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|Türk lirası (Turkish)|
|ISO 4217 code||TRY (TRL was used before 2005)|
|Central bank||Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey|
|Inflation||7.31% CPI, 1.88% PPI|
|Source||Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey|
|Freq. used||5kr, 10kr, 25kr, 50kr, 1|
|Freq. used||5, 10, 20, 50, 100|
|Printer||CBRT Banknote Printer|
|Mint||Turkish State Mint|
|Economy of Turkey|
The Turkish lira (Currency sign: (until 1 March 2012: TL); Turkish: Türk lirası; ISO 4217: TRY) is the currency of Turkey and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (recognised only by Turkey). The Turkish lira is subdivided into 100 kuruş.
All obverse sides of current banknotes and reverse sides of current coins have portraits of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Historical banknotes from the second, third and fourth issues have portraits of İsmet İnönü on the obverse side. This change done according to 12 January 1926 dated official gazette  and canceled by Democrat Party after World War II.
The monetary policy adopted to maintain price and financial stability by using required reserve ratios and interest rate corridor since recent global economic crisis, while industrial production decreased. Economy of Turkey highly relies on hot money.
Ottoman era 
First Turkish lira 
After periods pegged to the British pound and the French franc, a peg of 2.8 Turkish lira = 1 U.S. dollar was adopted in 1946 and maintained until 1960, when the currency was devalued to 9 Turkish lira = 1 dollar. From 1970, a series of hard, then soft pegs to the dollar operated as the value of the Turkish lira began to fall.
- 1966 — 1 U.S. dollar = 9 Turkish lira
- 1980 — 1 U.S. dollar = 90 Turkish lira
- 1988 — 1 U.S. dollar = 1,300 Turkish lira
- 1995 — 1 U.S. dollar = 45,000 Turkish lira
- 2001 — 1 U.S. dollar = 1,650,000 Turkish lira
- 2005 — 1 U.S. dollar = 1.29 new Turkish lira (The use of New Turkish lira, which drops 6 zeros from the currency Turkish lira, was implemented in 2005)
- 2010 — 1 U.S. dollar = 1.55 Turkish lira
- 19 October 2012 — 1 U.S. dollar = 1.79 Turkish lira
The Guinness Book of Records ranked the Turkish lira as the world's least valuable currency in 1995 and 1996, and again from 1999 to 2004. The Turkish lira had slid in value so far that one original gold lira coin could be sold for 154,400,000 Turkish lira before the 2005 revaluation.
Second Turkish lira 
In late December 2003, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey passed a law that allowed for redenomination by the removal of six zeros from the Turkish lira, and the creation of a new currency. It was introduced on 1 January 2005, replacing the previous Turkish lira (which remained valid in circulation until the end of 2005) at a rate of 1 second Turkish lira (ISO 4217 code "TRY") = 1,000,000 first Turkish lira (ISO 4217 code "TRL"). With the revaluation of the Turkish lira, the Romanian leu (also revalued in July 2005) briefly became the world's least valued currency unit.
In the transitional period between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2008, the second Turkish lira was officially called Yeni Türk Lirası (New Turkish lira). It was officially abbreviated "YTL" and subdivided into 100 new kuruş (yeni kuruş). With effect from 1 January 2009, the "new" was removed from the second Turkish lira, its official name becoming just "Turkish lira" again, abbreviated "TL".
Currency sign 
The current currency sign of Turkish lira was created by the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey in 2012. The new sign was selected after a country-wide contest. The new symbol, created by Tülay Lale, is composed of the letter L shaped like a half anchor, and embedded double striped letter T angled at 20 degrees.
Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan announced the new symbol on 1 March 2012. At its unveiling, Erdoğan explained the design as "the anchor shape hopes to convey that the currency is a 'safe harbor' while the upward facing lines represent its rising prestige".
In May 2012, the Unicode Technical Committee accepted the encoding of a new character U+20BA TURKISH LIRA SIGN for the currency sign, which was included in Unicode 6.2 released in September 2012.
|Design Limits of Turkish Lira Sign (ref)|
From 1 January 2009, the phrase "new" was removed from the second Turkish lira, its official name in Turkey becoming just "Turkish lira" again; new coins without the word "yeni" were introduced in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50 kuruş and 1 Turkish lira. Also, the center and ring alloys of the 50 kuruş and 1 Turkish lira coins were reversed.
|Current Turkish lira coins |
|Technical parameters||Description||Date of|
|1||16.5||1.35||2.2||70% Cu, 30% Zn||Plain||Value, Crescent-star, year of minting||Snowdrop||"TÜRKİYE CUMHURİYETİ",
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
|2008||1 January 2009|
|5||17.5||1.65||2.9||65% Cu, 18% Ni, 17% Zn||Tree of life|
|50||23.85||1.9||6.8||Ring: 65% Cu, 18% Ni, 17% Zn
Center: 79% Cu, 17% Zn, 4% Ni
|Large reeded||Bosphorus Bridge and Istanbul silhouette|
|26.15||8.2||Ring: 79% Cu, 17% Zn, 4% Ni
Center: 65% Cu, 18% Ni, 17% Zn
|inscribed, T.C. letters and tulip figure||Rumi motif|
|These images are to scale at 2.5 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the coin specification table.|
A new series of banknotes, the "E-9 Emission Group" entered circulation on 1 January 2009, with the E-8 group ceasing to be valid after 31 December 2009 (although still redeemable at branches of the Central Bank until 31 December 2019). The E-9 banknotes refer to the currency as "Turkish lira" rather than "new Turkish lira", and include a new 200 Turkish lira denomination. The new banknotes have different sizes to prevent forgery. The main specificity of this new series is that each denomination depicts a famous Turkish personality, rather than geographical sites and architectural features of Turkey. The dominant color of the 5 Turkish lira banknote has been determined as “purple” on second series of current banknotes.
|Current Turkish lira banknotes |
|Main Colour||Description||Date of issue|
|5||130 × 64||Brown||Mustafa Kemal Atatürk||Aydın Sayılı, diagrams of solar system, atom, ancient cave and a left-handed Z-DNA helix.||Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Value||1 January 2009|
|Purple||8 April 2013|
|10||136 × 64||Red||Cahit Arf, Arf invariant, arithmetic series, abacus, binary||1 January 2009|
|20||142 × 68||Green||Architect Kemaleddin, Gazi University main building, aqueduct, circular motif and cube-globe-cylinder symbolizing architecture|
|50||148 × 68||Orange||Fatma Aliye Topuz, flower and literary figures|
|100||154 × 72||Blue||Buhurizade Itri, notes, instruments and Mevlevi figure|
|200||160 × 72||Violet||Yunus Emre, Yunus's mausoleum, rose, pigeon and the line "Sevelim, sevilelim" (Let us love, let us be loved)|
|These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre.|
See also 
- Economy of Turkey
- Economy of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
- Banknotes of Turkey
- Coins of Turkey
- Turkish lira sign
- Ottoman lira
- International Organization for Standardization. "Currency codes - ISO 4217". ISO. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
- "701 Mevcûd Evrâk-ı Nakdiyyenin Yenileriyle İstibdâline Dâir Kânun". Prime Ministry. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
- "Elyevm mevkii tedavülde bulunan evrakı nakdiye yerine, aynı evsafı kanuniyeyi haiz olmak ve aynı miktarda bulunmak üzere yeni evrakı nakdiye ihracı hakkında (1/750) numaralı kanun lâyihası ve Kavanin ve Muvazenei Maliye Encümenleri mazbataları.". Grand National Assembly of Turkey. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
- "Monetary Policy of Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey after Global Financial Crisis - Articles". Insight Turkey. Retrieved 2013-01-31.
- "Macroeconomic Data". Isbank. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
- "Istanbuls and bears". The Economist. 2012-07-04. Retrieved 2013-09-04.
- "History of Paper Money". Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
- Official Gazette of the Republic of Turkey. "Law on the Currency of the Republic of Turkey".
- ""TL SİMGE YARIŞMASI" ŞARTNAMESİ" (in Turkish). Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Merkez Bankası. October 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
- http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-505245_162-57388274/turkey-reveals-symbol-for-its-currency/. Missing or empty
- "Turkey unveils symbol for national currency", TodaysZaman.com, March 1, 2012 http://www.todayszaman.com/news-272940-.html
- "Unicode 6.2 to Support the Turkish Lira Sign from announcements_at_unicode.org on 2012-05-15 (Unicode Mail List Archive)". Unicode.org. 2012-05-15. Retrieved 2013-01-31.
- "Unicode 6.2.0". The Unicode Consortium. 2012-10-23.
- "Türkiye Cumhuriyet Merkez Bankasi-Central Bank Of The Republic Of Turkey". Tcmb.gov.tr. Retrieved 2013-01-31.
- "Public Announcement As To The Removal Of The Prefix "New" From The New Turkish Lira".
- Türkiye Cumhuriyet Merkez Bankasi (Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey) (8 May 2007). "Public Announcement As To The Removal Of The Prefix "New" From The New Turkish Lira". Official Gazette no. 26516, 8 May 2007, page 103. TCMB. Retrieved 2008-01-05.
- Turkish Daily News (2006-09-15). "TL banknotes to be in circulation in 2009". Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2006-09-28.
- "Türk Lirası’nda yeni yüzler". NTV-MSNBC (in Turkish). Anadolu Agency. 2008-10-03. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- Türkiye Cumhuriyet Merkez Bankasi (Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey) (2 April 2013). "Press Release On The Issue Of E-9 Emission Group II. Series Turkish Lira Banknotes". TCMB. Retrieved 2013-09-04.
Further reading 
- Krause, Chester L., and Clifford Mishler (1991). Standard Catalog of World Coins: 1801–1991 (18th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 0873411501.
- Pick, Albert (1994). Standard Catalog of World Paper Money: General Issues. Colin R. Bruce II and Neil Shafer (editors) (7th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-207-9.
- Sevket Pamuk (2000). A Monetary History of the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-44197-8.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Money of Turkey|
- Turkish Central Bank (Banknote Museum page)
- Turkish State Mint
- Turkish lira official changeover Campaign
- Detailed information on the Turkish lira banknotes and coins in circulation since 2009
- Turk Numismatics
Ratio: 1 Ottoman lira = 140 (first) lira
|Currency of Turkey
October 29, 1923 – December 31, 2004
(Second) Turkish lira
(called "New Turkish lira" January 1, 2005 – December 31, 2008)
Ratio: 1,000,000 (first) Turkish lira = 1 (second) Turkish lira
(First) Turkish lira
Ratio: 1,000,000 (first) Turkish lira = 1 (second) Turkish lira
|Currency of Turkey
January 1, 2005 –
|Current TRY exchange rates|
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