Turkish Kurdistan

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Turkish Kurdistan (Kurdish: Kurdistana Tirkiyeyê [1][2] or Bakurê Kurdistanê,[3] or Northern Kurdistan) is an unofficial name for the southeastern part of Turkey. The unofficial term references the region's geographical and historical location with respect to the larger Kurdish region, often named Kurdistan, stretching across parts of Turkey, Syria, Iran and Iraq.[4] Recently Turkish prime minister Erdogan called the region Kurdistan and defended its use due to its historical reference within original Turkish republic documents and its Ottoman usage.[5][6] A search through the Turkish Grand National Assembly online portal shows on 9 October 1920 (25.1.1339 Hijri calendar) the word "Kurdistan" used at least 6 times.[7]

Geography and economy[edit]

Kurdish(incl. Zazaki)-speaking provinces in Turkey according to the census of 1965. In dark green provinces, an absolute majority (>50%) speak Kurdish; in the light green province, a relative majority (<50%) do.[8][9]

In the census of 1965, Kurdish-speakers (incl. Zazaki-speakers) made up the absolute majority in Ağrı, Batman, Bitlis, Diyarbakır, Mardin, Hakkâri, Siirt, Şırnak, Van and relative majority in Bingöl.[8][9]

The Encyclopaedia of Islam describes Turkish Kurdistan, historically, as covering at least 17 provinces of Turkey: Erzincan, Erzurum, Kars, Malatya, Tunceli, Elazığ, Bingöl, Muş, Ağrı, Adıyaman, Diyarbakır, Siirt, Bitlis, Van, Şanlıurfa, Mardin and Hakkâri, stressing at the same time that "the imprecise limits of the frontiers of Kurdistan hardly allow an exact appreciation of the area."[10]

In Turkey, the 17 provinces of ancient Kurdistan covered around 190,000 km².[11] Since 1987, four new provinces - Şırnak, Batman, Iğdır and Ardahan - have been created inside the Turkish administrative system out of the territory of some of these provinces. The region has no unified administrative identity and the Turkish state rejects the use of the term "Kurdistan" to describe it. In addition to the provinces already mentioned, the region forms part of the wider geographic subdivisions of Southeastern Anatolia Region (Güneydoğu Anadolu Bölgesi) and Eastern Anatolia Region (Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi).

The region forms the south-eastern edge of Anatolia. It is dominated by high peaks rising to over 3,700m (12,000 ft) and arid mountain plateaux, forming part of the arc of the Taurus Mountains. It has an extreme continental climate — hot in the summer, bitterly cold in the winter. Despite this, much of the region is fertile and has traditionally exported grain and livestock to the cities in the plains. The local economy is dominated by animal husbandry and small-scale agriculture, with cross-border smuggling (especially of petroleum) providing a major source of income in the border areas. Larger-scale agriculture and industrial activities dominate the economic life of the lower-lying region around Diyarbakır, the largest Kurdish-populated city in the region. Elsewhere, however, decades of conflict and high unemployment has led to extensive migration from the region to other parts of Turkey and abroad.[12]

History[edit]

During the Middle Ages, the Kurdish-inhabited regions of the Middle East came under the rule of local Kurdish chieftains, though they never established a unified nation state. During 10th and 11th centuries, the region was ruled by the Kurdish dynasty of Marwanid. From the 14th century onwards the region was mostly incorporated into the Ottoman Empire.

Kurdish principalities of the region[edit]

A tax register (or defter) dating back to 1527, mentions an area called vilayet-i Kurdistan, which included 7 major and 11 minor emirates (or principalities). The document refers to Kurdish emirates as eyalet(state), an indication of the autonomy enjoyed by these principalities. In a ferman (imperial decree) issued by Suleiman I, around 1533, he outlines the rules of inheritance and succession among Kurdistan beys i.e. Kurdish nobility. Hereditary succession was granted to Kurdish emirates loyal to the Ottomans, and Kurdish princes were granted autonomy within the Empire. The degree of autonomy of these emirates varied greatly and depended on their geo-political significance. The weak Kurdish tribes were forced to join stronger ones or become a part of Ottoman sancaks (or sanjak). However the powerful and less accessible tribes, particularly those close to the Iranian border, enjoyed high degrees of autonomy. According to a kanunname(book of law) mentioned by Evliya Çelebi, there were two adiministrative units different from regular sanjaks: 1) Kurdish sancaks (Ekrad Beyliği), characterized by hereditary rule of the Kurdish nobility and 2) Kurdish governments (hükümet). The Kurdish sanjaks like ordinary sanjaks, had some military obligations and had to pay some taxes. On the other hand, the Kurdish hükümet neither pay taxes nor provided troops for the Ottoman Army. The Ottomans preferred not to interfere in their succession and internal affairs. As Evliya Çelebi has reported, by the mid-17th century the autonomy of Kurdish emirates had diminished. At his time, out of 19 sancaks of Diyarbakir, 12 were regular Ottoman sanjaks, and the remaining were referred to as Kurdish sanjaks. Kurdish sanjaks were reported as Sagman, Kulp, Mihraniye, Tercil, Atak, Pertek, Çapakçur and Çermik. He also reported the Kurdish states or hükümets as Cezire, Egil, Genç, Palu and Hazo. In the late 18th and early 19th century, with the decline of Ottoman Empire, the Kurdish principalities became practically independent.[13]

Modern history[edit]

The Ottoman government began to assert its authority in the region in the early 19th century. Concerned with independent-mindedness of Kurdish principalities, Ottomans sought to curb their influence and bring them under the control of central government in Istanbul. However, removal from power of these hereditary principalities, led to more instability in the region from the 1840s onwards. In their place, sufi sheiks and religious orders rose to prominence and spread their influence throughout the region. One of the prominent Sufi leaders was Shaikh Ubaidalla Nahri, who began a revolt in the region between Lakes Van and Urmia. The area under his control covered both Ottoman and Qajar territories. Shaikh Ubaidalla is regarded as one of the earliest leaders who pursued modern nationalist ideas among Kurds. In a letter to a British Vice-Consul, he declared: the Kurdish nation is a people apart . . . we want our affairs to be in our hands'.'[14]

The breakup of the Ottoman Empire after its defeat in the First World War led to its dismemberment and establishment of the present-day political boundaries, dividing the Kurdish-inhabited regions between several newly created states. The establishment and enforcement of the new borders had profound effects for the Kurds, who had to abandon their traditional nomadism for village life and settled farming.[15]

Conflict and controversy[edit]

The OHAL region was a "super-region" created in Turkey in 1987 under state of emergency legislation to deal with the developing Turkish-Kurdish conflict. From 1994 onwards the scope of the OHAL super-region was gradually narrowed, with provinces being downgraded to "neighbouring province" and then removed from OHAL altogether. OHAL was finally discontinued on 30 November 2002.[16]
Red: OHAL provinces, orange: neighbouring provinces

The incorporation into Turkey of the Kurdish-inhabited regions of eastern Anatolia was opposed by many Kurds, and has resulted in a long-running separatist conflict in which thousands of lives have been lost. The region saw several major Kurdish rebellions during the 1920s and 1930s. These were forcefully put down by the Turkish authorities and the region was declared a closed military area from which foreigners were banned between 1925 and 1965. The use of Kurdish language was outlawed, the words Kurds and Kurdistan were erased from dictionaries and history books, and the Kurds were only referred to as Mountain Turks.[17]

In 1983, a number of provinces were placed under martial law in response to the activities of the militant separatist Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK).[4] A guerrilla war took place through the rest of the 1980s and into the 1990s. By 1993 the total number of security forces involved in the struggle in southeastern Turkey was about 200,000, and the conflict had become the largest civil war in the Middle East.[18] in which much of the countryside was evacuated, thousands of Kurdish-populated villages were destroyed and numerous extra judicial summary executions were carried out by both sides.[12] More than 37,000 people were killed in the violence and hundreds of thousands more were forced to leave their homes.[19] The situation in the region has since eased following the capture of the PKK leader Abdullah Öcalan in 1999 and the introduction of a greater degree of official tolerance for Kurdish cultural activities, encouraged by the European Union.[15] However, some political violence is still ongoing and the Turkish-Iraqi border region remains tense.[20]

Ethnic groups[edit]

Turkish Kurdistan is inhabited predominantly by ethnic Kurds, with an Arab, Assyrian and Turkish minority.[8][9] The Arabs are a majority in Akçakale[21] and Harran. Azerbaijanis mostly live in Igdir.[22]

Crypto-Armenians reside in eastern provinces of Turkey, where the pre-genocide Armenian population was concentrated. An Aksiyon weekly article published on August 27, 2007 included the list of Turkish provinces with the estimated number of Crypto-Armenians according to various organizations.[23][24] The Armenians of Dersim have been Islamified Armenians who continue to live in the Tunceli Province.[25][26] Many of the Armenians in Dersim were saved by their Kurdish neighbors during the Armenian Genocide.[27] According to Gultekin, "80 people joined the Union of Dersim Armenians over the past 3 months".[28]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kurmancî, No.19, Summer 1996, Kurdish Institute of Paris.
  2. ^ Nefel, Jan. 2008
  3. ^ Nefel, Dec. 2005
  4. ^ a b "Kurd," Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia including Atlas, 2005.
  5. ^ Turkish PM responds to ‘Kurdistan’ criticisms, Hurriyet Daily News, 19th November 2013. Retrieved 19th November 2013
  6. ^ PM responds to ‘Kurdistan' criticism, Today's Zaman, 19th November 2013. Retrieved 19th November 2013
  7. ^ TBMM Tutanak dergisi, Grand National Assembly of Turkey minutes. Retrieved 19th November 2013
  8. ^ a b c Heinz Kloss & Grant McConnel, Linguistic composition of the nations of the world, vol,5, Europe and USSR, Québec, Presses de l'Université Laval, 1984, ISBN 2-7637-7044-4
  9. ^ a b c Ahmet Buran Ph.D., Türkiye'de Diller ve Etnik Gruplar, 2012
  10. ^ Khanam, R. (2005). Encyclopaedic Ethnography of Middle-East and Central Asia. A-I, V. 1. Global Vision Publishing House. p. 470. ISBN 9788182200623. 
  11. ^ Kurds, Kurdistan, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Edited by C.E. Bosworth, E. Van Donzel, B. Lewis and C. Pellat, Vol.V: KHE-MAHI, E.J. BRILL Publishers, Leiden, Netherlands, 1986, ISBN 90-04-07819-3 (see pp. 439-440)
  12. ^ a b van Bruinessen, Martin. "Kurdistan." Oxford Companion to the Politics of the World, 2nd edition. Joel Krieger, ed. Oxford University Press, 2001.
  13. ^ Ozoglu, Hakan. State-Tribe Relations: Kurdish Tribalism in the 16th- and 17th- Century Ottoman Empire, pp.15,18–22,26, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 1996
  14. ^ Dahlman, Carl. The Political Geography of Kurdistan, Eurasian Geography and Economics, Vol. 43, No. 4, 2002, p.278
  15. ^ a b "Kurd," Encyclopædia Britannica. Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007.
  16. ^ "'OHAL'den 'bu hal'e neler değişti...(1)". Radikal (in Turkish). 24 November 2002. Retrieved 20 October 2013. 
  17. ^ G. Chaliand, A.R. Ghassemlou, M. Pallis, A People Without A Country, 256 pp., Zed Books, 1992, ISBN 1-85649-194-3, p.58
  18. ^ "Turkey," Encyclopædia Britannica. Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007.
  19. ^ "Kurdish rebels kill Turkey troops", BBC News, 8 May 2007.
  20. ^ "Turkish soldiers killed in blast", BBC News, 24 May 2007.
  21. ^ "Turkish border town suffers spillover of Syrian violence". Reuters. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2013. 
  22. ^ "Azerbaijanis Flock to Turkish Town". Institute for War and Peace Reporting (IWPR). 1 November 2007. Retrieved 24 October 2013. 
  23. ^ (Turkish) Söylemez, Haşim (27 August 2007). "Türkiye'de, Araplaşan binlerce Ermeni de var". Aksiyon. Retrieved 16 June 2013. 
  24. ^ (Armenian) Melkonyan, Ruben (27 September 2007). "Արաբացած հայեր Թուրքիայում [Arabized Armenians in Turkey]". Noravank Foundation. Retrieved 16 June 2013. 
  25. ^ Bruinessen, Martin van (2000). Kurdish ethno-nationalism versus nation-building states : collected articles (1. print. ed.). Istanbul: The Isis Press. ISBN 9789754281774. 
  26. ^ "Mihran Gultekin: Dersim Armenians Re-Discovering Their Ancestral Roots". Massis Post (Yerevan). February 7, 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2012. 
  27. ^ A. Davis, Leslie; Blair, notes by Susan K. (1990). The slaughterhouse province : an American diplomat's report on the Armenian genocide, 1915-1917 (2. print. ed.). New Rochelle, N.Y.: A.D. Caratzas. p. 108. ISBN 9780892414581. 
  28. ^ "Dersim Armenians back to their roots". PanArmenian. February 7, 2011. Retrieved 31 December 2012. 

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