Turkish Airlines

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Turkish Airlines
Türk Hava Yolları A.O.
Turkish Airlines logo.svg
IATA
TK
ICAO
THY
Callsign
TURKISH
Founded 20 May 1933
Hubs
Secondary hubs
Focus cities
Frequent-flyer program Miles&Smiles
Airport lounge Turkish Airlines CIP Lounge Istanbul
Alliance Star Alliance
Subsidiaries
Fleet size 258
Destinations 257
Company slogan Widen Your World
Headquarters Istanbul Atatürk Airport,
Yeşilköy, Istanbul, Turkey
Key people
Revenue Increase Turkish lira symbol 8x10px.png 18.78 billion (2013)[1]
Operating income Decrease Turkish lira symbol 8x10px.png 1.48 billion (2013)[1]
Net income Decrease Turkish lira symbol 8x10px.png 683 million (2013)[1]
Total assets Increase Turkish lira symbol 8x10px.png 25.4 billion (2013)[1]
Total equity Increase Turkish lira symbol 8x10px.png 6.96 billion (2013)[1]
Employees 18,882 (2013)[1][2]
Website www.turkishairlines.com

Turkish Airlines (Turkish: Türk Hava Yolları) (BİST: THYAO) is the national flag carrier airline of Turkey, headquartered at the Turkish Airlines General Management Building on the grounds of Atatürk Airport in Yeşilköy, Bakırköy, Istanbul.[3][4] It operates scheduled services to 41 domestic and 206 international airports in Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas. With 247 destinations, the airline is the fourth-largest carrier in the world by number of destinations.[5] With Istanbul Atatürk Airport being the main base, the Turkish carrier has secondary hubs at Esenboğa International Airport, Sabiha Gökçen International Airport, and Adnan Menderes Airport. THY has been a member of the Star Alliance network since 1 April 2008.[6]

In April 2010, "TURKISH" replaced "TURKAIR" as the new call sign for Turkish Airlines.

With an operational fleet of nine cargo aircraft, the airline's cargo division serves 47 destinations.[7]

History

Early years

Turkish Airlines was established on 20 May 1933 as State Airlines Administration (Turkish: Devlet Hava Yolları) as a department of the Ministry of National Defence.[8] The initial fleet consisted of two five-seat Curtiss Kingbirds, two four-seat Junkers F.13s and one ten-seat Tupolev ANT-9.[8] In 1935, the airline was turned over to the Ministry of Public Works and was subsequently renamed General Directorate of State Airlines. Three years later, in 1938, it became part of the Ministry of Transportation.[9]

Postwar period

Being initially set up as a domestic carrier, the airline commenced international services with the inauguration of AnkaraIstanbulAthens flights in 1947, two years after a fair amount of Douglas DC-3s and Douglas C-47s joined the fleet, which enabled the carrier to expand its network.[8]

Nicosia, Beirut and Cairo were soon added to the airline's international flight destinations. However, domestic services remained the Turkish carrier's main focus until the early 1960s.[10]

In 1956, the Turkish government reorganized the airline under the name Türk Hava Yollari A.O. (often abbreviated as THY).[8] It was capitalized at TRL 60 million. The airline joined the International Air Transport Association (IATA) shortly thereafter. In 1957, British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) began supplying technical support after acquiring a 6.5 percent shareholding, which it held for about 20 years.[10]

New aircraft including Vickers Viscounts, Fokker F27s and Douglas DC-3s were added to the fleet in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Turkish Airlines began operating their first jet, a McDonnell Douglas DC-9, in 1967. This was followed by the addition of three Boeing 707 jets in 1971. Other aircraft operated in the early 1970s included the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 and the Fokker F28 which were put into service in 1972 and 1973 respectively.[8][10]

1980s and 1990s

A Boeing 707 operated by Turkish Airlines at Heathrow Airport in 1984.

The airline was plagued by several difficult issues. It developed a reputation for poor customer service and delays. It also endured hijackings and suffered seven accidents between 1974 and 1983. The most notorious came in 1974, when a DC-10 crashed shortly after take-off near Ermenonville, France, resulting in the deaths of 346 people.

A new government came to power in 1983 which recognized THY's importance as Turkey's ambassador to the world, beginning the airline's makeover into a modern operation. It would maintain one of the youngest fleets in the world. Security was intensified, causing one shipper to compare it to Israel's El Al, at least in terms of delays.[10]

THY built a new, state-of-the-art technical center at Yeşilköy Airport in 1984. The airline was capable of both light and heavy maintenance on a number of different aircraft types. Technical staff then made up one-quarter of the airline's 6,000 employees, according to Air Transport World. In 1984, the company's capital was raised to TRL 60 billion as it was classified as a state economic enterprise. Three years later, the capital was raised again, to TL150 billion.

Turkish Airlines Boeing 737 in Zurich Airport in 1995.

By the mid-1980s, THY had a fleet of 30 aircraft. It was flying about three million passengers a year to 16 domestic destinations and three dozen international ones. The airline was Turkey's largest source of foreign currency. Turkish Airlines began operating Airbus A310s in 1985, allowing the addition of flights to Singapore in 1986. A route to New York via Brussels was added in 1988.

The company posted losses in 1987 and 1988, largely due to high payments on its dozen new Airbus A310s, according to Air Transport World. The fleet also included 11 Boeing 727s and nine Douglas DC-9s. THY ended the decade with 8,500 employees.[10]

The company suffered in the global aviation crisis following the Persian Gulf War and would not break even again until 1994. However, business was again booming in the mid-1990s, with the greatest growth coming from North American destinations. THY launched a nonstop flight to New York in July 1994.

The company's capital continued to be raised, reaching TRL 10 trillion in 1995. During that year, the airline also converted three of their Boeing 727s to dedicated freighters. The DC-9s had been sold off. The company posted a $6 million profit on revenues of $1 billion for the year. While profitable, THY had to contend with Turkey's exorbitant inflation, making capital improvements difficult.

The domestic market was deregulated in 1996, allowing new scheduled competition from charter airlines. At the same time, larger international carriers were providing stiff competition on routes to Western Europe. THY entered into marketing agreements with other international airlines to enhance their competitiveness. The company teamed with Japan Airlines to offer service to Osaka and Tokyo in 1997 and 1998. Other jointly operated flights soon followed with Austrian Airlines, Swissair, and Croatia Airlines.[10]

2000s

A Turkish Airlines Boeing 777-300ER with the badge and squad of FC Barcelona in 2012; the airline was the official sponsor and carrier of the club between 2010 and 2013.[11]
A Turkish Airlines Airbus A321-200 in Turkish Airlines Euroleague livery. The airline is the primary sponsor of the top European basketball league since 2010.

A new terminal opened for the airline in January 2000 at Istanbul's Istanbul Atatürk Airport. Turkish Airlines continued to extend their international reach, forging marketing agreements with Asiana Airlines, American Airlines, Malaysian Airlines, LOT Polish Airlines, Czech Airlines and Cathay Pacific in 2000. An Antalya-Frankfurt route was added in 2001 through a code-sharing agreement with Sun Express. However, THY withdrew from the Swissair-led Qualiflyer alliance in order to help attract a strategic investor for their privatization.[10]

Turkey underwent an economic crisis throughout most of 2001, cutting traffic on domestic routes in particular. THY managed to survive after the September 11 attacks on the United States without a government bailout or mass layoffs, although 300 middle management positions were eliminated, 400 part-timers were laid off and wages were cut 10 percent. Turkish Daily News credited the airline's survival to entrepreneurial management, which was quick to get rid of loss-making routes at home and abroad.

In 2003, the war in Iraq prompted Turkish Airlines to close some routes in the Persian Gulf, while flights to Asia were suspended during the SARS epidemic. However, the airline soon recovered, increasing traffic on existing routes and adding service to Delhi after an 11-year lapse.

Another fleet expansion program kicked off in 2004, helping THY maintain one of the youngest fleets in Europe. In July, the airline announced a massive $2.8 billion order of 36 jets from Airbus, plus an order for 15 Boeing 737s.

THY was not just ordering new planes. It was planning to spend $350 million on a new technical and training facility at Istanbul's underutilized Sabiha Gökçen International Airport. The airline had built up a significant technical services operation, maintaining not just their own aircraft but those of third parties. Turkish Technic employed 2,700 and was planning to hire another 2,000 by 2010. THY also had three flight simulators and offered flight training services.

THY faced the entry of new competitors into the liberalizing Turkish aviation market. However, tourism was booming, with 20 million people expected to visit the country in 2005 versus 12 million in 2003. THY divested its 50% holding in Cyprus Turkish Airlines (Kibris Turk Hava Yollari) in 2005.

Although the company was publicly traded at this time, the government owned 98% of its shares. The privatization program was revived in 2004 with a public offering of 20% of shares on the Istanbul Stock Exchange. The Turkish government owned 75% of shares after the offering, which raised $170 million. Currently, the Republic of Turkey's Prime Ministry Privatization Administration owns a 49.12% interest in THY, while 50.88% of shares are publicly traded.[12]

On 1 April 2008, Turkish Airlines joined the Star Alliance after an 18-month integration process beginning in December 2006, becoming the seventh European airline in the 20-member alliance.[13]

In December 2011, the Turkish government unveiled plans to modernize the Aden Adde International Airport in Mogadishu, Somalia, which became one of the newest flight destinations of the carrier in 2012. The rehabilitation project is part of Turkey's broader engagement in the local post-conflict reconstruction process. Among the scheduled renovations are new airport systems and infrastructure, including a modern control tower to monitor the airspace.[14] In March 2012, Turkish Airlines became the first international carrier to resume flights to Somalia since the start of that country's civil war in the early 1990s.

By the end of 2013, Turkish Airlines increased their number of flight points to 241 destinations worldwide (199 international and 42 domestic).[15]

Destinations

As of May 2014, Turkish Airlines flies to 251 destinations in 105 countries across four continents.[16]

Codeshare agreements

As of December 2013, Turkish Airlines has codeshare agreements with the following airlines:[17]

Fleet

Turkish Airlines A340-300 in Star Alliance livery at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol.
Airbus A310-300F with the old logo
Airbus A321-200 with the old logo
Airbus A330-300 with the new logo
Boeing 737-900ER with the new logo

As of July 2014, the Turkish Airlines fleet consists of 249 passenger and 9 cargo aircraft.[31]

Turkish Airlines Fleet
Aircraft In Service Orders Options Passengers Notes
C Y+ Y Total
Airbus A319-100 14 12 114 126
Airbus A320-200 33 2 12 141 153
Airbus A320neo 5 TBA Deliveries in 2016[1]
Airbus A321-200 43 27 12 176 188 Deliveries 2015 – 2017[1]
Airbus A321neo 60[32] 30 TBA 7 of 35 options converted to firm orders,[33] Deliveries 2017 – 2020[1]
Airbus A330-200 12 22 228 250
Airbus A330-300 17 13[34] 28 261 289 Deliveries until 2016[35][36]
Airbus A340-300 6 34 236 270 Phased out by 2015.
Boeing 737-700 12 149 149 10 operated by AnadoluJet
Boeing 737-800 86 12[37] 12 153 165 16 operated by AnadoluJet, older aircraft to be replaced by Boeing 737 MAX 8
Boeing 737-900ER 10 5 16 135 151 Deliveries in 2015[1]
Boeing 737 MAX 8 40[37] 25 TBA Deliveries 2018 – 2021[1]
Boeing 737 MAX 9 10[37] TBA Deliveries 2019 – 2020[1]
Boeing 777-300ER 16 19[38] 28 63 246 337 3 wet-leased from Jet Airways, Deliveries until 2017[1]
Turkish Airlines Cargo Fleet
Airbus A310-300F 3
N/A
Airbus A330-200F 6
N/A
Total 258 190 53

Livery

The airline's "Eurowhite" livery is a white fuselage with blue lettering, a grey tulip on the fuselage running from the rear of the wing to the tail, and a red tail with the company logo in a white circle.

In the past, the airplanes were painted white on the top with four red stripes going across the fuselage and the tail white with a red center that included the emblem; instead of a white emblem with a red circle for a background, the emblem was red with a white circle. The bellies of the planes had an aluminum finish, while the nose was black, and text on the plane read "THY Türk Hava Yolları-Turkish Airlines" on the left side; on the right the concept was the same with different text reading "Türk Hava Yolları-Turkish Airlines THY".

The logo on the fin has been modified on 21 May 2010: the emblem is now white and on a red background, while it was formerly red and on a white background.[citation needed]

The inscription "Turkish" has been replaced by "Turkish Airlines" in 2010 on the front-left and front-right sides of the fuselage.[citation needed]

The "Eurowhite" livery (a white fuselage with blue lettering) and a grey tulip figure on the fuselage (running from the rear of the wing to the tail) have remained the same.

Corporate affairs

Business trends

Turkish Airlines Corporate Headquarters

The key trends for Turkish Airlines for the past 11 years are shown below (as on March 7, 2014):[39][40][41]

2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Turnover (Turkish lira symbol 8x10px.pngm) 2,846 2,593 2,956 3,812 4,860 6,123 7,036 8,423 11,813 14,909 18,777
Net Profit (Turkish lira symbol 8x10px.pngm) 243 107 138 179 265 1,134 559 286 19 1,133 683
Number of passengers carried (m) 10.4 12.0 14.1 16.9 19.6 22.6 25.1 29.1 32.6 39.0 48.3
Passenger load factor (%) 67 70 72 69 73 74 71 74 73 77 79
Cargo carried (000s tonnes) 123 135 145 160 183 199 238 314 388 471 565
Number of aircraft (at year end) 65 73 83 103 102 127 134 153 179 200 233
Number of destinations (at year end) 103 102 107 134 138 142 156 171 189 217 243
Sources [42][43] [43][44] [43][45] [43][46] [47][48] [49][50] [51][52] [53][54] [55][56] [55][56] [1][57]

Affinity programmes

Miles&Smiles is the frequent-flyer programme of Turkish Airlines, inaugurated in 2000 after the airline left Qualiflyer.[58] Earned miles can be used on Turkish Airlines' flights, as well as on flights operated by Lufthansa, including the entire Star Alliance network. Miles&Smiles Classic Plus card holders are entitled to the same benefits of Star Alliance Silver card members. Elite and Elite Plus Miles&Smiles cards entitle the owner to the same benefits as Star Alliance Gold users.[59]

Sponsorship and promotion agreements

Turkish Airlines also sponsors Bundesliga club Borussia Dortmund.[60]

Turkish Airlines was chosen as the official carrier by Europe's leading football clubs such as Borussia Dortmund,[61] Olympique de Marseille[62] and Aston Villa.[63]

The airline has also made sponsorship and promotion deals with renowned athletes and actors, including:[64] Lionel Messi,[65] Kobe Bryant,[65] Caroline Wozniacki,[66] Kevin Costner [67] and Wayne Rooney.[67]

Furthermore, the company is the primary sponsor of the Turkish Airlines Euroleague since 2010[68] and was among the sponsors of the 2010 FIBA World Championship.[69]

On 22 October 2013, Turkish Airlines and Euroleague signed an agreement to prolong their existing sponsorship deal by five years until 2020.[70]

Turkish Airlines is the sponsor of the Turkish Airlines Open, a European Tour golf tournament started to be played annually in Turkey from 2013 on.[71]

Awards

Turkish Airlines has four times won the Skytrax awards for Europe's Best Airline, Southern Europe's Best Airline, and the World's Best Premium Economy Class Airline Seat for three consecutive years in 2011, 2012 and 2013.[72][73] Additionally, Turkish Airlines has been selected the Airline of the Year by Air Transport News at the 2013 Air Transport News Awards Ceremony.[74]

Turkish Airlines Flight Academy

Turkish Airlines Flight Academy was established by the 28th THY Board on 10 November 2004, and started training with 16 cadets on 1 May 2006. The Flight Academy is based at Istanbul Atatürk Airport and uses the nearby Çorlu Airport for training activities.[75][76]

The fleet of the flight academy consists of the following 14 aircraft:

Turkish Airlines Maintenance Center

Turkish Airlines runs a maintenance centre at its hub at Istanbul Atatürk Airport. The maintenance centre, called Turkish Technic, is responsible for the maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) of THY's and third party aircraft, including airframe, landing gear, APU and components.[77]

Turkish Technic has opened a new engine centre in partnership with Pratt & Whitney at Sabiha Gökçen International Airport. The facility provides engine maintenance, repair and overhaul services to customers worldwide.[78] Furthermore, a project named HABOM (Turkish: Havacılık Bakım Onarım ve Modifikasyon Merkezi), an Aviation Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul Center, is at Sabiha Gökçen International Airport TEC (Turkish Engine Center).[79]

Incidents and accidents

In its history, Turkish Airlines suffered a total of 15 accidents of which 14 were fatal. The most remarkable occurred in 1974, when Turkish Airlines Flight 981 crashed shortly after takeoff from Orly Airport, France, claiming the lives of all 346 people on board. To date, it is the second-deadliest single-aircraft accident in the world.

See also


References

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External links