Turkish State Railways

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State Railways of the Republic of Turkey
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Demiryolları
Tcdd logo.png
Tcdd network.png
Map of the TCDD railway network
Services of the Turkish State Railways.jpg
TCDD offers four main services (clockwise, from top left): High-speed, Mainline, Freight and Commuter.
Reporting mark TCDD
Locale Turkey
Dates of operation 1927–present
Predecessor Oriental Railway
Oriental Railway Company
Smyrna Cassaba Railway
Anatolian Railway
Bursa Mudanya Railway
Transcaucasus Railway
Cenup Railway
Track gauge

1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)

Standard gauge
Electrification

25 kV, 50 Hz AC

Overhead line
Length 10,991 kilometres (6,829 mi)[1]
Headquarters Ankara, Turkey
Website www.tcdd.gov.tr

The State Railways of the Turkish Republic (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Demiryolları) or TCDD is the government owned, national railway carrier in the Republic of Turkey, headquartered in Ankara. The TCDD was formed on June 1, 1927 by the Turkish government to take over the administration of the existing rail lines within the borders of the Republic of Turkey after the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, and to build new ones.[2]

The Turkish State Railways own and operate all public railways in Turkey. As of 2008, TCDD controls 10,991 km (6,829 mi) of railways making it the 22nd largest railway system in the world. In 2009, TCDD carried 17,105,353 tonnes of freight and 7,118,699 passenger-km making it the world's 33rd largest passenger rail carrier. As of 2009, the Turkish State Railways employs 25,593 people.[3]

The Turkish State railways owns several other companies and holds shares in others, including İZBAN, a commuter railroad operating around İzmir, which TCDD has a 50% share in. These are all companies that are involved with rail transport or that use rail transport. TCDD is a member of InterRail since 1994.[4]

Operations[edit]

The Turkish State Railways operate most trains in the country. Intercity, regional, suburban, freight and most industrial lines are owned and operated by the State Railways. The only other railways in Turkey include İZBAN (TCDD holds 50% of the company's shares) which operates commuter rail service around İzmir and a few other industrial railways. In addition to rail services, TCDD has been responsible since 1927 for operating several major ports which handle 30% of Turkish port activities.[5]

Ports[edit]

The State Railways own and operate seven ports throughout the country and has connections to two more ports. The ports TCDD owns are the Port of Haydarpaşa[6] in Istanbul on the southern mouth of the Bosphorus, the Port of Izmir[7] on the Aegean Sea, the Port of Mersin[8] and the Port of İskenderun[9] on the Mediterranean Sea, the Port of Bandırma[10] on the Sea of Marmara, the Port of Derince[11] on the Gulf of İzmit, and the Port of Samsun on the Black Sea. The railways have connections to the Port of Zonguldak,[12] owned by Türkiye Taşkömürü Kurumu (Turkish Coal Company), the Port of Tekkeköy and the Port of Tekirdağ,[13] owned by AKPORT AŞ. In 2004, the privatization of all ports except Haydarpaşa began.[14]

By 2014 Mersin, Iskenderun, Bandirma, Samsun ports are privatized.[15] Tender for privatization of Derince Port has also completed and waiting for takeover.[16]

The state railways are planning on building rail connections to the Port of Güllük[17] (via Çine) and to the Port of Ereğli, which TCDD serviced until 2004.

The ports TCDD owns are the most important in Turkey. The country's five largest ports are owned by the state railways. The Port of Haydarpaşa will soon be decommissioned, when the Marmaray project is complete.

Rail freight transport[edit]

From 1980 onwards, rail freight tonne-kilometers transported by the TCDD rose slightly from ~5000million tonne-km in 1980 to ~7000million tonne-km in 1990 and to ~9000million tonne-km in 2000.[18] Approximately 50% of freight moved is minerals or ores, with construction materials increasing to ~10% in 2000 from less than 5% in 1980, food/agricultural products, chemicals/petroleum, and metal sectors each account for between 5 and 10%. International freight accounted for approximately 5% of totals in 2000.[18]

As of 2012, 25.7 million ton is transported by rail in Turkey. Two steel companies, Erdemir and Kardemir, top 2 customers of TCDD, had transported 4.5 million ton in 2012, mainly iron ore and coal.[19] 2.1 million tons of rail freight belong to international traffic. Most of international traffic is between Turkey and Europe, done via Kapikule. Several container trains are running in this route as well as conventional wagons.[20]

As of 2014, 26.6 million ton is transported on rail in Turkey. 7.1 million of it is done by private wagons. International transport went down to 1.7 million.[21]

Containers are widely used both in international and domestic transportation. 7.6 million ton is carried in containers. TCDD is supporting transportation by containers. Thus almost all of the private railway companies invested in container wagons, and carrying 20% of all rail freight by their own wagons.[22]

TCDD has plans to strengthen freight traffic by adding 4000 km conventional lines until 2023. That includes new international rail connections to Georgia, Iraq and Iran.[23] TCDD is also constructing 18 logistic centers to enable transportation of more loads by rail.[24]

TCDD is planning to increase its transit traffic (11000 to in 2011) by constructing "iron silk road" to connect Europe to Asia. Marmaray is the most important part of this project which is supposed to complete in 2015.[25] Another project is Kars–Tbilisi–Baku railway which is planned to be completed in 2014.[26] TCDD wants to have share from the freight traffic between Europe and China through this line.[27]

Passenger operations[edit]

The Turkish State Railways operate passenger services on 90% of their system. These are intercity, regional, commuter and international services. In the railways first year 52% of passenger travel in Turkey was by rail, despite the system lacking connections to many parts of the country. Rail transport was the main mode of transport for passengers in the following two decades, reaching an all-time high of 57% of passenger transport in 1947, but then started to decline after 1950, due to the mass construction of roads.[28] Today, the passenger ratio is slowly increasing with the opening of high-speed rail lines in Turkey.

In 2013, almost 21 million of people traveled by train in Turkey. 16.7 million on main lines, 4.2 million on high speed lines (25% increase compared to 2012). The share of railway in domestic travels is about 2.2%.[29]

The types of passenger service are:

  • High-speed (Hızlı Tren): High-speed rail services and TCDD's premier service.
  • Mainline (Anahat): Intercity trains operating between major cities.
  • International (Uluslararası): Trains operating on international routes, toward Europe or the Middle East.
  • Regional (Bölgesel): Trains operating within their respective districts.
  • Commuter (Banliyö): Commuter trains, currently operating in Ankara and İstanbul.

High-speed service[edit]

High-speed rail in Turkey is new, with the first service in 2009. TCDD has branded its high-speed service as Yüksek Hızlı Tren or YHT. YHT currently operates on two lines: the Ankara-Eskişehir portion of the İstanbul-Ankara high-speed railway and the Ankara-Konya high-speed railway, which opened in August, 2011. Prices between Ankara and Eskişehir are currently 30 TL for business class and 25 TL for economy class.[30]

Effective July 27th 2014, the high-speed train started service between Ankara-Istanbul(Pendik).[31] The train has 6 daily departures in both directions.[32]

The rolling stock used for YHT service are the Spanish-built HT65000 EMUs. These trains operate at speeds of 120 km/h (75 mph) within cities and reach speeds of 250 km/h (160 mph) on their dedicated track outside cities. These EMUs have 6 permanently coupled cars, with 4 economy class cars, 1 cafe car and 1 business class car. Economy class has 2+2 seating with power outlets, fold-able tables and private radio. There is a lavatory at one end of the car. The business class car has 2+1 seating, with power outlets, greater leg room, private radio, fold-able tables and steward service as well as LCD TVs in front of every seat.[33]

High-speed rail in Turkey is still developing, with two lines under construction and many more planned. Once the line to İstanbul is completed, travel between Ankara and İstanbul will drop to 3 and a half hours, compared to 8 hours by car. By 2023, the Ministry of Transport expects Turkey's high-speed rail system to increase to 10,000 kilometers.[34]

Mainline service[edit]

A DE22000 series locomotive pulls the Karesi Express into Menemen.

Mainline service (Turkish: Anahat) is the railway's main service. In 2010 mainline services made up for 24% of the railways passenger traffic.[35] Mainline service includes 3 types of trains: Express, Blue Train and Passenger.

Express service is between major cities and are fast, comfortable and equipped with modern air conditioned TVS2000 railcars and only stop at important stations. Express trains have an average operating speed of 100 km/h (62 mph) to 120 km/h (75 mph). The most express service is between İstanbul and Eskişehir with 8 trains daily in each direction. Express service also has overnight trains between major cities far apart (e.g. İstanbul-Kars). These trains have coaches, a dining car and a sleeping car or a couchette car or sometimes both.

Blue Train service was the State Railways' premier express service, starting in 1979 between İstanbul and Ankara, with a blue DE24000 locomotive and custom built blue railcars. Today, the Blue Train service has become a part of the mainline service and uses the same TVS2000 rolling stock. Currently, there are four Blue Trains in service; operating on the Ankara-İzmir, İstanbul-Adana, Ankara-Adana and Ankara-Malatya lines. All these trains are overnight trains. The İstanbul-Ankara Blue Train service was cancelled in 2000.

Passenger class service is the slowest mainline service, making local stops but not as many as regional service. Passenger service use mainly modernized intercity railcars and occasionally TVS2000 railcars. Passenger class trains used to run on more lines but today the only passenger class service is the Bosphorus Express.

The TVS2000 railcars used on mainline service are the most comfortable cars in TCDD's entire fleet. TVS2000 railcars may also be used on International service because international services are considered mainline services within Turkey.

International services[edit]

International services to Europe[edit]

Sirkeci Terminal on the European side of Istanbul was inaugurated in 1890 as the terminus of the Rumeli Railway and the Orient Express.

The TCDD operates four international services to Europe, three of which are from Istanbul: The Bosfor Ekspres (Bosphorus Express) to Bucharest; the Balkan Express to Sofia and Belgrade (which splits from the Bosfor Ekspres), and the Dostluk/Filia Ekspresi (Turkish/Greek "Friendship Express") to Thessaloniki which is a night train with sleeping coaches, and one from Pythion to Thessaloniki: the IC 90 / 91.[note 1][36]

International services to the Middle East and Asia[edit]

Haydarpaşa Terminal on the Anatolian side of Istanbul was opened in 1908 as the terminus of the Istanbul-Konya-Baghdad and Istanbul-Damascus-Medina lines.

The Haydarpaşa Terminal is the terminus for a weekly train to Tehran in Iran, another train to Iran travels between Van, Turkey and Tebriz in Iran.[37]

Additionally, trains from Iran to Syria (and vice versa) pass through Turkey.[37]

Former international services[edit]

Commuter rail[edit]

İZBAN commuter trains.

As of 2011, the Turkish State Railways operate commuter rail in İstanbul and Ankara, with previous commuter service in İzmir from up to 2006, which is now operated by İZBAN. The railways use the E14000 and the E23000 EMUs on their commuter services. Previously, the newly retired E8000 EMUs and the E4000 electric locomotives were used as well. The first commuter rail service in Turkey was the İstanbul-Halkalı Line on the European side of İstanbul, operating from Sirkeci Terminal to Halkalı in 1955.[41][42][43]

History[edit]

Varda Bridge on the Taurus Mountains.

After World War I and the Turkish Independence War, the Republic of Turkey was a new-formed country. Even though Turkey had a railway network, most of it was operated by foreign companies. The State Railways of the Republic of Turkey (TCDD) was formed on May 31, 1927. TCDD took over the Chemin de fer d'Anatolie-Baghdad, a holding company formed in 1924 by Turkey to take over some rail lines in Turkey, on June 1, 1927 and had control over the tracks of the former Anatolian Railway (CFOA) and the Transcaucasus Railway line in Turkish borders. TCDD now had rail lines to the cities İstanbul, İzmit, Ankara, Afyon, Adapazarı and Konya. On January 1, 1929, TCDD took over the rail line from Mersin to Adana (formerly the Mersin-Tarsus-Adana Railway). Apart from taking over already built lines, TCDD needed to build more line because many important cities were still not serviced by rail. In 1926, TCDD started to build a rail line east to Sivas, reaching Kayseri in 1927 and Sivas in 1930. TCDD continued to acquire from the other rail companies; taking over the Mudanya-Bursa Railway in 1931, the Smyrna Cassaba Railway in 1934, the Oriental Railway Company in 1935 and the Oriental Railway in 1937. With most of the railways in Turkey under TCDD control, TCDD connected lines such as Kütahya with Balıkesir in 1932 and the former SCP line in Afyon with the former CFOA line. In 1932 TCDD completed the railway to Samsun heading north at Sivas. TCDD continued to build lines, reaching Zonguldak, Erzurum, Erzincan, Diyarbakır and Elazığ in the following years. World War II broke out in 1938, slowing down the building. Between 1938 and 1996 TCDD building decreased. The railway only extended to Gaziantep (1955) and Van (1962).

Electrification[edit]

Turkey has chosen to electrify at the conventional 25 kV 50 Hz AC. The first electrified lines were the Istanbul suburban lines on the European side, from Sirkeci to Soğuksu, on December 4, 1955, and in the same period the E8000 electrical multiple units were taken into use. The suburban lines on the Asian side of Istanbul, from Haydarpaşa to Gebze, were electrified in 1969; while the Ankara suburban trains were electrified in 1972, on the line from Sincan to Kayaş.

On February 6, 1977 the tracks from Gebze to Adapazarı were made double track and electrified, allowing the first main line operation of electric trains in Turkey. The line from Arifiye outside Adapazarı to Eskişehir were further electrified in 1989 and in 1993 to Sincan, allowing electric train passages from Istanbul to Ankara. In 1994 the European lines from Istanbul to Edirne, Kapıkule and the Bulgarian border were also electrified. The same year the line from Divriği to İskenderun in eastern Turkey was also electrified, though this line is not connected to the rest of the electrified network. In 2006 the İzmir suburban system was also electrified.

Performance, market share, assets and financial results[edit]

Since 1950, the railway system's market share of freight transportation dropped from 70% to ~55% (1960), ~25% (1970), ~10% (1980, 1990) and to less than 10% in 2000. A similar trend was observed in the percentage of passenger transport performed by rail - dropping from a share of greater than 40% in 1950 to ~25% in 1960; less than 10% in 1970; ~5% by 1980; and reaching an all-time low of 2% by 2000.[44] This was partly due to major investment and expansion in the road network.

The TCDD receives subsidies from the government for socially necessary operations, but has registered increasing losses in all its areas of business except for port operations; which have high port tariffs (higher than 36%).[44] By 2000, the cost to the Turkish government had exceeded $500 million per year in addition to a subsidy of over $100 million.[44] In addition to the problems caused by the lack of investment from 1950 onwards, the TCDD organisation has been characterised as suffering from the common problems associated with state-owned enterprises; i.e. emphasis on production rather than customer needs; subject to government reliance and interference; and an inward-looking corporate culture.[44]

As of 2008, the amount of freight transported was the highest ever (18.343 million tonne-kilometers); though actual growth was small over the previous 10 years, and passenger figures had risen slightly overall over the past decade.[14]

As of 2008, the TCDD administers the Ankara Railway Factory, Sivas Concrete Sleeper factory, Afyon Concrete Sleeper factory, Behiçbey rail welding and track machinery repair factory and Çankırı Switch factory. Additionally, the state owned companies TÜLOMSAŞ, TÜDEMSAŞ and TÜVASAŞ are affiliates. The TCDD has a 50% share in the İzmir Banliyö Taşımacılığı Sistemi A.Ş. (İZBAN A.Ş.) which operates the metro in İzmir, and a 15% share in EUROTEM.[14]

Active fleet[edit]

Locomotives[edit]

Model Picture Numbers Built Acquired Type Power Builder (Designer) Notes
DE18000 18001-18005 1970 1970 Diesel Electric 1800 hp (1320 kW) MTE
DE24000 6th of September Express at Alsancak.JPG 24001-24418 1970-84 1970-84 Diesel Electric 2360 hp (1760 kW) TÜLOMSAŞ (MTE) Ordered for TCDD's complete dieselization of its fleet.
DE18100 A Turkish DE18100 at Menemen.JPG 18101-18120 1978 1978 Diesel Electric 1800 hp (1320 kW) MTE Ordered for use in District 3.
DE11000 TCDD DE11052.jpg 11001-11085 1985 1985 Diesel Electric 1065 hp (780 kW) Krauss-Maffei, TÜLOMSAŞ First 20 built by Krauss-Maffei later 60 built by TÜLOMSAŞ.
DE22000 Karesi at Menemen.JPG 22001-22086 1985-89 1985-89 Diesel Electric 2200 hp (1620 kW) TÜLOMSAŞ (Electro-Motive Division)
E43000 TCDD E43012 at Haydarpaşa.jpg 43001-43045 1987 1987 Electric 4260 hp (3180 kW) TÜLOMSAŞ (Toshiba)
DH7000 TCDD DH7007 at Sirkeci.jpg 7001-7020 1994 1994 Diesel Hydraulic 710 hp (522 kW) TÜLOMSAŞ
E52500 TCDD E52522 at Hyderpasa.jpg 52501-52520 1967 1998–2005 Electric 5180 hp (3860 kW) Končar (ASEA) Originally built in 1967 as class 441, acquired and overhauled by TCDD in 1998.
DH9500 TDCC DH9519.jpg 9501-9526 1999 1999 Diesel Hydraulic 950 hp (700 kW) TÜLOMSAŞ
DE33000 A DE33000 at Bandirma Station.JPG 33001-33089 2003-04 2003-04 Diesel Electric 3300 hp (2463 kW) TÜLOMSAŞ (Electro-Motive Diesel) Based on the DE22000.
E68000 68001-68080 2013-2014 2013-2014 Electric 6800 hp (5000 kW) Hyundai Rotem, TÜLOMSAŞ First 8 built by Hyundai Rotem later 72 will be build by TÜLOMSAŞ.
DE36000 36001-36020 2013- 2013- Diesel Electric 3600 hp (2680 kW) TÜLOMSAŞ (General Electric) GE PowerHaul type

MUs[edit]

Model Picture Numbers Built Type Power Builder (Designer) Notes
DM15000 TCDD at Torbalı.JPG 15001-15012 2008 DMU 650 kW EUROTEM Used for regional services
HT65000 YHT at Ankara.JPG 65001-65012 2009- EMU 4800 kW CAF TCDD high-speed train sets
E22000 İZBAN Train.JPG 22001-22033 2009- EMU CAF Used for İZBAN commuter rail
E23000 E23023.jpg 23001-23033 2009- EMU EUROTEM Will be used on the Ankara Suburban Railway project
MT30000 30001-30012 2011- DMU 650 kW EUROTEM Used for regional services
E32000 Marmaray trainset.jpg 32001-32054 2011- EMU EUROTEM Used for Marmaray commuter rail

Passenger railcars[edit]

Model Picture Built Type Builder (Designer)
Intercity Fleet 1980-90 Coach, Couchette, Diner, Generator TÜVASAŞ
Regional Fleet TCDD Regional Cars at Haydarpasa.JPG 1972 Coach TÜVASAŞ
MT5600 1990 Coach TÜVASAŞ
TVS2000 TVS2000 railcars at Alsancak.JPG 1992 Coach, Diner, Couchette, Sleeper, Generator TÜVASAŞ
MT5700 TCDD MT5700.JPG 1993 Coach Fiat

Retired fleet[edit]

Locomotives[edit]

Model Picture Numbers Built Acquired Type Power Builder (Designer) Notes
DH33100 TCDD DH33121.jpg 33101-33105 1953 1953 Diesel Hydraulic 350 hp (260 kW) MaK TCDD's first diesel locomotive.
E4000 4001-4003 1955 1955 Electric 2170 hp (1620 kW) Alsthom Ordered for use on TCDD's first electrified line.
DH44100 44101-44106 1955 1955 Diesel Hydraulic 800 hp (590 kW) MaK
DE20000 20001-20005 1957-58 1957-58 Diesel Electric 1800 hp (1320 kW) General Electric
DH6000 6001 1959 1959 Diesel Hydraulic 610 hp (445 kW) Jenbacher Type DH600C
DH4100 4101 1960 1960 Diesel Hydraulic 410 hp (300 kW) Jenbacher Type DH400C
DH6500 6501-6540 1960 1960 Diesel Hydraulic 650 hp (480 kW) Krupp
DH27000 27001-27003 1961 1961 Diesel Hydraulic  ???? Krauss-Maffei
DE21500 21501-21540 1964-65 1965 Diesel Electric 1580 hp (2150 kW) General Electric
DH3600 3601-3624 1968 1968 Diesel Hydraulic 350 hp (260 kW) MaK Based on the DE22000.
DH11500 11501-11511 1960 1982 Diesel Hydraulic 1100 hp (810 kW) MaK Acquired from Deutsche Bahn in 1982.

MUs[edit]

Model Picture Numbers Built Type Power Builder (Designer) Notes
MT5500 MT55097 at Basmane.JPG 5501-5511 1968 DMU 810 kW Fiat Retired
E14000 E14000s at Goztepe-1.JPG 14001-14075 1979 EMU 520 kW TÜVASAŞ (Groupement 50 Hz) Retired

Network[edit]

The TCDD network in 2007.

TCDD directly owns and operates 8,697 km (5,404 mi) of common carrier lines, of which 1,920 km (1,190 mi) are electrified, throughout 57 provinces.[45] Along with this, the railways own and operate over 240 km (150 mi) of industrial lines and 206 km (128 mi) of high-speed lines, with 574 km (357 mi) of lines under construction.[46] As of 2010, the railways consist of 763 tunnels, 25,441 bridges, 17 wyes and 7 loops.[47] The railway's fleet consists of 467 main line Diesel locomotives, 67 Electric locomotives, 860 passenger coaches, 135 MUs, 33 High-speed rail sets and 15,384 freight cars.[48] TCDD also owns 3 rail ferries.

Logistic Centers[edit]

TCDD is constructing 18 logistic centers to be completed till 2023 to increase the portion of railway in freight transportation.[24] These centers (also called as freight villages) will have railway connected container yards, cranes, warehouses, customs service and other facilities. These 18 logistic centers are: Halkali, Samsun-Gelemen, Usak (completed) Kosekoy-Izmit, Hasanbey-Eskisehir, Kaklik-Denizli, Bogazkopru-Kayseri (partially completed) Yesilbayır-Istanbul, Gokkoy-Balikesir, Bozuyuk-Bilecek, Kayacik-Konya, Yenice-Mersin, Sivas, Turkoglu-Kahramanmaras, Kars, Palandoken-Erzurum, Mardin (under construction)

Yards and depots[edit]

TCDD owns and operates many facilities throughout Turkey. These facilities are; yards for storing freight and passenger cars, depots and locomotive shops for repair and maintenance and freight facilities for transferring or storing freight.

Güvercinlik Yard in central Ankara is the largest railway facility in Turkey. This multi-use facility includes a marshaling yard, passenger yard, 3 repair shops, for passenger cars, freight cars and locomotives, freight transfer terminal and a grain silo siding. The Haydarpaşa Yard is the second largest yard in Turkey, consisting of a freight yard, passenger yard, 3 maintenance shops for locomotives, passenger cars and freight cars, and a loop for trains.

  • Haydarpaşa Yard in İstanbul is the largest passenger yard in Turkey.
  • Halkalı logistics center is the largest multipurpose freight yard in Turkey.
  • Güvercinlik Maintenance Facility is the largest electrified maintenance facility in Turkey.
  • Halkapınar Maintenance Facility is the largest non-electrified maintenance facility in Turkey.
  • Eskişehir Railway Shops are the largest railway construction facility in Turkey.

Ferries[edit]

A TCDD Train Ferry in Istanbul.

The Turkish State Railways own and operate two rail train ferries and connects to three others.

The most famous of these would be the Bosphorus train ferry in İstanbul. This ferry connects Haydarpaşa, on the Asian side, with Sirkeci, on the European side.[citation needed] Demiryolu and Demiryolu II are the two ferries that operate on the route and are owned by TCDD.

By starting the project of Marmaray, TCDD ended the Bosphorus train ferry and announced an alternative ferry for the freight trains passing from Europe to Asia or vice versa: Tekirdağ-Derince Ferry. It's a private ferry named Erdemir working as a subcontractor of TCDD. Ferry did trials in 2012, and had started regular transportation at the end of 2013.[49] Ferry has 5 lines with 800 meter total length.

The other train ferry owned by TCDD would be the Lake Van ferry, connecting Tatvan and Van via Lake Van, Turkey's largest lake. This ferry is a part of the only railway connection between Turkey and Iran, and thereby between Europe and India. Orhan Atılman is the name of the ferry that operates on the route and is also fully owned by TCDD.[50]

Other train ferries:

Network extensions and modernizations[edit]

The Turkish State Railways currently has many network extension and modernization projects planned. TCDD is seeing the largest investment since the 1930s and with these investments is constructing new lines, primarily high-speed lines.

In addition to 10000 km high-speed line, Turkish Ministry of Transportation announced the construction of 4000 km new conventional rail lines as a part of 2023 strategy.[23]

TCDD has also been renewing the existing lines, some to be electrified and signalized. The budget for renewals and infrastructure of existing lines is more than 1 billion TL in 2014.[52]

Marmaray[edit]

Main article: Marmaray

Marmaray, meaning Marmarail is a project of the construction of a rail tunnel under the Bosphorus in İstanbul as well as upgrading the existing commuter lines in the city. This tunnel will connect TCDD's Anatolian system to its smaller Thracian system as well as create a direct route between the Middle East and Europe. Marmaray will play an important role in commuter rail as well. When the project is complete, an estimated 75,000 passengers will be serviced every hour, increasing rail usage in İstanbul from 3,6% to 27,7% ranking İstanbul's rail usage to third in the world behind New York City (31%) and Tokyo (60%).[53] Marmaray will also include upgrading the line to three tracks and integrate with Turkey's high-speed rail network.

Standards[edit]

Railway links with adjacent countries[edit]

West neighboring countries[edit]

  • Bulgaria Bulgaria - open (But no trains runs from Sirkeci to Bulgarian border due to rehabilitation of Kazlıçeşme-Halkalı segment of Sirkeci-Halkalı line due to Marmaray project from 1 March 2013.[54] Also Halkalı-Kapıkule high-speed line will be made the earliest since June 2014[55] - 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)
  • Greece Greece - open (But no train runs since February 2011 due to economic crisis in Greece) - 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)

East neighboring countries[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References and notes[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Un-named - IC 90 is the train number.
  2. ^ Discontinued as of 2009 [1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Invest in Turkey: Transportation and logistics
  2. ^ TCDD History - Trains and Railways of Turkey
  3. ^ TCDD annual report 2009 - www.tcdd.gov.tr
  4. ^ InterRail - Wikipedia
  5. ^ Land transport/Rail - Republic of Turkey 2006 www.abgs.gov.tr
  6. ^ Port of Haydapaşa, tcdd.gov.tr
  7. ^ Port of İzmir, tcdd.gov.tr
  8. ^ Port of Mersin, tcdd.gov.tr
  9. ^ Port of İskenderun, tcdd.gov.tr
  10. ^ Port of Bandırma, tcdd.gov.tr
  11. ^ Port of Derince, tcdd.gov.tr
  12. ^ Port of Zongulak, Port statistics
  13. ^ AKPORT transport, akport.com.tr
  14. ^ a b c TCDD annual report 2008 www.tcdd.gov.tr
  15. ^ Uysal, Onur. "Railway Connected Ports of Turkey", Rail Turkey, 12 February 2014
  16. ^ Uysal, Onur. "Safi Kati Yakit is the New Operator of Derince Port", Rail Turkey, 9 June 2014
  17. ^ AYDIN-ÇİNE-YATAĞAN-GÜLLÜK RAIL PROJECT - dlh.gov.tr
  18. ^ a b Restructuring options for reform of TCDD, World Bank report 2003, hwtsk.com
  19. ^ Uysal, Onur. "Leading Railway Clients 2012", Rail Turkey, 16 December 2013
  20. ^ Uysal, Onur. "Leading Railway Companies In Turkey 2012 – European Traffic", Rail Turkey, 14 June 2014
  21. ^ Uysal, Onur. "TCDD Annual Statistics 2013", Rail Turkey, 23 October 2014
  22. ^ Uysal, Onur. "Leading Railway Companies In Turkey 2012 – Railcar Owners", Rail Turkey, 15 July 2013
  23. ^ a b Uysal, Onur. "2023 Targets in Rail Freight – Network", Rail Turkey, 11 July 2013
  24. ^ a b Uysal, Onur. "2023 Targets in Rail Freight – Logistic Centers", Rail Turkey, 5 December 2013
  25. ^ Uysal, Onur. "When Asia and Europe Will Be Connected?", Rail Turkey, 10 December 2013
  26. ^ Uysal, Onur. "10 Things to Know About Baku-Tbilisi-Kars Railway Project", Rail Turkey, 20 October 2014
  27. ^ Uysal, Onur. "Is Marmaray Key for Europe-Asia Rail Connection?", Rail Turkey, 12 November 2013
  28. ^ TCDD ratios 1922-2005
  29. ^ Uysal, Onur. "Turkish Railway Industry Report 2013 – Passanger", Rail Turkey, 24 July 2014
  30. ^ TCDD Online ticket reservations
  31. ^ Uysal, Onur. "First High Speed Train Set on Ankara Istanbul Line Arrived Istanbul", Rail Turkey, 26 July 2014
  32. ^ Uysal, Onur. "New Schedule for Istanbul-Ankara High Speed Train", Rail Turkey, 9 August 2014
  33. ^ YHT Reference Book, Everything about the YHT - Page 41
  34. ^ Turkey's high-speed rail system will be complete by 2023 - rayturk.net
  35. ^ 2010 TCDD Statistics - tcdd.gov.tr
  36. ^ TCDD: Destinations in Europe www.tcdd.gov.tr
  37. ^ a b TCDD: Destinations in the Middle East
  38. ^ http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10000872396390443931404577548661447075818.html
  39. ^ http://www.rayhaber.com/2012/vagonlari-yenilenen-toros-ekspresi-16-agustosda-seferlerine-basliyor/
  40. ^ http://www.rayhaber.com/2013/toros-ekspresi-seferleri-iptal-edildi/
  41. ^ İstanbul Ulaşım: Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality Transportation Services
  42. ^ EGO Genel Müdürlüğü: Ankara Metropolitan Municipality Transportation Services
  43. ^ İzmir Metropolitan Municipality: İzmir Metro
  44. ^ a b c d TCDD Challenges Author: Lou Thompson, 3/05/2002 www.tgassoc.com
  45. ^ TCDD Statistics - Trains of Turkey
  46. ^ Hızlı Tren Hakkında Herşey (A Complete Reference to Turkish High Speed Rail) - by T.C. Devlet Demiryolları İşletmesi Genel Müdürlüğü
  47. ^ 2010 TCDD Annual Report - www.tcdd.gov.tr
  48. ^ 2007 TCDD Annual Report - www.tcdd.gov.tr
  49. ^ Uysal, Onur. "Wagons On Board: Tekirdag Derince Ferry Departed", Rail Turkey, 11 November 2013
  50. ^ Turkey's Train Ferries - Trains and Railways of Turkey
  51. ^ http://www.upmtrans.com/english/ferry.html
  52. ^ Uysal, Onur. "Railway Investments of Turkey in 2014", Rail Turkey, 21 January 2014
  53. ^ Marmaray Project: Travel time and alignment
  54. ^ http://www.tcdd.gov.tr/home/detail/?id=599
  55. ^ http://www.sanayicidergisi.com/ayin-dosyasi/halkali-cerkezkoy-kapikule-hizli-tren-hattinin-yapimi-2014te-baslayacak.htm
  56. ^ Railway Gazette International - January 2008 p51