|Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti
|Anthem: "İstiklal Marşı"
(English: "Independence March")
|Capital||North Nicosia (Turkish: Lefkoşa)
|-||Prime Minister||Özkan Yorgancıoğlu|
|Legislature||Assembly of the Republic|
|Independence from Cyprus|
|-||Proclaimed||15 November 1983|
|-||Recognition||by Turkey only|
|-||Total||3,355 km2 (174th if ranked)
1,295 sq mi
|-||2011 census||294,906 (disputed)|
|GDP (nominal)||2008 estimate|
|Currency||Turkish liraa (
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|-||Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|Drives on the||left|
|Calling code||+90 392|
|Internet TLD||.nc.tr or ct.tr;
wide use of .cc
|a.||The euro is also widely used.|
Northern Cyprus (or North Cyprus), officially the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC; Turkish: Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti), is a self declared state that comprises the northeastern portion of the island of Cyprus. Recognised only by Turkey, Northern Cyprus is considered by the international community as occupied territory of the Republic of Cyprus.
Northern Cyprus extends from the tip of the Karpass Peninsula in the north east, westward to Morphou Bay and Cape Kormakitis (the Kokkina/Erenköy exclave marks the westernmost extent of the area), and southward to the village of Louroujina/Akıncılar. A buffer zone under the control of the United Nations stretches between Northern Cyprus and the rest of the island and divides Nicosia, the island's largest city and capital of both states.
The 1974 coup d'état, an attempt to annex the island to Greece, was followed by the Turkish invasion of Cyprus. This resulted in the eviction of much of the north's Greek Cypriot population, the flight of Turkish Cypriots from the south, and the partitioning of the island, leading to a unilateral declaration of independence by the North in 1983. Due to its lack of recognition, Northern Cyprus is heavily dependent on Turkey for economic, political and military support.
Attempts to reach a solution to the Cyprus dispute have been unsuccessful. Recognising the need for a resolution, in May 2008 the two sides began another round of negotiations after committing themselves to working towards a bicommunal, bizonal federation with political equality, as defined by relevant Security Council resolutions. The Turkish Army maintains a large force in Northern Cyprus with its presence supported and approved by the TRNC government, which the Republic of Cyprus regards as an illegal occupation force, with its presence denounced in several United Nations Security Council resolutions.
- 1 History
- 2 Government and politics
- 3 Geography and climate
- 4 Economy
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Culture
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
A united Cyprus gained independence from British rule in August 1960, after both Greek and Turkish Cypriots agreed to respectively abandon plans for enosis (union with Greece) and taksim (Turkish for 'partition'). The agreement involved Cyprus being governed under a constitution which apportioned Cabinet posts, parliamentary seats and civil service jobs on an agreed ratio between the two communities. Within three years, tensions between the Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots in administrative affairs began to show. In particular, disputes over separate municipalities and taxation created a deadlock in government. In 1963 President Makarios proposed unilateral changes to the constitution, via 13 amendments. Turkey and the Turkish Cypriots rejected the proposed amendments, claiming that this was an attempt to settle constitutional disputes in favour of the Greek Cypriots and as a means of demoting Turkish status from co-founders of the state to one of minority status removing their constitutional safeguards in the process. Turkish Cypriots filed a lawsuit against the 13 amendments in the Supreme Constitutional Court of Cyprus (SCCC). Makarios announced that he would not comply with whatever the decision of the SCCC would be, and defended his amendments as being necessary "to resolve constitutional deadlocks" as opposed to the stance of the SCCC. On 25 April 1963, the SCCC decided that Makarios' 13 amendments were illegal. On 21 May, the president of the SCCC resigned due to the Makarios' stance. On 15 July, Makarios ignored the decision of the SCCC. After the resignation of the president of the SCCC, the SCCC ceased to exist. The Supreme Court of Cyprus (SCC) was formed by merging the SCCC and the High Court of Cyprus and undertook the jurisdiction and powers of the SCCC and HCC. On 30 November, Makarios legalized the 13 proposals.
In 1963, the Greek Cypriot wing of the government created the Akritas plan which outlined a policy that would remove Turkish Cypriots from the government and ultimately lead to union with Greece. The plan stated that if the Turkish Cypriots objected then they should be "violently subjugated before foreign powers could intervene". On 21 December 1963, a Turkish Cypriot crowd clashed with the plainclothes special constables of Yorgadjis. Almost immediately, intercommunal violence broke out with a major Greek Cypriot paramilitary attack upon Turkish Cypriots in Nicosia and Larnaca. Though the TMT — a Turkish resistance group created in 1959 to promote a policy of taksim (division or partition of Cyprus), in opposition to the Greek Cypriot nationalist group EOKA and its advocacy of enosis (union of Cyprus with Greece) — committed a number of acts of retaliation, historian of the Cyprus conflict Keith Kyle noted that "there is no doubt that the main victims of the numerous incidents that took place during the next few months were Turks." Seven hundred Turkish hostages, including women and children, were taken from the northern suburbs of Nicosia. Nikos Sampson, a nationalist and future coup leader, led a group of Greek Cypriot irregulars into the mixed suburb of Omorphita and attacked the Turkish Cypriot population. By 1964, 193 Turkish Cypriots and 133 Greek Cypriots had been killed, with a further 209 Turks and 41 Greeks missing and presumed dead.
Turkish Cypriot members of the government had by now withdrawn, creating an essentially Greek Cypriot administration in control of all institutions of the state. Widespread looting of Turkish Cypriot villages prompted 20,000 refugees to retreat into armed enclaves, where they remained for the next 11 years, relying on food and medical supplies from Turkey to survive. Turkish Cypriots formed paramilitary groups to defend the enclaves, leading to a gradual division of the island's communities into two hostile camps. The violence had also seen thousands of Turkish Cypriots attempt to escape the violence by emigrating to Britain, Australia and Turkey.
The Cyprus Supreme Court's ruling found that Makarios had violated the constitution by failing to fully implement its measures and that Turkish Cypriots had not been allowed to return to their positions in government without first accepting the proposed constitutional amendments. Also, Turkish Cypriots did not self-segregate themselves: then–United Nations Secretary General, U Thant's S/5950 (10 September 1964) report (paragraph 180) UNFICYP carried out a detailed survey of all damage to properties throughout the island during the disturbances; it shows that in 109 villages, most of them Turkish-Cypriot or mixed villages, 527 houses have been destroyed while 2,000 others have suffered damage from looting. As a result, the Turkish Cypriot Provisional Administration was founded on 28 December 1967.
The Turkish Cypriots' withdrawal from the government and their retreat into enclaves was a voluntary action, prompted by their desire to form a state of their own; the then–United Nations Secretary General, U Thant, in 1965 stated that Turkish Cypriots had furthered a policy of "self-segregation" and taken a "rigid stand" against policies which might have involved recognizing the government's authority.
On 15 July 1974, the Greek military junta of 1967-1974 backed a Greek Cypriot military coup d'état in Cyprus. President Makarios was removed from office and Nikos Sampson took his place. The Greek Cypriot coupists proclaimed the establishment of the "Hellenic Republic of Cyprus". Turkey claimed that under the 1960 Treaty of Guarantee, the coup was sufficient reason for military action to protect the Turkish Cypriot populace, and thus Turkey invaded Cyprus on 20 July. Turkish forces proceeded to take over the northern four-elevenths of the island (about 37% of Cyprus's total area). The coup caused a civil war filled with ethnic violence, after which it collapsed and Makarios returned to power.
During the 1974 hostilities, around 160,000 Greek Cypriots, a third of the Greek Cypriot population at the time, were forced from their homes in the areas occupied by Turkey and fled south. At the same time 45,000 Turkish Cypriots, making up about 40% of the Turkish Cypriot population at the time, left the south for the relative safety of the north. Some population transfers were subsequently made in accordance with the Population Exchange Agreement between Turkish and Greek Cypriots under the auspices of United Nations on 2 August 1975. Some Greek Cypriots, such as those in Rizokarpaso, agreed to live under Turkish Cypriot administration and remained in Northern Cyprus. Approximately 1,500 Greek Cypriots and 500 Turkish Cypriots remain missing.
In 1975, the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus (Kıbrıs Türk Federe Devleti) was declared as a first step towards a future federated Cypriot state, but was rejected by the Republic of Cyprus and the United Nations. After eight years of failed negotiations with the leadership of the Greek Cypriot community, the north unilaterally declared its independence on 15 November 1983 under the name of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. This was rejected by the UN and the Republic of Cyprus.
In recent years, the politics of reunification has dominated the island's affairs. The European Union decided in 2000 to accept Cyprus as a member, even if it was divided. This was due to their view of Rauf Denktash, the pro-independence Turkish Cypriot President, as the main stumbling block, but also due to Greece threatening to block eastern EU expansion. It was hoped that Cyprus's planned accession into the European Union would act as a catalyst towards a settlement. In the time leading up to Cyprus becoming a member, a new government was elected in Turkey and Rauf Denktash lost political power in Cyprus. In 2004, a United Nations–brokered peace settlement was presented in a referendum to both sides. The proposed settlement was opposed by both the president of Cyprus, Tassos Papadopoulos, and Turkish Cypriot president Rauf Denktaş; in the referendum, while 65% of Turkish Cypriots accepted the proposal, 76% of Greek Cypriots rejected it. As a result, Cyprus entered the European Union divided, with the effects of membership suspended for Northern Cyprus.
Denktaş resigned in the wake of the vote, ushering in the pro-solutionist Mehmet Ali Talat as his successor. However, the pro-solutionist side and Mehmet Ali Talat lost momentum due to the ongoing embargo and isolation, despite promises[clarification needed] from the European Union that these would be eased. As a result, the Turkish Cypriot electorate became frustrated. This led ultimately to the pro-independence side winning the general elections in 2009 and its candidate, former Prime Minister Derviş Eroğlu, winning the presidential elections in 2010. Although Eroğlu and his National Unity Party favours the independence of Northern Cyprus rather than reunification with the Republic of Cyprus, he is negotiating with the Greek Cypriot side towards a settlement for reunification.
In 2011, Turkish Cypriots protested against economic reforms made by the Northern Cyprus and Turkish governments.
Government and politics
The politics of Northern Cyprus takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is head of state and the Prime Minister head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Assembly of the Republic. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
The president is elected for a five-year term. The current president is Derviş Eroğlu and the current Prime Minister is Özkan Yorgancıoğlu. The legislature is the Assembly of the Republic, which has 50 members elected by proportional representation from five electoral districts. In the elections of July 2013, the left-leaning pro-unification Republican Turkish Party won an overall majority.
Due to Northern Cyprus' isolation and heavy reliance on Turkish support, Turkey has a high level of influence over the country's politics. This has led to some experts characterising it as an effective puppet state of Turkey. Few political decisions in Northern Cyprus are taken without the approval of the Turkish National Security council in Ankara. The European Court of Human Rights gives Northern Cyprus' dependence on Turkey as the reason for its non-recognition of Northern Cyprus' legal system, holding Turkey responsible for human rights in Northern Cyprus.
International status and foreign relations
No sovereign nation other than Turkey has officially recognised Northern Cyprus as a sovereign state. The United Nations recognises it as territory of the Republic of Cyprus under Turkish occupation. Pakistan and Bangladesh had initially declared their recognition of Northern Cyprus as a sovereign state shortly after its declaration of independence, however they withdrew their recognition as a result of the UN having deemed the North Cypriot declaration illegal. The United Nations considers the declaration of independence by Northern Cyprus as legally invalid, as enunciated in several of its resolutions.
In the wake of the April 2004 referendum on the United Nations Annan Plan, and in view of the support of the Turkish Cypriot community for the plan, the European Union made pledges towards ending the isolation of Northern Cyprus. These included measures for trade and 259 million euro in aid. A pledge by the EU to lift the embargo on Northern Cyprus in the wake of the Annan Plan referendums has been blocked by the Greek Cypriot government.
In 2004, the Organisation of Islamic Co-operation upgraded the delegation of the Turkish Cypriot Muslim community from "observer community" (1979) to that of a constituent state with the designation "Turkish Cypriot State", making Northern Cyprus an observer member of the organization. A number of high profile formal meetings have also taken place between former President Mehmet Ali Talat and various foreign leaders and politicians including the former US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, the then British foreign minister, Jack Straw and former Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf, and between President Dervis Eroglu and Ban Ki-Moon, Secretary-General of the United Nations.
In 2004, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe gave observer status to the representatives of Turkish Cypriot community. Since then, Northern Cyprus's representatives have actively participated in all PACE activities without voting rights.
The European Union considers the area not under effective control of the Republic of Cyprus as EU territory under Turkish military occupation and thus indefinitely exempt from EU legislation until a settlement has been found. The status of Northern Cyprus has become a recurrent issue especially during the recent talks for Turkey's membership of the EU where the division of the island is seen as a major stumbling block in Turkey's road to membership.
The Autonomous Republic of Nakhichevan in Azerbaijan has issued a resolution recognizing the independence of Northern Cyprus. As a result of the Nagorno-Karabakh issue, however, Azerbaijan itself has not recognised North Cyprus.
Naturalised citizens of Northern Cyprus or foreigners carrying a passport stamped by Northern Cyprus authorities may be refused entry by the Republic of Cyprus or Greece, although after the accession of the Republic of Cyprus to the EU such restrictions have been eased following confidence-building measures between Athens and Ankara and the partial opening of the UN controlled line by Northern Cyprus authorities. The Republic of Cyprus also allows passage across the Green Line from the south of Nicosia, as well as a few other selected crossing points, since Northern Cyprus does not leave entry stamps in the passport for such visits. There are seven border crossings between Northern Cyprus and the Republic of Cyprus. Since May 2004 some tourists have taken to flying to the Republic of Cyprus directly then crossing the green line to holiday in Northern Cyprus.
On 18 February 2008, the Northern Cyprus government sent a message to the Republic of Kosovo congratulating it on its unilateral declaration of independence. A government spokesman clarified that this statement did not constitute, or signal an imminent move toward, formal diplomatic recognition of Kosovo. In contrast, the Republic of Cyprus has rejected Kosovo's declaration of independence and, given the ICJ ruling that Kosovo's declaration of independence was not illegal, stated that Kosovo and Northern Cyprus were not analogous situations. Some analysts have argued that the independence of Kosovo could provide support for the recognition of Northern Cyprus.
In October 2012, Northern Cyprus became an observer member of the Economic Cooperation Organisation under the name "Turkish Cypriot State".
Northern Cyprus has an indigenous 5,000-man Turkish Cypriot Security Force (TCSF), which is primarily made up of conscripted Turkish Cypriot males between the ages of 18 and 40. There is also an additional reserve force consisting of about 11,000 first-line, 10,000 second-line and 5,000 third-line troops conscripted up to the age of 50. The TCSF is lightly armed and heavily dependent on its mainland Turkish allies, from which it draws much of its officer corps. It is led by a Brigadier General drawn from the Turkish Army. It acts essentially as a gendarmerie charged with protection of the border of Northern Cyprus from Greek Cypriot incursions and maintaining internal security within Northern Cyprus.
In addition, the mainland Turkish Armed Forces maintain the Cyprus Turkish Peace Force (CTPF) consisting of around 30–40,000 troops drawn from the 9th Turkish Army Corps and comprising two divisions, the 28th and 39th. It is equipped with a substantial number of United States-made M48 Patton main battle tanks and artillery weapons. The Turkish Air Force, Turkish Navy and Turkish Coast Guard also have a presence in Northern Cyprus. Although formally part of Turkish 4th Army, headquartered in İzmir, the sensitivities of the Cyprus situation means that the commander of the CTPF also reports directly to the Turkish General Staff in Ankara. The CTPF is deployed principally along the Green Line and in locations where hostile amphibious landings might take place.
The presence of the mainland Turkish military in Cyprus is highly controversial, having been denounced as an illegal occupation force by the Republic of Cyprus and the international community. Several United Nations Security Council resolutions have called on the Turkish forces to withdraw.
Northern Cyprus is divided into five districts.
|Map of North Cyprus||District|
In January 2011, The Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the question of Human Rights in Cyprus noted that the ongoing division of Cyprus continues to affect human rights throughout the island "... including freedom of movement, human rights pertaining to the question of missing persons, discrimination, the right to life, freedom of religion, and economic, social and cultural rights."
Freedom House has classified the perceived level of democratic and political freedom in Northern Cyprus as "free" since 2000 in its Freedom in the World report. The United States Department of State reported in 2001 that human rights were generally respected, although problems existed in terms of police activities and the restriction of movement. A 2009 report reported that religious freedom was generally respected, although isolated incidents of discrimination have existed. The US Department of State report in 2002 stated that freedom of speech and press was generally respected in Northern Cyprus, and the World Press Freedom Index 2010 ranked Northern Cyprus 61st in terms of freedom of the media.
In 2001, the US Department of State said that Greek Cypriot and Maronite minorities are not treated as well as they should be. However, another US Department of State report in 2002 reported that the government of Northern Cyprus was easing restrictions on minorities and it respected the rights of travelling abroad and emigrating, although they still cannot vote in elections. In April 1998, the United Kingdom-based National Coalition of Anti-Deportation Campaigns asserted that the Turkish army had carried out a forced migration policy where Kurds were forced to move to Northern Cyprus from the Republic of Turkey, and The Immigration and Nationality Directorate of the United Kingdom in 1999 said that Kurds were not being discriminated against and enjoyed equal political and religious rights to others. Male-male sexual intercourse is illegal and can result in up to three years imprisonment.
Geography and climate
The winter in Northern Cyprus is cool and rainy, particularly between December and February, with 60% of annual rainfall. These rains produce winter torrents that fill most of the rivers, which typically dry up as the year progresses. Snow may fall on the Kyrenia Range, but seldom elsewhere in spite of low night temperatures. The short spring is characterized by unstable weather, occasional heavy storms and the "meltem", or westerly wind. Summer is hot and dry enough to turn low-lying lands on the island brown. Parts of the island experience the "Poyraz", a north-westerly wind, or the sirocco, a wind from Africa, which is dry and dusty. Summer is followed by a short, turbulent autumn.
Climate conditions on the island vary by geographical factors. The Mesaoria Plain, cut off from the summer breezes and from much of the humidity of the sea, may reach temperature peaks of 40 to 45 °C (104 to 113 °F). Humidity rises at the Karpaz Peninsula. Humidity and water temperature, 16 to 28 °C (61 to 82 °F), combine to stabilize coastal weather, which does not experience inland extremes. The Southern Range blocks air currents that bring rain and atmospheric humidity from the south-west, diminishing both on its eastern side.
The economy of Northern Cyprus is dominated by the services sector (69% of GDP in 2007) which includes the public sector, trade, tourism and education. The revenues gained by the education sector in 2011 was USD 400 million. Industry (light manufacturing) contributes 22% of GDP and agriculture 9%.
Economic development is adversely affected by the continuing Cyprus problem. The Republic of Cyprus, as the internationally recognised authority, has declared airports and ports in the area not under its effective control closed. All UN and EU member states respect the closure of those ports and airports. Because of its disputed status and the embargo placed upon it, Northern Cyprus is heavily dependent on Turkish economic support. Despite some economic development, the country is still dependent on monetary transfers from the Turkish government. Under a July 2006 agreement, Ankara is to provide Northern Cyprus with an economic aid in the amount of $1.3 billion over three years (2006–2008). This is a continuation of ongoing policy under which Turkish government allocates around $400 million annually from its budget to help raise the living standards of the Turkish Cypriots.
Northern Cyprus uses the Turkish Lira as its currency which links its economy to that of Turkey's. Since the Republic of Cyprus joined the Euro zone and the movement of peoples between the north and south has become more free, the Euro is also in wide circulation. Exports and imports have to go via Turkey unless they are produced locally from materials sourced in Cyprus (or imported via one of the island's recognised ports) and may thus be exported via one of the recognised ports.
Despite the constraints imposed by the lack of international recognition, the nominal GDP growth rates of the economy in 2001–2005 were 5.4%, 6.9%, 11.4%, 15.4% and 10.6%, respectively. The real GDP growth rate in 2007 is estimated at 2%. This growth has been buoyed by the relative stability of the Turkish Lira and a boom in the education and construction sectors.
- US$4,409 (2002)
- US$5,949 (2003)
- US$8,095 (2004)
- US$10,567 (2005)
- US$11,837 (2006)
- US$14,047 (2007, provisional)
Studies by the World Bank show that the per capita GDP in Northern Cyprus grew to 76% of the per capita GDP in the Republic of Cyprus in PPP-adjusted terms in 2004 (US$22,300 for the Republic of Cyprus and US$16,900 for Northern Cyprus). Official estimates for the GDP per capita in current US dollars are US$8,095 in 2004 and US$11,837 in 2006.
The Northern Cyprus Water Supply Project, due to be completed in early 2014, is aimed at delivering water for drinking and irrigation from southern Turkey via a pipeline under the Mediterranean Sea.
Communications and transport
International telephone calls are routed via a Turkish dialling code (+90 392) as Northern Cyprus has neither its own country code nor official ITU prefix. Similarly with the internet Northern Cyprus has no top level domain of its own and is under the Turkish second-level domain .nc.tr. Items of mail must be addressed 'via Mersin 10, TURKEY' as the Universal Postal Union does not recognise Northern Cyprus as a separate entity. Amateur radio operators sometimes use callsigns beginning with "1B", but these have no standing for awards or other operating credit.
Direct flights to Northern Cyprus and the trade traffic through the Northern Cypriot ports are restricted as part of the embargo on Northern Cypriot ports. The airports of Geçitkale and Ercan are only recognised as legal ports of entry by Turkey and Azerbaijan. Direct charter flights between Poland and North Cyprus started on 20 June 2011. The seaports in Famagusta and Kyrenia have been declared closed to all shipping by the Republic of Cyprus since 1974. By agreement between Northern Cyprus and Syria, there is a ship tour between Famagusta and Latakia, Syria. Since the opening of the Green Line Turkish Cypriot residents are allowed to trade through Greek Cypriot ports.
The Government of Northern Cyprus estimates that the 1983 population of Northern Cyprus was 155,521. Estimates by the government of the Republic of Cyprus from 2001 place the population at 200,000, of which 80–89,000 are Turkish Cypriots and 109,000–117,000 Turkish settlers. An island-wide census in 1960 indicated the number of Turkish Cypriots as 102,000 and Greek Cypriots as 450,000. Estimates state that 36,000 Turkish Cypriots (about one-third of the total) emigrated in the period 1975–1995, with the consequence that within Northern Cyprus the native Turkish Cypriots have been outnumbered by settlers from Turkey.
Northern Cyprus's first official census was performed in 1996. The population recorded was 200,587. The 2nd census, carried out in 2006, revealed the population of Northern Cyprus to be 265,100, of which majority is composed of indigenous Turkish Cypriots, with the rest including a large number of settlers from Turkey. Of the 178,000 Turkish Cypriot citizens, 82% are native Cypriots (145,000). Of the 45,000 people born to non- Cypriot parentage, nearly 40% (17,000) were born in Cyprus. The figure for non-citizens, including students, guest workers and temporary residents stood at 78,000 people.
In 2010, the International Crisis Group estimated that the total population of Northern Cyprus was 300,000, perhaps half of which were either born in Turkey or are children of such settlers. One source claims that the population in the north has reached 500,000, split between 50% Turkish Cypriots and 50% Turkish settlers or Cypriot-born children of such settlers.
A census performed in December 2011 has been disputed by political parties, labour unions and local newspapers. The government has been accused of deceit and for deliberately under-counting the population at 294,906. It has also been accused of giving an estimate of 700,000 before the census, in order to demand financial help from Turkey.
Northern Cyprus is almost entirely Turkish-speaking. English, however, is widely spoken as a second language.
There are 644 Greek Cypriots living in Rizokarpaso (Dipkarpaz) and 364 Maronites in Kormakitis. Between 180,000 to 200,000 Greek Cypriots were forcibly evicted from their homes in the North by the invading force of the Turkish army. Rizokarpaso is the home of the biggest Greek-speaking population in the north. The Greek-Cypriot inhabitants are still supplied by the UN, and Greek-Cypriot products are consequently available in some shops.
Largest cities or towns of Northern Cyprus
The education system in Northern Cyprus consists of pre-school education, primary education, secondary education and higher education. Five years of primary education is mandatory.
Higher Education Planning Evaluation Accreditation and Coordination Council (YÖDAK) of Northern Cyprus is a member of International Network for Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher Education (INQAAHE).
There are more than 55,000 university students from 90 countries in nine universities in Northern Cyprus: Near East University, Girne American University, Middle East Technical University-TRNC, European University of Lefke, Cyprus International University, Eastern Mediterranean University (EMU), Istanbul Technical University-TRNC, University of Mediterranean Karpasia, University of Kyrenia, all established since 1974. EMU is an internationally recognised institution of higher learning with more than 1000 faculty members from 35 countries. There are 15,000 students in EMU representing 68 nationalities. The 8 universities have been approved by the Higher Education Council of Turkey. Eastern Mediterranean University and Near East University are full individual members of the European University Association. EMU is full member of Community of Mediterranean Universities, Federation Universities of Islamic World, International Association of Universities and International Council of Graphic Design Associations. Girne American University, in the northern coastal city of Kyrenia, opened a campus in Canterbury, United Kingdom in 2009, and accredited by the British Accreditation Council in 2010
Anahtar (Key), released in 2011, was the first full-length film entirely produced in Northern Cyprus. Some other co-productions have also taken place. A co-production of Northern Cyprus, Turkey, Britain and the Netherlands, Kod Adı: Venüs (Code Name: Venus) was shown in the Cannes Film Festival in 2012. The film director and screenwriter Derviş Zaim achieved fame with his 2003 film Mud (Çamur) which won the UNESCO award at the Venice Film Festival.
The documentary film Kayıp Otobüs (The Missing Bus), directed by Turkish Cypriot journalist Fevzi Tașpınar, was aired on the TRT TV as well as participating in the Boston Film Festival in 2011. The film tells the story of eleven Turkish Cypriot workers who left their homes in a bus in 1964 that never came back. Their remains were found in a well in Cyprus in October 2006.
Poetry is the most widely published form of literature in Northern Cyprus. Turkish Cypriot poetry is based on both the effects of Turkish literature and the culture of the island of Cyprus. Mehmet Yaşın, Hakkı Yücel, Nice Denizoğlu, Neşe Yaşın, Ayşen Dağlı and Canan Sümer are among the most prominent Turkish Cypriot poets. Earlier poets include Nazif Süleyman Ebeoğlu, Urkiye Mine Balman, Engin Gönül, Necla Salih Suphi and Pembe Marmara.
Rüya Taner is a classical Turkish Cypriot pianist. She has given many piano recitals and also participated as soloist in several philharmonic orchestra concerts. Other notable singers from Northern Cyprus include Ziynet Sali.
Northern Cyprus is well known for several dishes; among them are kebabs made of skewered lamb Şiş Kebap or ground with herbs and spices and made into a Kofte or Şeftali Kebap. Other dishes are based on meat wrapped in flat bread like Lahmacun. Vegetarians can find stuffed vegetables based dishes Yalancı Dolma or many other dishes made with a bean or pulse such as Börülce which consists of Swiss chard cooked with black-eyed peas. There are also plant based foods such as Molohiya or root based stews like Kolokas. 
Theater in Northern Cyprus is mostly carried out by the Turkish Cypriot State Theater, municipal theaters and a number of private theatrical companies. Cyprus Theater Festival, organised by the Nicosia Turkish Municipality is a large organization with institutions from Turkey participating. There are no halls built specifically for theater in Northern Cyprus, so plays take place in conference halls.
As of 2008, there were 29 sports federations in Northern Cyprus with a total registered membership of 13,838. With 6,054 registered practitioners, taekwondo-karate-aikido-kurash is the most popular sport, followed by association football (2,240 registered), shooting (1,150 registered) and hunting (1,017 registered). Northern Cyprus' national football team currently ranks 109th in the Elo Ratings.
Some Northern Cyprus sports clubs participate in Turkey's sport leagues. Examples include the Fast Break Sport Club in Turkey's Men's Basketball Regional League; the Beşparmak Sport Club in Turkey's Handball Premier League; and the Lefka European University in Turkey's Table-tennis Super League.
- Economic and Social Indicators 1977–2007, TRNC State Planning Organization, February 2008
- Emerson, Michael (2004). The Wider Europe Matrix. CPSE. ISBN 92-9079-469-0.
- BBC: "The status of Northern Cyprus as a separate entity is recognised only by Turkey, which keeps around 30,000 troops in the north of the island."
-  United Nations Security Council resolution 550: "Gravely concerned about the further secessionist acts in the occupied part of the Republic of Cyprus which are in violation of resolution 541(1983), namely the purported "exchange of Ambassadors" between Turkey and the legally invalid "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" and the contemplated holding of a "Constitutional referendum" and "elections", as well as by other actions or threats of action aimed at further consolidating the purported independent state and the division of Cyprus".
- Rule of Law In Armed Conflicts Project – Cyprus Judicial Decisions of ECHR regarding occupation
- Thomas M. Leonard. Encyclopedia of the Developing World, Volume 1, page 429. Taylor & Francis, 2006, 159 pages 
- C. Cockburn. The line: women, partition, and the gender rols in Cyprus. p. 96 . Zed Books, 2004, 244 pages. ISBN 1-84277-421-2.
- http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=33631&Cr=cyprus&Cr1 Quote: In May 2008, Mr. Christofias and Mr. Talat committed themselves to working towards a bicommunal, bizonal federation with political equality, as defined by relevant Security Council resolutions.
- UN Security Council resolutions 353(1974), 357(1974), 358(1974), 359(1974), 360(1974), 365(1974)
- The Main Narrative, continued The Cyprus Conflict
- Pre-Rejection of SCCC decision by Makarios The fact that the decision of the SCCC would not be implemented by Makarios was made quite clear. Non-implementation of the decision of a Constitutional Court is sufficient reason to compel the resignation of its President
- Deutsche Zeitung (Nr. 15, 18–19.01.1964) The SCCC: "...deny the allegation that an implementation of the constitution was impossible. It is a matter of good will to make it work."
- Republic of Cyprus, SCCC Official Website "... in order to face this situation which paralysed the judiciary..."
- Orams v. Cyprus Tick all on the left pane; Application No: 27841/07; click Search: The Administration of Justice (Miscellaneous Provisions) Law 33/1964 (“Law 33/64”).
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- Antiwar.com. In Praise of 'Virtual States', Leon Hadar, 16 November 2005
- Quoted in Andrew Borowiec, 2000. Cyprus: A troubled island. Praeger/Greenwood p.58
- Stephen, Michael, (1987) Cyprus: Two Nations in One Island Bow Educational Briefing No.5. London, Pages 1–7
- "(Report S/6426 10.6.65)". Humanrights.coe.int. Retrieved 2010-11-17.
- Strategic review, Volume 5 (1977), United States Strategic Institute, p. 48.
- Allcock, John B. Border and territorial disputes (1992), Longman Group, p. 55.
- Tozun Bahcheli; Tozun Bahcheli Barry Bartmann; Henry Felix Srebrnik (2004). De Facto States: The Quest for Sovereignty. Psychology Press. p. 168. ISBN 978-0-7146-5476-8. Retrieved 27 November 2012. "As a consequence of the war, 160,000 Greek Cypriots (a third of the Greek community) were forced to abandon their ... This resettlement programme enraged Greek Cypriots; although the number of settlers was disputed between Turkish and .."
- United Nations, Cyprus Population Exchange Agreement 02.08.1975 United Nations, Cyprus Population Exchange Agreement 02.08.1975.
- Bones of Cyprus missing unearthed BBC News
- "General Information". Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Public Information Office. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
- "Immovable object". The Economist. 21 October 2010. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- Carlo Focarelli (24 May 2012). International Law as Social Construct: The Struggle for Global Justice. Oxford University Press. pp. 161–. ISBN 978-0-19-958483-3. "In the 1995 and 1996 Loizidou Judgments the ECtHR treated the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) as a sort of puppet government whose acts fall within the jurisdiction of (and are attributable to) Turkey as an (unlawful) occupier."
- Carlo Panara; Gary Wilson (9 January 2013). The Arab Spring: New Patterns for Democracy and International Law. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 59–. ISBN 978-90-04-24341-5. "The situation with the South African homelands was similar and so was collective non-acceptance of the turkish puppet-government in northern Cyprus which has resulted in the turkish republic of northern Cyprus not being recognized as a state."
- Enrico Milano (2006). Unlawful Territorial Situations in International Law: Reconciling Effectiveness, Legality And Legitimacy. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 146–. ISBN 978-90-04-14939-7.
- James, A. Sovereign statehood: The basis of international society." p. 142 . Taylor and Francis, 1986, 288 pages. ISBN 0-04-320191-1.
- Kurtulus, E. State sovereignty: concept, phenomenon and ramifications. p. 136 . Macmillan, 2005, 232 pages. ISBN 1-4039-6988-4.
- Christian Tomuschat; Jean Marc Thouvenin (2006). The Fundamental Rules of the International Legal Order: "jus Cogens" and Obligations "erga Omnes" : [Berlin Workshop]. BRILL. pp. 432–. ISBN 978-90-04-14981-6. "...can be a powerful weapon which undermines the stability of an illegitimate regime or puppet State. Thus, the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus has not been able to consolidate itself after more than two decades of its proclamation (1983)."
- Ersun N. Kurtulus (27 November 2005). State Sovereignty: Concept, Phenomenon and Ramifications. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 136–. ISBN 978-1-4039-7708-3. "It may be argued that the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which was declared in 1983 and which was only recognized as a state by Turkey and for a short period by Pakistan, is at the moment of writing the only existent puppet state in the world."
- Kaczorowska, A. Public International Law. p. 190 . Taylor and Francis, 2010, 944 pages. ISBN 0-415-56685-1.
- UN Security Council Resolution 541 – 1983
- UN Security Council Resolution 550 – 1984
- Islamic Conference's Parliaments to Call Northern Cyprus 'Cyprus Turkish State Zaman
- Resolution 1376, Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
- David Gow; Helena Smith (2004-10-07). "EU puts Turkey on a long road to accession". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2007-01-30.
- "EU Sets Deadline for Turkey to Open Up Its Ports". Deutsche Welle. 2006-11-21. Retrieved 2007-01-30.
- "REGNUM news agency press release". Regnum.ru. Retrieved 2010-11-17.
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- Charlton, Gill (2005-02-05). "On the case: non-existent flight; Northern Cyprus; children in the Algarve; Cannes". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 2011-08-22.
- "Ercakica on the recognition of Kosovos independence". Hri.org. Retrieved 2010-11-17.
- Sarah Fenwick (2009-12-08). "No Right To Self-Determination for Minorities – Cyprus". cyprusnewsreport.com. Retrieved 2011-03-23.
- Fulya Özerkan (2010-07-25). "Verdict on Kosovo will not affect Turkey". Retrieved 2011-03-23.
- "Cyprus." Jane's Sentinel: Eastern Mediterranean, issue 22, 2007.
- Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the question of human rights in Cyprus 16th Session, Human Rights Council, United Nations, 7 January 2011.
- "Freedom in the World 2011 Report". Freedom House. p. 29. Retrieved 24 April 2011.
- "Cyprus: Population of Kurds in Turkish controlled Northern Cyprus; their treatment by the government of Turkey and its agents". Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada. 15 April 2002. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
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- "2002 Report on Human Rights in Cyprus". US Department of State. 4 March 2002. Retrieved 24 April 2011.
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- "State-sponsored Homophobia". International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. May 2011. p. 44. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Section source. Weather www.cypnet.co.uk. Retrieved 2008-09-14.
- Zaman Newspaper 01 Sept 2011
- CIA – The World Factbook – Cyprus: scroll down to section entitled Economy of the area administered by Turkish Cypriots
- Legal Aspects of the Cyprus Problem, Frank Hoffmeister, p218, ISBN 90-04-15223-7
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- Turkey, N. Cyprus sign economic development deal, Hurriyet Turkish Daily News, 4 May 2007.
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- North Cyprus State Planning Organization 1983 population estimate of NC. Sheet:Main Ecosos
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- North Cyprus' census 1996 and 2006 census data of North Cyprus
- TRNC General Population and Housing Unit Census 2006, TRNC State Planning Organization, updated 7 October 2008.
- Simon Bahceli (2007-02-15). "Indigenous Turkish Cypriots just over half north’s population". Cyprus Mail. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-16.
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- Cole, Jeffrey (2011). Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 97. ISBN 1-59884-302-8
- "Census in north marred by delays and doubts". CyprusMail. 06 Dec 2011. Retrieved 6 April 2013. "Top selling daily Kibris described the headcount as “controversial”, while out-spoken left-wing daily Afrika dubbed it a “fiasco”"
- "TC’den para isterken 700 bin diyorlardı". Kibris. 13 Dec 2011. Retrieved 23 Dec 2011.
- "Nifus sayımı gerçekçi değil". Kibris. 11 Dec 2011. Retrieved 23 Dec 2011.
- Denver journal of international law and policy. 1993. Retrieved 29 November 2012. "The invasion of Cyprus by Turkish troops in 1974 resulted in the widespread eviction and population transfer of over 170,000 Greek Cypriots from their homes in the northern part of Cyprus. In Cyprus v. Turkey, the European Commission on .."
- William Mallinson (15 February 2011). Britain and Cyprus: Key Themes and Documents since World War II. I.B.Tauris. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-84885-456-7. Retrieved 18 November 2013. "Around 180,000 Greek Cypriots had been expelled from their homes and fled to the unoccupied part of the island, with another 20,000 being "encouraged" to flee later."
- Wolfgang Hörner; Hans Döbert; Botho von Kopp; Wolfgang Mitter (19 December 2006). The Education Systems of Europe. Springer. p. 202. ISBN 978-1-4020-4868-5. Retrieved 18 November 2013. "Turkish settlers and military personnel, estimated at 85,000 and 40,000 respectively, who have moved into the Turkish-occupied areas since the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974. At that time one third of the Greek population (about 200,000 persons) was expelled from their homes in the northern part of the island and forced to resettle in the southern areas."
-  North Cyprus Higher Education Authority is full member of international education authorities.
-  There are 55000 university students in North Cyprus in 2013
-  University studs from 90 countries in Northern Cyprus
- The official website of EUA: "North Cyprus' NEU and EMU are members"
- EMU is a member of ICOGRADA EMU is a member of ICOGRADA
- "Turkish Cypriot President Opens Girne American University's Campus in Canterbury", Asia Pulse (via TheFreeLibrary.com).
- BAC accredited the Girne American University Canterbury GAU-C is a member of BAC.
- Yakın Doğu Üniversitesi’nin hazırladığı "Kod Adı Venüs" filmi Cannes Film Festivali'nde (Kıbrıs Postası)
- Turan, Metin. Çağdaş Kıbrıs Türk Şiirinde Eğilimler/ Yönelimler (Çukurova University) Retrieved on 27 May 2012.
- TRNC State Planning Organization. 2008 Yılı Makroekonomik ve Sektörel Gelişmeler, June 2010, p. 169.
- Kıbrıs Tiyatro Festivali. Nicosia Turkish Municipality and Nicosia Municipal Theater.
- TRNC State Planning Organization. 2008 Yılı Makroekonomik ve Sektörel Gelişmeler, p.176-179.
For a detailed survey of the archaeology, art, and historical architecture of the region see Allan Langdale, 'In a Contested Realm: an Illustrated Guide to the Archaeology and Historical Architecture of Northern Cyprus' Grimsay Press, 2012.
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- Republican Assembly (Parliament) of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
- Presidency, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the TRNC
- Embassy of the TRNC in Ankara
- TRNC Public Information Office
- TRNC Central Bank
- Other links
- Embargoed!, a non-profit association campaigning against the total economic embargo imposed on the population of Northern Cyprus.
- ATCA News, Association of Turkish Cypriots Abroad
- Northern Cyprus Home Page
- Northern Cyprus Guide and Daily news
- "Islamic Conference's Parliaments to Call TRNC 'Cyprus Turkish State'" JTW
- International Expert Panel for a European Solution in Cyprus
- UK All Party Parliamentary Group for Cyprus
- Timeline of Cyprus issue by BBC
- Assembly of Turkish American Associations
- Turkish Cypriots of Australia – Historical Book
- EU task-force on Turkish Cypriot community