input is Turkish, but the Dutch language quickly enters their lives via playmates and day-care centres. By age six, these children are often bilinguals.[29]

Adolescents have developed a code-switching mode which is reserved for in-group use. With older members of the Turkish community and with strangers, Turkish is used, and if Dutch speakers enter the scene, a switch to Dutch is made.[30] The young bilinguals therefore speak normal Turkish with their elders, and a kind of Dutch-Turkish with each other.[31]

The Turkish Mevlana Mosque in Rotterdam was voted the most attractive building in 2006.

Religion[edit]

When family reunification resulted in the establishment of Turkish communities, the preservation of Turkish culture became a more serious matter. Most Turks consider Islam to be the centre of their culture.[32] Thus, the majority of Dutch Turks adheres to Sunni Islam, although there is also a considerable Alevi fragment. According to the latest figures issued by Statistics Netherlands, approximately 5% of the Dutch population (850,000 persons), were followers of Islam in 2006. Furthermore, 87% of Turks were followers of Islam.[33] The Turkish community accounted for almost 40% of the Muslim population; thus are the largest ethnic group in the Netherlands adhering to Islam.[34]

Turks are considered to be the best organised ethnic group with its activities and organisations.[35] The Turkish Islamic Cultural Federation (TICF) which was founded in 1979, had 78 member associations by the early 1980s, and continued to grow to reach 140 by the end of the 1990s. It works closely with the Turkish-Islamic Union for Religious Affairs (Diyanet), which provides the TICF with the imams which it employs in its member mosques.[36]

In April 2006, the Turkish Mevlana Mosque had been voted the most attractive building in Rotterdam in a public survey organised by the City Information Centre. It had beaten the Erasmus Bridge due to the mosques 'symbol of warmth and hospitality'.[37]

Politics[edit]

Turks generally support parties on the left (PvdA, D66, GroenLinks, and SP) over parties on the right (CDA, VVD and SGP).[38] In the past, migrants were not as eager to vote, however they are now aware that they can become a decisive factor in the Dutch political system. There has been some criticisms that certain parties (such as the Social Democrats) are becoming the parties of migrants because of the votes they receive from migrants and the increase in the number of elected Turkish candidates.[39] During the Dutch general election (2002), there were 14 candidates of Turkish origin spread out over six party lists which encouraged 55% of Turks to vote, which was a much higher turnout than any other ethnic minorities.[40]

Literature[edit]

A number of Turkish-Dutch writers have come to prominence. Halil Gür was one of the earliest, writing short stories about Turkish immigrants. Sadik Yemni is well known for his Turkish-Dutch detective stories. Sevtap Baycili is a more intellectual novelist, who is not limited to migrant themes.

Anti-Turkism[edit]

Even though progressive policies are installed, "especially compared with those in some other European countries such as Germany"[41] Human Rights Watch criticized the Netherlands for new legislations violating the human rights of Turkish ethnic minority group.[42] The European Commission against Racism and Intolerance published its third report on Netherlands in 2008. In this report Turkish minority group is described as a notable community which have been particularly affected by "stigmatisation of and discrimination against members of minority groups"[43] as a result of controversial policies of the governments of Netherlands. The same report also noted that "the tone of Dutch political and public debate around integration and other issues relevant to ethnic minorities has experienced a dramatic deterioration".

Recently, use of the word "allochtonen" as a "catch-all expression" for "the other" emerged as a new development. European Network against Racism, an international organisation supported by European Commission reported that, in Netherlands, half of the Turks reported having experienced racial discrimination.[44] Same report points "dramatic growth of islamophobia" parallel with antisemitism. Another international organisation European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia highlighted negative trend in Netherlands, regarding attitudes towards minorities, compared to average EU results.[45] The analysis also noted that compared to most other Europeans, in the Netherlands, majority group is "more in favour of cultural assimilation of minorities" rather than "cultural enrichment by minority groups".

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c CBS StatLine. "Bevolking; generatie, geslacht, leeftijd en herkomstgroepering, 1 januari". Retrieved 2013-12-19. 
  2. ^ Netherlands Info Services. "Dutch Queen Tells Turkey "First Steps Taken" On EU Membership Road". Retrieved 2008-12-16. 
  3. ^ Dutch News. "Dutch Turks swindled, AFM to investigate". Retrieved 2008-12-16. 
  4. ^ Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi 2008, 11.
  5. ^ Sarah, Fenwick (2 May 2010). "Airline Plans Direct Flights to North". Cyprus News Report. Retrieved 18 January 2011. 
  6. ^ Sabah. "Hollanda Avrupa’nın en streslisi". Retrieved 18 January 2011. 
  7. ^ Towards a new estimate of the number of muslims in the Netherlands CBS, 2007
  8. ^ Turkish-Dutch FORUM Factbook on Turkish youth in the Netherlands (september 2011)
  9. ^ Turkish Christians in the Netherlands Short article on vijfeeuwenmigratie.nl (five centuries of migration)
  10. ^ Turkish Christians Letter from state secretary of Justice to the Dutch parliament about the position of Turkish Christians in the Netherlands
  11. ^ CIA Factbook
  12. ^ CBS StatLine. "Population; generation, sex, age and origin, 1 January". Retrieved 2013-12-19. 
  13. ^ Panayi 1999, 140.
  14. ^ Ogan 2001, 23-24.
  15. ^ a b Vermeulen & Penninx 2000, 154.
  16. ^ Akgündüz 2008, 61.
  17. ^ Baumann & Sunier 1995, 37.
  18. ^ a b Yücesoy 2008, 26.
  19. ^ Vermeulen & Penninx 2000, 158.
  20. ^ Haug, Compton & Courbage 2002, 277.
  21. ^ CBS StatLine. "Population; sex, age, marital status, origin and generation, 1 January 2009". Retrieved 2009-04-04. 
  22. ^ Statistics Netherlands 2009, 205.
  23. ^ Statistics Netherlands 2009, 206.
  24. ^ http://www.staryava.com/web/
  25. ^ Guentcheva, Kabakchieva & Kolarski 2003, 44.
  26. ^ TheSophiaEcho. "Turkish Bulgarians fastest-growing group of immigrants in the Netherlands". Retrieved 2009-07-26. 
  27. ^ Şentürk 2008, 427.
  28. ^ Strömqvist & Verhoeven 2004, 437.
  29. ^ Strömqvist & Verhoeven 2004, 438.
  30. ^ Extra & Verhoeven 1993, 223.
  31. ^ Extra & Verhoeven 1993, 224.
  32. ^ Kennedy & Roudometof 2002, 60.
  33. ^ CBS 2007, 51.
  34. ^ CBS StatLine. "More than 850 thousand Muslims in the Netherlands (2007)". Retrieved 2009-04-04. 
  35. ^ Nielsen 2004, 64.
  36. ^ Nielsen 2004, 65.
  37. ^ Ulzen 2007, 214-215.
  38. ^ Messina 2007, 205-206.
  39. ^ Farrell, Vladychenko & Oliveri 2006, 195.
  40. ^ Ireland 2004, 146.
  41. ^ Mendes, H. F. (1994). Managing the multicultural society: The policy making process. Paper presented at the Conference on Today's Youth and Xenophobia: Breaking the Cycle. Wassenaar, Netherlands: Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study.
  42. ^ Human Rights Watch. (2009). Human Rights Watch world report 2009: Events of 2008. Human Rights Watch. [1]
  43. ^ ECRI. (2008). Third report on the Netherlands. Strasbourg, FRANCE : The European Commission against Racism and Intolerance. [2]
  44. ^ Dinsbach, W., Walz, G., & Boog, I. (2009). ENAR shadow report 2008: Racism in the Netherlands. Brussels, Netherlands: ENAR Netherlands. [3]
  45. ^ Thalhammer, E., Zucha , V., Enzenhofer, E., Salfinger , B., & Ogris, G. (2001). Attitudes towards minority groups in the European Union: A special analysis of the Eurobarometer 2000 survey on behalf of the European Monitoring Centre on racism and xenophobia. Vienna, Austria: EUMC Sora. [4].

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]