Turkish Cypriot enclaves
Events leading to the creation of the enclaves
In December 1963 the President of the Republic of Cyprus, Archbishop Makarios, proposed several controversial amendments to the constitution. This precipitated a major crisis between the Greek Cypriot and the Turkish Cypriot communities which resulted in the withdrawal of Turkish Cypriot ministers from the Cabinet.
After the rejection of the constitutional amendments by the Turkish Cypriot community the situation escalated resulting in severe fighting between extremists from both sides, which lasted throughout 1963 and 1964. About 30,000 Turkish Cypriots, either of their own volition or by force, began retreating from isolated rural areas and villages into enclaves, often giving up their land and houses for security within these fortified enclaves.
Situation in the enclaves
The enclaves were scattered all over the island. Because of the Turkish Cypriot leadership's refusal to recognise the authority of the Republic of Cyprus and as part of a long-standing Turkish Cypriot campaign to end all social, political and economic co-operation with Greek Cypriots, the enclaves were deprived of many necessities. Restrictions on the enclaves began to be eased after 1967 and many Turkish Cypriots began to return to the villages they'd left in 1963, although this often encountered the hostility of Turkish Cypriot paramilitaries, which were determined to preserve control of the Turkish Cypriots and Turkish Cypriot enclaves as part of a plan to separate the Turkish Cypriots from Greek Cypriots and create the conditions for a partition of the island along ethnic lines.
|This section requires expansion. (May 2008)|
After the Turkish invasion in 1974
After the 1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus the island was divided in two. A year later in 1975 60,000 Turkish Cypriots, practically all of the Turkish Cypriot community in the Greek Cypriot controlled south, moved to the occupied territories in the north. In 1983 the northern part declared its independence and became the internationally unrecognized (except by Turkey) Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.
List of Turkish Cypriot enclaves
- Kokkina (Erenköy)
- Limnitis (Yeşilırmak)
- Lefka (Lefke)
- Lefkosia-Agyrta (Lefkoşa-Ağırdağ)
- Tsatos (Tziaos/Serdarlı)
- Galinoporni (Kuruova)
Smaller enclaves within the main cities
- Pafos (Mouttalos/Kasaba)
- Larnaka (İskele)
- Famagusta (Mağusa/Suriçi)
- Kophinou (Larnaka)
- “1974: Turkey Invades Cyprus” BBC 2010. Web. Retrieved: 2 October 2010. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/20/newsid_3866000/3866521.stm>