|This article's factual accuracy is disputed. (January 2014)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||50,000|
50,000diaspora in the other parts of Europe
70,000diaspora in the former USSR
|United States||500,000 b[›]|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Turkic peoples (Oghuz Turks)|
The area now called Turkey has been inhabited since the paleolithic, and housed various Ancient Anatolian civilizations and peoples of Thrace during Antiquity. Modern Turkish people largely descend from these ancient indigenous Anatolian groups,k[›] but their ancestry includes neighboring peoples (e.g., Balkans, Caucasus, Iranic) and Turkic peoples, albeit to a small degree. They speak a Turkic language (the Turkish language), which was adopted by the local populations who predominantly had spoken Indo-European languages prior to a cultural transformation that took place after the invasion of a Turkic-speaking minority from Central Asia.k[›] Turkic languages may date back to 600 BCE, and the first mention of the ethnonym "Turk" may date from Herodotus' reference to "Targitas" or from Classical Latin references to people in the forests north of the Sea of Azov. Chinese sources in the sixth century also use "Tujue" to refer to the Göktürks. However, the arrival of Seljuk Turks also brought the Turkish language and Islam into Anatolia in the 11th century, which started the Turkification of various peoples in the region.j[›] The Ottoman beylik united Anatolia, which had been previously divided among dozens of small Anatolian beyliks, starting from the late 13th century and created the Ottoman Empire. Turkish identity strengthened with the rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire, and the migration of some 7–9 million Turkish Muslim refugees from the lost territories of the Caucasus, Crimea, Balkans, and the Mediterranean islands into Anatolia and Eastern Thrace during the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. Turkish nationalism consolidated with the Turkish War of Independence and the subsequent proclamation of the Republic of Turkey.
Turkey has a very diverse culture that is a blend of various elements of the Oghuz Turkic, indigenous Anatolian, Greek, Islamic, Ottoman, and Western cultures. Due to the Ottoman past, the Turkish minorities are the second largest ethnic groups in Bulgaria and Cyprus. In addition, as a result of modern migration, a Turkish diaspora has been established, particularly in Western Europe (see Turks in Europe), where large communities have been formed in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. There are also significant Turkish communities living in Australia, the former Soviet Union and North America.
- 1 Etymology and ethnic identity
- 2 History
- 3 Genetics
- 4 Anthropology
- 5 Geographic distribution
- 6 Culture
- 7 See also
- 8 References and notes
- 9 Bibliography
- 10 External links
Etymology and ethnic identity
|Part of a series of articles on|
The ethnonym "Turk" may be first mentioned in Herodotus' (c. 484–425 BCE) work "Targitas"; furthermore, during the first century CE., Pomponius Mela refers to the "Turcae" in the forests north of the Sea of Azov, and Pliny the Elder lists the "Tyrcae" among the people of the same area. The first definite reference to the "Turks" come mainly from Chinese sources in the sixth century. In these sources, "Turk" appears as "Tujue" (Chinese: 突厥; Wade–Giles: T’u-chüe), which referred to the Göktürks. Although "Turk" refers to Turkish people, it may also sometimes refer to the wider language group of Turkic peoples.
In the 19th century, the word Türk only referred to Anatolian villagers. The Ottoman elite identified themselves as Ottomans, not usually as Turks. In the late 19th century, as the Ottoman elite adopted European ideas of nationalism—and as it became clear that the Turkish-speakers of Anatolia were the most loyal supporters of Ottoman rule—the term Türk took on a much more positive connotation.
In Ottoman times, the millet system defined communities on a religious basis, and a residue of this remains in that Turkish villagers commonly consider as Turks only those who profess the Sunni faith, and consider Turkish-speaking Jews, Christians, or even Alevis non-Turks. On the other hand, Kurdish-speaking or Arabic-speaking Sunnis of eastern Anatolia are sometimes considered Turks. The imprecision of the appellation Türk can also be seen with other ethnic names, such as Kürt (Kurd), which is often applied by western Anatolians to anyone east of Adana, even those who speak only Turkish. In recent years, centrist Turkish politicians have attempted to redefine this category in a more multi-cultural way, emphasizing that a Türk is anyone who is a citizen of the Republic of Turkey. Currently, article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as anyone who is "bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship." Currently, a new constitution is being written, which may address citizenship and ethnicity issues.
Prehistory, Ancient era and Early Middle Ages
Anatolia was first inhabited by hunter-gatherers during the Paleolithic era, and in antiquity was inhabited by various ancient Anatolian peoples.j[›] After Alexander the Great's conquest in 334 BC, the area was Hellenized, and -by the first century BC- it is generally thought that the native Anatolian languages had become extinct.
In Central Asia, the earliest surviving Turkic-language texts, the eighth-century Orkhon inscriptions, were erected by the Göktürks in the sixth century CE, and include words not common to Turkic but found in unrelated Inner Asian languages. Although the ancient Turks were nomadic, they traded wool, leather, carpets, and horses for wood, silk, vegetables and grain, as well as having large ironworking stations in the south of the Altai Mountains during the 600s CE Most of the Turkish-speaking people were shamanists, sharing the cult of Tengrianism, although there were also adherents of Manichaeism, Nestorian Christianity, or, especially, Buddhism. However, during the Muslim conquests, the Turks entered the Muslim world proper as slaves, during the booty of Arab raids and conquests. The Turks began converting to Islam after Muslim conquest of Transoxiana through the efforts of missionaries, Sufis, and merchants. Although initiated by the Arabs, the conversion of the Turks to Islam was filtered through Persian and Central Asian culture. Under the Umayyads, most were domestic slaves, whilst under the Abbasids, increasing numbers were trained as soldiers. By the ninth century, Turkish commanders were leading the caliphs’ Turkish troops into battle. As the Abbasid caliphate declined, Turkish officers assumed more military and political power taking over or establishing provincial dynasties with their own corps of Turkish troops.
During the 11th century the Seljuk Turks grew in number and were able to occupy the eastern province of the Abbasid Empire. By 1055 the Seljuk Empire captured Baghdad and began to make their first incursions into the edges of Anatolia. The victory of the Turks at the Battle of Manzikert over the Byzantine Empire, in 1071, opened the gates of Anatolia to the Seljuk Turks. Although ethnically Turkish, the Seljuk Turks appreciated and became the purveyors of the Persian culture over the Turkish culture. Nonetheless, the Turkish language and Islam were introduced and gradually spread over the region and the slow transition from a predominantly Christian and Greek-speaking Anatolia to a predominantly Muslim and Turkish-speaking one was underway.
In dire straits, the Byzantine Empire turned to the West for help setting in motion the pleas that led to the First Crusade. Once the Crusaders took Iznik, the Seljuk Turks established the Sultanate of Rum from their new capital, Konya, in 1097. By the 12th century the Europeans had begun to call the Anatolian region "Turchia" or "Turkey", meaning "the land of the Turks". The Turkish society of Anatolia was divided into urban, rural and nomadic populations; the other Turcoman tribes who had also swept into Anatolia at the same time as the Seljuk Turks were those who kept their nomadic ways. These tribes were more numerous than the Seljuk Turks, and rejecting the sedentary lifestyle, adhered to an impregnated Islam with animism and shamanism from their central Asian steppeland origins, which then mixed with new Christian influences. From this popular and syncretist Islam, with its mystical and revolutionary aspects, sects such as the Alevis and Bektashis emerged. Furthermore, the intermarriage between the Turks and local inhabitants, as well as the conversion of many to Islam, also increased the Turkish-speaking Muslim population in Anatolia.
By 1243, at the Battle of Köse Dağ, the Mongols defeated the Seljuk Turks and became the new rulers of Anatolia, and in 1256, the second Mongol invasion of Anatolia caused widespread destruction. Particularly after 1277, political stability within the Seljuk territories rapidly disintegrated, leading to the strengthening of Turcoman principalities in the western and southern parts of Anatolia called the "beyliks".
Once the Seljuk Turks were defeated by the Mongol's conquest of Anatolia, the Turks became the vassal of the Ilkhans who established their own empire in the vast area stretching from present-day Afghanistan to Turkey. As the Mongols occupied more lands in Asia Minor, the Turks moved further to western Anatolia and settled in the Seljuk-Byzantine frontier. By the last decades of the 13th century, the Ilkhans and their Seljuk vassals lost control over much of Anatolia to these Turkoman peoples. A number of Turkish lords managed to establish themselves as rulers of various principalities, known as "Beyliks" or emirates. Amongst these beyliks, along the Aegean coast, from north to south, stretched the beyliks of Karasi, Saruhan, Aydin, Menteşe and Teke. Inland from Teke was Hamid and east of Karasi was the beylik of Germiyan.
To the north-west of Anatolia, around Söğüt, was the small and, at this stage, insignificant, Ottoman beylik. It was hemmed in to the east by other more substantial powers like Karaman on Iconium, which ruled from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. Although the Ottomans were only a small principality among the numerous Turkish beyliks, and thus posed the smallest threat to the Byzantine authority, their location in north-western Anatolia, in the former Byzantine province of Bithynia, became a fortunate position for their future conquests. The Latins, who had conquered the city of Constantinople in 1204 during the Fourth Crusade, established a Latin Empire (1204–61), divided the former Byzantine territories in the Balkans and the Aegean among themselves, and forced the Byzantine Emperors into exile at Nicaea (present-day Iznik). From 1261 onwards, the Byzantines were largely preoccupied with regaining their control in the Balkans. Toward the end of the 13th century, as Mongol power began to decline, the Turcoman chiefs assumed greater independence.
Under its founder, Osman I, the Ottoman beylik expanded along the Sakarya River and westward towards the Sea of Marmara. Thus, the population of western Asia Minor had largely become Turkish-speaking and Muslim in religion. It was under his son, Orhan I, who had attacked and conquered the important urban center of Bursa in 1326, proclaiming it as the Ottoman capital, that the Ottoman Empire developed considerably. In 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe and established a foothold on the Gallipoli Peninsula while at the same time pushing east and taking Ankara. Many Turks from Anatolia began to settle in the region abandoned by the inhabitants who had fled Thrace before the Ottoman invasion. However, the Byzantines were not the only ones to suffer from the Ottoman advancement for, in the mid-1330s, Orhan annexed the Turkish beylik of Karasi. This advancement was maintained by Murad I who more than tripled the territories under his direct rule, reaching some 100,000 square miles, evenly distributed in Europe and Asia Minor. Gains in Anatolia were matched by those in Europe; once the Ottoman forces took Edirne (Adrianople), which became the capital of the Ottoman empire in 1365, they opened their way into Bulgaria and Macedonia in 1371 at the Battle of Maritsa. With the conquests of Thrace, Macedonia, and Bulgaria, significant numbers of Turkish emigrants settled in these regions. This form of Ottoman-Turkish colonization became a very effective method to consolidate their position and power in the Balkans. The settlers consisted of soldiers, nomads, farmers, artisans and merchants, dervishes, preachers and other religious functionaries, and administrative personnel.
In 1453, Ottoman armies, under Sultan Mehmed II, conquered Constantinople. Mehmed reconstructed and repopulated the city, and made it the new Ottoman capital. After the Fall of Constantinople, the Ottoman Empire entered a long period of conquest and expansion with its borders eventually going deep into Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. Selim I dramatically expanded the empire’s eastern and southern frontiers in the Battle of Chaldiran and gained recognition as the guardian of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. His successor, Suleiman the Magnificent, further expanded the conquests after capturing Belgrade in 1521 and using its territorial base to conquer Hungary, and other Central European territories, after his victory in the Battle of Mohács as well as also pushing the frontiers of the empire to the east. Following Suleiman's death, Ottoman victories continued, albeit less frequently than before. The island of Cyprus was conquered, in 1571, bolstering Ottoman dominance over the sea routes of the eastern Mediterranean. However, after its defeat at the Battle of Vienna, in 1683, the Ottoman army was met by ambushes and further defeats; the 1699 Treaty of Karlowitz, which granted Austria the provinces of Hungary and Transylvania, marked the first time in history that the Ottoman Empire actually relinquished territory.
By the 19th century, the empire began to decline when ethno-nationalist uprisings occurred across the empire. Thus, the last quarter of the 19th and the early part of the 20th century saw some 7–9 million Turkish-Muslim refugees from the lost territories of the Caucasus, Crimea, Balkans, and the Mediterranean islands migrate to Anatolia and Eastern Thrace. By 1913, the government of the Committee of Union and Progress started a program of forcible Turkification of non-Turkish minorities. By 1914, the World War I broke out, and the Turks scored some success in Gallipoli during the Battle of the Dardanelles in 1915. During World War I, the government of the Committee of Union and Progress continued with its Turkification policies, which effected non-Turkish minorities, such as the Armenians during the Armenian Genocide and the Greeks during various campaigns of ethnic cleansing and expulsion. When in 1918, however, the Turks, represented by the Committee of Union and Progress, agreed to an armistice with England and France.
The Treaty of Sèvres—signed in 1920 by the government of Mehmet VI—dismantled the Ottoman Empire. The Turks, under Mustafa Kemal, refused to accept the conditions of the treaty and fought the Turkish War of Independence, resulting in the abolition of the Sultanate. Thus, the 623-year old Ottoman Empire ended.
Once Mustafa Kemal Atatürk led the Turkish War of Independence against the Allied forces that occupied the former Ottoman Empire, he united the Turkish Muslim majority. He successfully led them from 1919 to 1922 in overthrowing the occupying forces out of what the Turkish National Movement considered the Turkish homeland. The Turkish identity became the unifying force when, in 1923, the Treaty of Lausanne was signed and the newly founded Republic of Turkey was formally established. Atatürk's 15-year rule was marked by a series of radical political and social reforms that transformed Turkey into a secular, modern republic with civil and political equality for sectarian minorities and women.
Throughout the 1920s and the 1930s, Turks, as well as other Muslims, from the Balkans, the Black Sea, the Aegean islands, the island of Cyprus, the Sanjak of Alexandretta (Hatay), the Middle East, and the Soviet Union continued to arrive in Turkey, most of whom settled in urban north-western Anatolia. The bulk of these immigrants, known as "Muhacirs", were the Balkan Turks who faced harassment and discrimination in their homelands. However, there were still remnants of a Turkish population in many of these countries because the Turkish government wanted to preserve these communities so that the Turkish character of these neighbouring territories could be maintained. One of the last stages of ethnic Turks immigrating to Turkey was between 1940 and 1990 when about 700,000 Turks arrived from Bulgaria. Today, between a third and a quarter of Turkey's population are the descendants of these immigrants.
During the late Roman Period, prior to the Turkic conquest, the population of Anatolia had reached an estimated level of over 12 million people. Furthermore, during the time of Turkic migrations, Anatolia had the lowest migrant/resident ratio. The extent to which gene flow from Central Asia has contributed to the current gene pool of the Turkish people, and the role of the 11th century invasion by Turkic peoples, has been the subject of various studies. Several studies have concluded that the historical and indigenous Anatolian groups are the primary source of the present-day Turkish population.k[›] Another study found Adygei population from Caucasus closest to the Turkish population among sampled European, Middle Eastern, and Central and South Asian populations. Furthermore, various studies suggested that, although the early Turkic invaders carried out an invasion with cultural significance, including the introduction of the Old Anatolian Turkish language (the predecessor to modern Turkish) and Islam, the genetic contribution from Central Asia may have been very small.k[›] Today's Turkish people are more closely related with the Balkan populations than to the Central Asian populations, and a study looking into allele frequencies suggested that there was a lack of genetic relationship between the Mongols and the Turks, despite the historical relationship of their languages (The Turks and Germans were equally distant to all three Mongolian populations). Multiple studies suggested an elite cultural dominance-driven linguistic replacement model to explain the adoption of Turkish language by Anatolian indigenous inhabitants.k[›] A study involving mitochondrial analysis of a Byzantine-era population, whose samples were gathered from excavations in the archaeological site of Sagalassos, found that the samples had close genetic affinity with modern Turkish and Balkan populations. During their research on leukemia, a group of Armenian scientists observed high genetic matching between Turks, Kurds, and Armenians.
In 1882 Augustus Henry Keane said the Mongolic type included the following races: Tibetans, Burmese, Tai, Koreans, Japanese, Lu-Chu, Finno-Tatars and Malays. Keane said the following peoples are mixed Mongolo-Caucasic varieties: Anatolian Turks, Uzbegs, and Tajiks of Turkestan. Keane said the Kazaks are intermediate between the Túrki and Mongolian races. Keane said the Mongolian race is best represented by the Buriats.
Turanid race, the latter usage implies the existence of a Turanid racial type or "minor race", subtype of the Europid (Caucasian) race with Mongoloid admixtures, situated at the boundary of the distribution of the Mongoloid and Europid "great races".
Traditional areas of Turkish settlement
The Turkish Cypriots are the ethnic Turks whose Ottoman Turkish forbears colonised the island of Cyprus in 1571. About 30,000 Turkish soldiers were given land once they settled in Cyprus, which bequeathed a significant Turkish community. In 1960, a census by the new Republic's government revealed that the Turkish Cypriots formed 18.2% of the island's population. However, once inter-communal fighting and ethnic tensions between 1963 and 1974 occurred between the Turkish and Greek Cypriots, known as the "Cyprus conflict", the Greek Cypriot government conducted a census in 1973, albeit without the Turkish Cypriot populace. A year later, in 1974, the Cypriot government’s Department of Statistics and Research estimated the Turkish Cypriot population was 118,000 (or 18.4%). A coup d'état in Cyprus on 15 July 1974 by Greeks and Greek Cypriots favouring union with Greece (also known as "Enosis") was followed by military intervention by Turkey whose troops established Turkish Cypriot control over the northern part of the island. Hence, census's conducted by the Republic of Cyprus have excluded the Turkish Cypriot population that had settled in the unrecognised Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Between 1975 and 1981, Turkey encouraged its own citizens to settle in Northern Cyprus; a 2010 report by the International Crisis Group suggests that out of the 300,000 residents living in Northern Cyprus perhaps half were either born in Turkey or are children of such settlers.
The Meskhetian Turks are the ethnic Turks formerly inhabiting the Meskheti region of Georgia, along the border with Turkey. The Turkish presence in Meskhetia began with the Ottoman invasion of 1578, although Turkic tribes had settled in the region as early as the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Today, the Meskhetian Turks are widely dispersed throughout the former Soviet Union (as well as in Turkey and the United States) due to forced deportations during World War II. At the time, the Soviet Union was preparing to launch a pressure campaign against Turkey, and Joseph Stalin wanted to clear the strategic Turkish population in Meskheti, who would likely be hostile to Soviet intentions. In 1944, the Meskhetian Turks were accused of smuggling, banditry and espionage in collaboration with their kin across the Turkish border; nationalistic policies at the time encouraged the slogan: "Georgia for Georgians" and that the Meskhetian Turks should be sent to Turkey "where they belong". Approximately 115,000 Meskhetian Turks were deported to Central Asia and only a few hundred have been able to return to Georgia ever since.
|Region of settlement||Year of Turkish settlement||Name of Turkish community||Current status|
|Bosnia||1463||Bosnian Turks||The 1991 Bosnian census showed that there was a minority of 267 Turks. However current estimates suggest that there are actually 50,000 Turks living in the country.|
|Bulgaria||1396||Bulgarian Turks||In the 2011 Bulgarian census, which did not receive a response regarding ethnicity by the total population, 588,318 people, or 8.8% of the self-appointed, determined their ethnicity as Turkish; while the latest census of the entire population—the 2001 census—recorded 746,664 Turks, or 9.4% of the population. Other estimates suggests that there are 750,000 to up to around 1 million Turks in the country.|
|Croatia||1526||Croatian Turks||According to the 2001 Croatian census the Turkish minority numbered 300. More recent estimates have suggested that there are 2,000 Turks in Croatia.|
Kos (in Greece)
|1523||Dodecanese Turks||Some 5,000 Turks live in the Dodecanese islands of Rhodes and Kos.|
|Kosovo||1389||Kosovan Turks||There are approximately 50,000 Kosovar Turks living in Kosovo, mostly in Mamuša, Prizren, and Priština.|
|Republic of Macedonia||1392||Macedonian Turks||The 2002 Macedonian census states that there were 77,959 Macedonian Turks, forming about 4% of the total population and constituting a majority in Centar Župa and Plasnica. However, academic estimates suggest that they actually number between 170,000–200,000. Furthermore, about 200,000 Macedonian Turks have migrated to Turkey during World War I and World War II due to persecutions and discrimination|
|Montenegro||1496||Montenegrin Turks||There were 104 Montenegrin Turks according to the 2011 census. The majority left their homes and migrated to Turkey in the 1900s.|
|Dobruja, Romania||1388||Romanian Turks||There were 28,226 Romanian Turks living in the country according to the 2011 Romanian census. However, academic estimates suggest that the community numbers between 55,000 and 80,000.|
|Western Thrace, Greece||1354||Western Thrace Turks||The Greek government refers to the community as "Greek Muslims" or "Hellenic Muslims" according to the Treaty of Lausanne as well as the article N.2 of the Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations and denies the existence of a Turkish minority in Western Thrace, the easternmost poart of Northern Greece. Older population estimates were about 120,000–130,000, but more recent ones suggest that the community numbers 150,000. Between 300,000 to 400,000 have emigrated to Turkey since 1923.|
|Region of settlement||Year of Turkish settlement||Name of Turkish community||Current status|
|Iraq||1534||Iraqi Turks||The Turks of Iraq are often called "Iraqi Turkmens" or "Iraqi Turcomans" because there have been various Turkic migrations to Iraq, from as early as the 7th century. However, most of today's descendants of these first migrants are assimilated into the local Arab population. Once Suleiman the Magnificent conquered Iraq in 1534, followed by Sultan Murad IV's capture of Baghdad in 1638, a large influx of Turks settled down in the region. Thus, most of today's Iraqi Turkmen are the descendants of the Ottoman soldiers, traders and civil servants who were brought into Iraq during the rule of the Ottoman Empire.|
|Jordan||1516||Jordanian Turks||There exists a small minority of about 5,000 people in the country who are the descendants of the Ottoman-Turkish colonisers.|
|Lebanon||1516||Lebanese Turks||The Turkish community in Lebanon currently numbers about 80,000. Turks were brought into the region along with Sultan Selim I’s army during his campaign to Egypt. The descendants of these early Ottoman Turkish settlors mainly live in Akkar and Baalbeck. Late Ottoman-Turkish migration continued when the Ottoman Empire lost its dominion over the island of Crete, in modern-day Greece. After 1897, when the Ottomans lost control of the island, the Ottoman Empire sent ships to protect the island’s Cretan Turks, most settled in Izmir and Mersin, but some of them were also sent to Tripoli, Lebanon.|
|Syria||1516||Syrian Turks||The Turks of Syria are often called "Syrian Turkmens" or "Syrian Turcomans" because various Turkic migrations to Syria began as early as the 7th century. However, most of today's descendants of these first migrants are assimilated into the local Arab population. In 1516 Sultan Selim I conquered Syria and the region was part of the Ottoman Empire until 1918. Hence, during the 402 years of Ottoman-Turkish rule, Turks migrated from Anatolia to Syria for centuries, establishing themselves as a significant community. Today, there are about 1.5 million Turks living in Syria who still speak Turkish, although about a further 2 million are believed assimilated within the Arab population.|
|Region settlement||Year of Turkish settlement||Name of Turkish community||Current status|
|Algeria||1517||Algerian Turks||Estimates on the Algerian Turkish community vary significantly, according to the Turkish Embassy in Algeria there is between 600,000 to 2 million people of Turkish origin living in Algeria. The Oxford Business Group has suggested that people of Turkish descent make up 5% of Algeria's total population, accounting to about 1.7 million. However, other estimates state that the Turkish community make up 10–25% of Algeria's population, if the Turkish-Algerian creole population known as the Kouloughlis are included.|
|Egypt||1517||Egyptian Turks||About 100,000 Turks are still living in Egypt are often called "Egyptian Turkmens" or "Egyptian Turks" because various Turkic migrations to Egypt began as early as the 7th century. However, most of today's descendants, about 1.5 million, have assimilated into the Arab population.|
|Libya||1551||Libyan Turks||In 1936 there was 35,000 Turks living in Libya, forming about 5% of the total population at the time.|
|Tunisia||1574||Tunisian Turks||As much as 25% of Tunisia's population are of Turkish origin.|
After World War II, West Germany began to experience its greatest economic boom ("Wirtschaftswunder") and in 1961 invited the Turks as guest workers ("Gastarbeiter") to make up for the shortage of workers. The concept of the Gastarbeiter continued with Turkey bearing agreements with Austria, Belgium, and the Netherlands in 1964, with France in 1965; and with Sweden in 1967.
Current estimates suggests that there is approximately 9 million Turks living in Europe, excluding those who live in Turkey. Modern immigration of Turks to Western Europe began with Turkish Cypriots migrating to the United Kingdom in the early 1920s when the British Empire annexed Cyprus in 1914 and the residents of Cyprus became subjects of the Crown. However, Turkish Cypriot migration increased significantly in the 1940s and 1950s due to the Cyprus conflict. Conversely, in 1944, Turks who were forcefully deported from Meskheti in Georgia during the Second World War, known as the Meskhetian Turks, settled in Eastern Europe (especially in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine). By the early 1960s, migration to Western and Northern Europe increased significantly from Turkey when Turkish "guest workers" arrived under a "Labour Export Agreement" with Germany in 1961, followed by a similar agreement with the Netherlands, Belgium and Austria in 1964; France in 1965; and Sweden in 1967. More recently, Bulgarian Turks, Romanian Turks, and Western Thrace Turks have also migrated to Western Europe.
Compared to Turkish immigration to Europe, migration to North America has been relatively small. According to the 2000 United States Census and the 2006 Canadian Census, 117,575 Americans and 43,700 Canadians claimed Turkish descent. However, the actual number of Turks in both countries is considerably larger, as a significant number of ethnic Turks have migrated to North America not just from Turkey but also from the Balkans (such as Bulgaria and Macedonia), Cyprus, and the former Soviet Union. Hence, the Turkish American community is currently estimated to number about 500,000 whilst the Turkish Canadian community is believed to number between 50,000–100,000. The largest concentration of Turkish Americans are in New York City, and Rochester, New York; Washington, D.C.; and Detroit, Michigan. The majority of Turkish Canadians live in Ontario, mostly in Toronto, and there is also a sizable Turkish community in Montreal. With regards to the 2010 United States Census, the U.S government was determined to get an accurate count of the American population by reaching segments, such as the Turkish community, that are considered hard to count, a good portion of which falls under the category of foreign-born immigrants. The Assembly of Turkish American Associations and the US Census Bureau formed a partnership to spearhead a national campaign to count people of Turkish origin with an organisation entitled "Census 2010 SayTurk" (which has a double meaning in Turkish, "Say" means "to count" and "to respect") to identify the estimated 500,000 Turks now living in the United States.
A notable scale of Turkish migration to Australia began in the late 1940s when Turkish Cypriots began to leave the island of Cyprus for economic reasons, and then, during the Cyprus conflict, for political reasons, marking the beginning of a Turkish Cypriot immigration trend to Australia. The Turkish Cypriot community were the only Muslims acceptable under the White Australia Policy; many of these early immigrants found jobs working in factories, out in the fields, or building national infrastructure. In 1967, the governments of Australia and Turkey signed an agreement to allow Turkish citizens to immigrate to Australia. Prior to this recruitment agreement, there were less than 3,000 people of Turkish origin in Australia. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, nearly 19,000 Turkish immigrants arrived from 1968–1974. They came largely from rural areas of Turkey, approximately 30% were skilled and 70% were unskilled workers. However, this changed in the 1980s when the number of skilled Turks applying to enter Australia had increased considerably. Over the next 35 years the Turkish population rose to almost 100,000. More than half of the Turkish community settled in Victoria, mostly in the north-western suburbs of Melbourne. According to the 2006 Australian Census, 59,402 people claimed Turkish ancestry; however, this does not show a true reflection of the Turkish Australian community as it is estimated that between 40,000 to 120,000 Turkish Cypriots and 150,000 to 200,000 mainland Turks live in Australia. Furthermore, there has also been ethnic Turks who have migrated to Australia from Bulgaria, Greece, Iraq, and the Republic of Macedonia.
Former Soviet Union
The Turkish people traditionally lived in the Meskhetia region of Georgia. However, due to the ordered deportation of over 115,000 Meskhetian Turks from their homeland in 1944, during the Second World War, the majority settled in Central Asia. According to the 1989 Soviet Census, which was the last Soviet Census, 106,000 Meskhetian Turks lived in Uzbekistan, 50,000 in Kazakhstan, and 21,000 in Kyrgyzstan. However, in 1989, the Meshetian Turks who had settled in Uzbekistan became the target of a pogrom in the Fergana valley, which was the principal destination for Meskhetian Turkish deportees, after an uprising of nationalism by the Uzbeks. The riots had left hundreds of Turks dead or injured and nearly 1,000 properties were destroyed; thus, thousands of Meskhetian Turks were forced into renewed exile. The majority of Meskhetian Turks, about 70,000, went to Azerbaijan, whilst the remainder went to various regions of Russia (especially Krasnodar Krai), Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Ukraine. Soviet authorities recorded many Meskhetian Turks as belonging to other nationalities such as "Azeri", "Kazakh", "Kyrgyz", and "Uzbek". Hence, official census's have not shown a true reflection of the Turkish population; for example, according to the 2009 Azerbaijani census, there were 38,000 Turks living in the country; yet in 1999, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees stated that there were 100,000 Meskhetian Turks living in the country. Furthermore, in 2001, the Baku Institute of Peace and Democracy suggested that there was between 90,000 to 110,000 Meskhetian Turks living in Azerbaijan.
Arts and Architecture
An example of Turkish classical music.
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
Turkish architecture reached its peak during the Ottoman period. Ottoman architecture, influenced by Seljuk, Byzantine and Islamic architecture, came to develop a style all of its own. Overall, Ottoman architecture has been described as a synthesis of the architectural traditions of the Mediterranean and the Middle East.
As Turkey successfully transformed from the religion-based former Ottoman Empire into a modern nation-state with a very strong separation of state and religion, an increase in the modes of artistic expression followed. During the first years of the republic, the government invested a large amount of resources into fine arts; such as museums, theatres, opera houses and architecture. Diverse historical factors play important roles in defining the modern Turkish identity. Turkish culture is a product of efforts to be a "modern" Western state, while maintaining traditional religious and historical values. The mix of cultural influences is dramatized, for example, in the form of the "new symbols of the clash and interlacing of cultures" enacted in the works of Orhan Pamuk, recipient of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Traditional Turkish music include Arabesk, Turkish folk music (Halk Müziği), Fasıl, and Ottoman classical music (sanat music) that originates from the Ottoman court. Contemporary Turkish music include Turkish pop music, rock, and Turkish hip hop genres.
The Turkish language, which is a southern Oghuz branch of the Turkic languages. It is natively spoken by the Turkish people in Turkey, Balkans, the island of Cyprus, Meskhetia, and other areas of traditional settlement that formerly, in whole or part, belonged to the Ottoman Empire. Turkish is the official language of Turkey. In the Balkans, Turkish is still spoken by Turkish minorities who still live there, especially in Bulgaria, Greece (mainly in Western Thrace), Kosovo, the Republic of Macedonia, and Romania. The Turkish language was introduced to Cyprus with the Ottoman conquest in 1571 and became the politically dominant, prestigious language, of the administration.
One important change to Turkish literature was enacted in 1928, when Mustafa Kemal initiated the creation and dissemination of a modified version of the Latin alphabet to replace the Arabic alphabet based Ottoman script. Over time, this change, together with changes in Turkey's system of education, would lead to more widespread literacy in the country. Modern standard Turkish is based on the dialect of Istanbul. Nonetheless, dialectal variation persists, in spite of the levelling influence of the standard used in mass media and the Turkish education system since the 1930s. The terms ağız or şive often refer to the different types of Turkish dialects.
There are three major Anatolian Turkish dialect groups spoken in Turkey: the West Anatolian dialect (roughly to the west of the Euphrates), the East Anatolian dialect (to the east of the Euphrates), and the North East Anatolian group, which comprises the dialects of the Eastern Black Sea coast, such as Trabzon, Rize, and the littoral districts of Artvin. The Balkan Turkish dialects are considerably closer to standard Turkish and do not differ significantly from it, despite some contact phenomena, especially in the lexicon. In the post-Ottoman period, Cypriot Turkish was relatively isolated from standard Turkish and had strong influences by the Cypriot Greek dialect. The condition of coexistence with the Greek Cypriots led to a certain bilingualism whereby Turkish Cypriots knowledge of Greek was important in areas where the two communities lived and worked together. The linguistic situation changed radically in 1974, when the island was divided into a Greek south and a Turkish north (Northern Cyprus). Today, the Cypriot Turkish dialect is being exposed to increasing standard Turkish through immigration from Turkey, new mass media, and new educational institutions. The Meskhetian Turks speak an Eastern Anatolian dialect of Turkish, which hails from the regions of Kars, Ardahan, and Artvin. The Meskhetian Turkish dialect has also borrowed from other languages (including Azerbaijani, Georgian, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Russian, and Uzbek), which the Meskhetian Turks have been in contact with during the Russian and Soviet rule.
According to CIA factbook, 99.8% of the population in Turkey is Muslim, most of them being Sunni. The remaining 0.2% is mostly Christians and Jews. There are also some estimated 10 to 15 million Alevi Muslims in Turkey. Christians in Turkey include Assyrians/Syriacs, Armenians, and Greeks. Jewish people in Turkey include those that descend from Sephardic Jews who escaped Spain in 15th century and Greek-speaking Jews from Byzantine times. According to KONDA research, only 9.7% of the population described themselves as "fully devout," while 52.8% described themselves as "religious." 69.4% of the respondents reported that they or their wives cover their heads (1.3% reporting chador), although this rate decreases in several demographics: 53% in ages 18–28, 27.5% in university graduates, 16.1% in masters-or-higher-degree holders. Turkey has also been a secular state since Ataturk. According to a poll, 90% of respondents said the country should be defined as secular in the new Constitution that is being written.
References and notes
^ a: According to the Home Affairs Committee this includes 300,000 Turkish Cypriots. However, some estimates suggest that the Turkish Cypriot community in the UK has reached between 350,000 to 400,000.
^ b: Government immigration figures on the number of Turks in the US estimates a total of 190,000 persons; however, these statistics are not fully reliable because a considerable number of Turks were born in the Balkans and USSR.
^ c: A further 10,000-30,000 people from Bulgaria live in the Netherlands. The majority are Bulgarian Turks and are the fastest-growing group of immigrants in the Netherlands.
^ d: This includes Turkish settlers. A further 2,000 Turkish Cypriots currently reside in the southern part of the island.
^ e: This figure only includes Turkish citizens. Therefore, this also includes ethnic minorities from Turkey; however, it does not include ethnic Turks who have either been born and/or have become naturalised citizens. Furthermore, these figures do not include ethnic Turkish minorities from Bulgaria, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece, Iraq, Kosovo, Macedonia, Romania or any other traditional area of Turkish settlement because they are registered as citizens from the country they have immigrated from rather than their ethnic Turkish identity.
^ f: This figure only includes the Turkish community in Melbourne. The 2006 Australian Census shows only 59,402 people in Australia claimed Turkish ancestry. However, it neglects to include the Australian-born Turks and only identifies the number of Turkish immigrants from Turkey, Cyprus (excluding TRNC citizens), and Bulgaria. Estimates by the Sydney Morning Herald, the Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, as well as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, place the Turkish Australians population at 150,000 whilst the Turkish Cypriot Australian community is believed to number between 40,000-120,000. Smaller groups of Turks have also arrive from Greece and the Republic of Macedonia.
^ g: This figure only includes Turks of Western Thrace. A further 5,000 live in the Rhodes and Kos. In addition to this, 8,297 immigrants live in Greece.
^ h: These figures only include the Meskhetian Turks. According to official census's there were 38,000 Turks in Azerbaijan (2009), 97,015 in Kazakhstan (2009), 39,133 in Kyrgyzstan (2009), 109,883 in Russia (2010), and 9,180 in Ukraine (2001). A further 106,302 Turks were recorded in Uzbekistan's last census in 1989 although the majority left for Azerbaijan and Russia during the 1989 pogroms in the Ferghana Valley. Official data regarding the Turks in the former Soviet Union is unlikely to provide a true indication of their population as many have been registered as "Azeri", "Kazakh", "Kyrgyz", and "Uzbek". In Kazakhstan only a third of them were recorded as Turks, the rest had been arbitrarily declared members of other ethnic groups. Similarly, in Azerbaijan, much of the community is officially registered as "Azerbaijani" even though the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees reported, in 1999, that 100,000 Meskhetian Turks were living there.
^ i: A further 30,000 Bulgarian Turks live in Sweden.
^ j: "The history of Turkey encompasses, first, the history of Anatolia before the coming of the Turks and of the civilizations--Hittite, Thracian, Hellenistic, and Byzantine—of which the Turkish nation is the heir by assimilation or example. Second, it includes the history of the Turkish peoples, including the Seljuks, who brought Islam and the Turkish language to Anatolia. Third, it is the history of the Ottoman Empire, a vast, cosmopolitan, pan-Islamic state that developed from a small Turkish amirate in Anatolia and that for centuries was a world power."
^ k: The Turks are also defined by the country of origin. Turkey, once Asia Minor or Anatolia, has a very long and complex history. It was one of the major regions of agricultural development in the early Neolithic and may have been the place of origin and spread of lndo-European languages at that time. The Turkish language was imposed on a predominantly lndo-European-speaking population (Greek being the official language of the Byzantine empire), and genetically there is very little difference between Turkey and the neighboring countries. The number of Turkish invaders was probably rather small and was genetically diluted by the large number of aborigines."
"The consideration of demographic quantities suggests that the present genetic picture of the aboriginal world is determined largely by the history of Paleolithic and Neolithic people, when the greatest relative changes in population numbers took place."
- Milliyet. "55 milyon kişi 'etnik olarak' Türk". Retrieved 21 July 2011.
- Library of Congress – Federal Research Division. "Country Profile: Turkey". Retrieved 6 February 2010.
- CIA. "The World Factbook". Retrieved 27 July 2011.
- International Crisis Group 2010, 2.
- Ilican 2011, 95.
- National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria (2011). "2011 Population Census in the Republic of Bulgaria (Final data)". National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria.
- Sosyal 2011, 369.
- Bokova 2010, 170.
- Republic of Macedonia State Statistical Office 2005, 34.
- Knowlton 2005, 66.
- Abrahams 1996, 53.
- "Demographics of Greece". European Union National Languages. Retrieved 19 December 2010.
- Whitman 1990, i.
- Ergener & Ergener 2002, 106.
- Sosyal 2011, 368.
- OSCE 2010, 3.
- National Institute of Statistics 2011, 10.
- Phinnemore 2006, 157.
- Constantin, Goschin & Dragusin 2008, 59.
- Turkish Embassy in Algeria 2008, 4.
- Oxford Business Group 2008, 10.
- Zaman. "Türk’ün Cezayir’deki lakabı: Hıyarunnas!". Retrieved 18 March 2012.
- Park 2005, 37.
- Phillips 2006, 112.
- Taylor 2004, 28.
- Akar 1993, 95.
- Zaman. "Türk işadamları Tunus’ta yatırım imkanı aradı". Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- Ertan, Fikret (1998), Tunus ve tarih, Zaman.
- Özkaya 2007, 112.
- Internetional Strategic Research Organisation, An Aspect that Gets Overlooked: The Turks of Syria and Turkey, retrieved 2 February 2013.
- "A unified Syria without Assad is what Turkmen are after", Today's Zaman, retrieved 2 February 2013.
- Baedeker 2000, lviii.
- Akar 1993, 94.
- Karpat 2004, 12.
- Al-Akhbar. "Lebanese Turks Seek Political and Social Recognition". Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- "Tension adds to existing wounds in Lebanon". Today's Zaman. Retrieved 6 April 2011.
- European Institute. "Merkel Stokes Immigration Debate in Germany". Retrieved 15 November 2010.
- Kötter et al. 2003, 55.
- Haviland et al. 2010, 675.
- Leveau & Hunter 2002, 6.
- Fransa Diyanet İşleri Türk İslam Birliği. "2011 YILI DİTİB KADIN KOLLARI GENEL TOPLANTISI PARİS DİTİB’DE YAPILDI". Retrieved 15 February 2012.
- Home Affairs Committee 2011, 38
- "UK immigration analysis needed on Turkish legal migration, say MPs". The Guardian. 1 August 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
- Federation of Turkish Associations UK (19 June 2008). "Short history of the Federation of Turkish Associations in UK". Archived from the original on 13 April 2011. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- Netherlands Info Services. "Dutch Queen Tells Turkey 'First Steps Taken' On EU Membership Road". Retrieved 16 December 2008.
- Dutch News. "Dutch Turks swindled, AFM to investigate". Retrieved 16 December 2008.
- Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi 2008, 11.
- "Turkey's ambassador to Austria prompts immigration spat". BBC News. 10 November 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2010.
- Andreas Mölzer. "In Österreich leben geschätzte 500.000 Türken, aber kaum mehr als 10–12.000 Slowenen". Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- CBN. "Turkey's Islamic Ambitions Grip Austria". Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- King Baudouin Foundation 2008, 5.
- De Morgen. "Koning Boudewijnstichting doorprikt clichés rond Belgische Turken". Retrieved 15 November 2010.
- The Federal Authorities of the Swiss Confederation. "Diaspora und Migrantengemeinschaften aus der Türkei in der Schweiz". Retrieved 16 December 2008.
- Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. "Turkiet är en viktig bro mellan Öst och Väst". Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- "Businessman invites Swedes for cheap labor, regional access". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- DR Online. "Tyrkisk afstand fra Islamisk Trossamfund". Retrieved 8 February 2009.
- Aydıngün et al. 2006, 13.
- Ryazantsev 2009, 172.
- UNHCR 1999, 14.
- NATO Parliamentary Assembly. "Minorities in the South Caucasus: Factor of Instability?". Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. "Immigration and Ethnicity: Turks". Retrieved 7 February 2010.
- The Washington Diplomat. "Census Takes Aim to Tally'Hard to Count' Populations". Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- Farkas 2003, 40.
- "Avustralya’dan THY’ye çağrı var". Milliyet. 12 March 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- Canada's National Statistical Agency. "Statistics Canada". Retrieved 9 July 2008.
- Turkish Embassy (Ottawa Canada). "Turkish-Canadian Relations". Retrieved 19 March 2010.
- Zaman. "Buyurun Kanada'ya uçalım". Retrieved 27 September 2011.
- "Religion, Secularism and the Veil in Daily Life Survey". Konda Arastirma. September 2007. Archived from the original on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 24 May 2013.
- After a migration during the second half of the second milleniun and the first centuries of the first millennium the Thracians were settled from the Black Sea to the neighbourhood of Axios, and from the Aegean Sea to the Transdanubian lands. They straddled the Sea of Marmara, and had a foodhold also in Troad and in Bithynia. The Cambridge ancient history. 3,2. “The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and other states of the Near East, from the eighth to the sixth centuries B.C." John Boardman, Iorwerth E. S. Edwards, N. G. L. Hammond, Cambridge University Press, 1991, ISBN 0521227178. pp. 591-622.
- Douglas Arthur Howard. The History of Turkey. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-30708-9. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- Casson, Lionel. "The Thracians". The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. Retrieved 24 May 2013.
- Yardumian, Aram; Schurr, Theodore G. (2011). "Who Are the Anatolian Turks?". Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia 50: 6–42. doi:10.2753/AAE1061-1959500101. Retrieved 21 October 2013. "These data further solidify our case for a paternal G/J substratum in Anatolian populations, and for continuity between the Paleolithic/Neolithic and the current populations of Anatolia."
- Hodoğlugil, U. U.; Mahley, R. W. (2012). "Turkish Population Structure and Genetic Ancestry Reveal Relatedness among Eurasian Populations". Annals of Human Genetics 76 (2): 128–141. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2011.00701.x. PMID 22332727.
- Ottoni, C.; Ricaut, F. O. X.; Vanderheyden, N.; Brucato, N.; Waelkens, M.; Decorte, R. (2011). "Mitochondrial analysis of a Byzantine population reveals the differential impact of multiple historical events in South Anatolia". European Journal of Human Genetics 19 (5): 571–576. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2010.230. PMC 3083616. PMID 21224890.
- Bainbridge 2009, 47
- Leiser 2005, 837.
- Christopher I. Beckwith (16 March 2009). Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present. Princeton University Press. pp. 115–. ISBN 978-1-4008-2994-1. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Stokes & Gorman 2010, 707.
- Findley 2005, 21.
- Soner Cagaptay (11 January 2013). Islam, Secularism and Nationalism in Modern Turkey: Who is a Turk?. Routledge. pp. 4–. ISBN 978-1-134-17447-8. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- Karpat 2004, 5–6.
- Ibrahim Kaya (2004). Social Theory and Later Modernities: The Turkish Experience. Liverpool University Press. pp. 57–58. ISBN 978-0-85323-898-0. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- "Turk, n.1". OED Online. September 2012. Oxford University Press. 2 November 2012 <http://www.oed.com>
- (Kushner 1997: 219; Meeker 1971: 322)
- (Kushner 1997: 220–221)
- (Meeker 1971: 322)
- (Meeker 1971: 323)
- (Kushner 1997: 230)
- "Turkish Citizenship Law". 29 May 2009. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
- "BDP won’t object to 'Turkishness' in constitution, says Türk". TODAY'S ZAMAN. 21 May 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- Stokes & Gorman 2010, 721.
- Theo van den Hout (27 October 2011). The Elements of Hittite. Cambridge University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-139-50178-1. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
- Sharon R. Steadman; Gregory McMahon (15 September 2011). The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-537614-2. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- Carlos Quiles, Fernando López-Menchero (5 October 2009). A Grammar of Modern Indo-European, Second Edition: Language and Culture, Writing System and Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Texts and Dictionary. Indo-European Association. pp. 99–. ISBN 978-1-4486-8206-5. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
- Findley 2005, 39
- Frederik Coene, The Caucasus-An Introduction, p.77 Taylor & Francis, 2009
- Duiker & Spielvogel 2012, 192.
- Darke 2011, 16.
- Chaurasia 2005, 181.
- Bainbridge 2009, 33.
- Duiker & Spielvogel 2012, 193.
- Ágoston 2010, 574.
- Delibaşı 1994, 7.
- International Business Publications 2004, 64
- Somel 2003, 266.
- Ágoston 2010, xxv.
- Kia 2011, 1.
- "Armenian Children Victims of Genocide". Armenian Genocide Museum.
- Fleet 1999, 5.
- Kia 2011, 2.
- Köprülü 1992, 110.
- Ágoston 2010, xxvi.
- Fleet 1999, 6.
- Eminov 1997, 27.
- Kermeli 2010, 111.
- Kia 2011, 5.
- Quataert 2000, 21.
- Kia 2011, 6.
- Quataert 2000, 24.
- Levine 2010, 28.
- Samuel Totten, William S. Parsons, ed. (2012). Century of Genocide. Routledge. pp. 118–124. ISBN 1135245509. ""By 1913 the advocates of liberalism had lost out to radicals in the party who promoted a program of forcible Turkification."
- Jwaideh, Wadie (2006). The Kurdish national movement : its origins and development (1. ed. ed.). Syracuse, NY: Syracuse Univ. Press. p. 104. ISBN 081563093X. "With the crushing of opposition elements, the Young Turks simultaneously launched their program of forcible Turkification and the creation of a highly centralized administrative system.""
- Akçam, Taner (2012). The Young Turks' crime against humanity: the Armenian genocide and ethnic cleansing in the Ottoman Empire. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. p. 29. ISBN 0691153337.
- Bjornlund, Matthias (March 2008). "The 1914 cleansing of Aegean Greeks as a case of violent Turkification". Journal of Genocide Research (Taylor & Francis) 10 (1): 41–57. doi:10.1080/14623520701850286. ISSN 1462-3528. "In 1914, the aim of Turkification was not to exterminate but to expel as many Greeks of the Aegean region as possible as not only a “security measure,” but as an extension of the policy of economic and cultural boycott, while at the same time creating living space for the muhadjirs that had been driven out of their homes under equally brutal circumstances."
- Akçam, Taner (2005). From Empire to Republic: Turkish Nationalism and the Armenian Genocide. London: Zed Books. p. 115. ISBN 9781842775271. "...the initial stages of the Turkification of the Empire, which affected by attacks on its very heterogeneous structure, thereby ushering in a relentless process of ethnic cleansing that eventually, through the exigencies and opportunities of the First World War, culminated in the Armenian Genocide."
- Rummel, Rudolph J. (1996). Death By Government. Transaction Publishers. p. 235. ISBN 9781412821292. "Through this genocide and the forced deportation of the Greeks, the nationalists completed the Young Turk's program-the Turkification of Turkey and the elimination of a pretext for Great Power meddling."
- J.M. Winter, ed. (2003). America and the Armenian Genocide of 1915. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 60. ISBN 9780511163821. "The devising of a scheme of a correlative Turkification of the Empire, or what was left of it, included the cardinal goal of the liquidation of that Empire’s residual non-Turkish elements. Given their numbers, their concentration in geo-strategic locations, and the troublesome legacy of the Armenian Question, the Armenians were targeted as the prime object for such liquidation."
- Levine 2010, 29.
- Göcek 2011, 22.
- Göcek 2011, 23.
- Çaǧaptay 2006, 82.
- Bosma, Lucassen & Oostindie 2012, 17
- Çaǧaptay 2006, 84.
- "Late Medieval Balkan and Asia Minor Population". Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient (BRILL) 3 (3): 265–274. 1960. doi:10.2307/3596052. JSTOR 3596052. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
- "Estimating Population at Ancient Military Sites: The Use of Historical and Contemporary Analogy". American Antiquity (Society for American Archaeology) 57 (2): 276–287. 1992. doi:10.2307/280733. JSTOR 280733. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
- Josiah Cox Russell (1958). Late Ancient and Medieval Population. American Philosophical Society Library.
- Berkman, C. C.; Dinc, H.; Sekeryapan, C.; Togan, I. (2008). "Alu insertion polymorphisms and an assessment of the genetic contribution of Central Asia to Anatolia with respect to the Balkans". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 136 (1): 11–18. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20772. PMID 18161848.
- Rosser, Z.; Zerjal, T.; Hurles, M.; Adojaan, M.; Alavantic, D.; Amorim, A.; Amos, W.; Armenteros, M.; Arroyo, E.; Barbujani, G.; Beckman, G.; Beckman, L.; Bertranpetit, J.; Bosch, E.; Bradley, D. G.; Brede, G.; Cooper, G.; Côrte-Real, H. B.; De Knijff, P.; Decorte, R.; Dubrova, Y. E.; Evgrafov, O.; Gilissen, A.; Glisic, S.; Gölge, M.; Hill, E. W.; Jeziorowska, A.; Kalaydjieva, L.; Kayser, M.; Kivisild, T. (2000). "Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Europe is Clinal and Influenced Primarily by Geography, Rather than by Language". The American Journal of Human Genetics 67 (6): 1526–1543. doi:10.1086/316890. PMC 1287948. PMID 11078479. 
- Cinnioglu, C.; King, R.; Kivisild, T.; Kalfoğlu, E.; Atasoy, S.; Cavalleri, G. L.; Lillie, A. S.; Roseman, C. C.; Lin, A. A.; Prince, K.; Oefner, P. J.; Shen, P.; Semino, O.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. L.; Underhill, P. A. (2004). "Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia". Human Genetics 114 (2): 127–148. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4. PMID 14586639. 
- Arnaiz-Villena, A.; Karin, M.; Bendikuze, N.; Gomez-Casado, E.; Moscoso, J.; Silvera, C.; Oguz, F. S.; Sarper Diler, A.; De Pacho, A.; Allende, L.; Guillen, J.; Martinez Laso, J. (2001). "HLA alleles and haplotypes in the Turkish population: Relatedness to Kurds, Armenians and other Mediterraneans". Tissue Antigens 57 (4): 308–317. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2001.057004308.x. PMID 11380939.
- Wells, R. S.; Yuldasheva, N.; Ruzibakiev, R.; Underhill, P. A.; Evseeva, I.; Blue-Smith, J.; Jin, L.; Su, B.; Pitchappan, R.; Shanmugalakshmi, S.; Balakrishnan, K.; Read, M.; Pearson, N. M.; Zerjal, T.; Webster, M. T.; Zholoshvili, I.; Jamarjashvili, E.; Gambarov, S.; Nikbin, B.; Dostiev, A.; Aknazarov, O.; Zalloua, P.; Tsoy, I.; Kitaev, M.; Mirrakhimov, M.; Chariev, A.; Bodmer, W. F. (2001). "The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98 (18): 10244–10249. doi:10.1073/pnas.171305098. PMC 56946. PMID 11526236.
- Arnaiz-Villena, A.; Gomez-Casado, E.; Martinez-Laso, J. (2002). "Population genetic relationships between Mediterranean populations determined by HLA allele distribution and a historic perspective". Tissue Antigens 60 (2): 111–121. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2002.600201.x. PMID 12392505.
- Comas, D.; Schmid, H.; Braeuer, S.; Flaiz, C.; Busquets, A.; Calafell, F.; Bertranpetit, J.; Scheil, H. -G.; Huckenbeck, W.; Efremovska, L.; Schmidt, H. (2004). "Alu insertion polymorphisms in the Balkans and the origins of the Aromuns". Annals of Human Genetics 68 (2): 120–127. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2003.00080.x. PMID 15008791.
- Machulla, H. K. G.; Batnasan, D.; Steinborn, F.; Uyar, F. A.; Saruhan-Direskeneli, G.; Oguz, F. S.; Carin, M. N.; Dorak, M. T. (2003). "Genetic affinities among Mongol ethnic groups and their relationship to Turks". Tissue Antigens 61 (4): 292–299. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.00043.x. PMID 12753667.
- Cansu ÇAMLIBEL (24 December 2009). "Turks, Armenians share similar genes, say scientists". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- Augustus Henry Keane. (1882). Asia. Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel For General Reading. London.
- Racial and cultural minorities: an analysis of prejudice and discrimination, Environment, development, and public policy, George Eaton Simpson, John Milton Yinger, Springer, 1985, ISBN 0-306-41777-4, p.32.
- American anthropologist, American Anthropological Association, Anthropological Society of Washington (Washington, D.C,), 1984 v. 86, nos. 3-4, p. 741.
- Hatay 2007, 22.
- Hatay 2007, 23.
- "UNFICYP: United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus". United Nations.
- Aydıngün et al. 2006, 4
- Bennigsen & Broxup 1983, 30.
- Tomlinson 2005, 107.
- Kurbanov & Kurbanov 1995, 237.
- Cornell 2001, 183.
- Federal Office of Statistics. "Population grouped according to ethnicity, by censuses 1961–1991". Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria (2011). "2011 Census (Final data)". National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria. p. 4.
- National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria (2001). "2001 Census". National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria.
- Novinite. "Scientists Raise Alarm over Apocalyptic Scenario for Bulgarian Ethnicity". Retrieved 21 July 2011.
- Croatian Bureau of Statistics. "POPULATION BY ETHNICITY, BY TOWNS/MUNICIPALITIES, CENSUS 2001". Croatian Bureau of Statistics.
- Zaman. "Altepe'den Hırvat Müslümanlara moral". Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- Clogg 2002, 84.
- Elsie 2010, 276.
- Evans 2010, 11.
- Evans 2010, 228.
- Statistical Office of Montenegro. "Population of Montenegro by sex, type of settlement, etnicity, religion and mother tongue, per municipalities". p. 7. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
- "Turks in Montenegrin town not afraid to show identity anymore". Today's Zaman. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
- Brozba 2010, 48.
- Ergener & Ergener 2002, 106"
- Whitman 1990, 2.
- Taylor 2004, 30.
- Taylor 2004, 31.
- Stansfield 2007, 70.
- Jawhar 2010, 314.
- International Crisis Group 2008, 16
- Library of Congress, Iraq: Other Minorities, Library of Congress Country Studies, retrieved 24 November 2011
- Yeni Asya. "Osmanlı devlet geleneği yaşatılıyor". Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- Orhan 2010, 8.
- Orhan 2010, 13.
- Öztürkmen, Duman & Orhan 2011, 6.
- Öztürkmen, Duman & Orhan 2011, 7.
- Öztürkmen, Duman & Orhan 2011, 8.
- Zaman. "Türk’ün Cezayir’deki lakabı: Hıyarunnas!". Retrieved 18 March 2012.
- Hizmetli 1953, 10.
- Pan 1949, 103.
- Abadan-Unat 2011, 12.
- Sosyal 2011, 367.
- Akgündüz 2008, 61.
- Kasaba 2008, 192.
- Twigg et al. 2005, 33
- United States Census Bureau. "Ancestry: 2000". Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- Statistics Canada. "2006 Census". Retrieved 25 February 2009.
- Karpat 2004, 627.
- Hüssein 2007, 17
- Cleland 2001, 24
- Hüssein 2007, 19
- Hüssein 2007, 196
- Hopkins 2011, 116
- Saeed 2003, 9
- Australian Bureau of Statistics. "20680-Ancestry (full classification list) by Sex Australia". Retrieved 13 July 2011.
- TRNC Ministry of Foreign Affairs. "Briefing Notes on the Cyprus Issue". Retrieved 3 October 2010.
- Kibris Gazetesi. "Avustralya'daki Kıbrıslı Türkler ve Temsilcilik...". Retrieved 31 May 2011.
- BRT. "AVUSTURALYA’DA KIBRS TÜRKÜNÜN SESİ". Retrieved 18 July 2011.
- Star Kıbrıs. "Sözünüzü Tutun". Retrieved 10 September 2012.
- "Old foes, new friends". The Sydney Morning Herald. 23 April 2005. Retrieved 26 December 2008.
- "Avustralyalı Türkler'den, TRT Türk'e tepki". Milliyet. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- Department of Immigration and Citizenship (2006). "Community Information Summary:Bulgaria". Australian Government. p. 2.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics. "2006 Census Ethnic Media Package". Retrieved 13 July 2011.
- Department of Immigration and Citizenship (2006). "Community Information Summary:Iraq". Australian Government. p. 1.
- UNHCR 1999b, 20.
- UNHCR 1999b, 21.
- Aydıngün et al. 2006, 1
- The State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan. "Population by ethnic groups". Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- Necipoğlu, Gülru (1995). Muqarnas: An Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture. Volume 12. Leiden : E.J. Brill. p. 60. ISBN 9789004103146. OCLC 33228759. Retrieved 7 July 2008.
- Grabar, Oleg (1985). Muqarnas: An Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture. Volume 3. Leiden : E.J. Brill,. ISBN 9004076115. Retrieved 7 July 2008.
- "Pamuk wins Nobel Literature prize". BBC. 12 October 2006. Retrieved 12 December 2006.
- Martin Dunford; Terry Richardson (3 June 2013). The Rough Guide to Turkey. Rough Guides. pp. 647–. ISBN 978-1-4093-4005-8. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
- Johanson 2011, 734–738.
- Johanson 2011, 738.
- Lester 1997; Wolf-Gazo 1996
- George L. Campbell (1 September 2003). Concise Compendium of the World's Languages. Taylor & Francis. pp. 547–. ISBN 978-0-415-11392-2. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- Johanson 2001, 16.
- Brendemoen 2002, 27.
- Brendemoen 2006, 227.
- Friedman 2003, 51.
- Johanson 2011, 739.
- Aydıngün et al. 2006, 23
- "CIA World Factbook". CIA. March 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
- Shankland, David (2003). The Alevis in Turkey: The Emergence of a Secular Islamic Tradition. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-7007-1606-8.
- Pieter H. Omtzigt; Markus K. Tozman; Andrea Tyndall (2012). The Slow Disappearance of the Syriacs from Turkey: And of the Grounds of the Mor Gabriel Monastery. LIT Verlag Münster. ISBN 978-3-643-90268-9.
- Religious Freedom Report U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 15 September 2009.
- Judith R. Baskin; Kenneth Seeskin (2010). The Cambridge Guide to Jewish History, Religion, and Culture. Cambridge University Press. pp. 145–. ISBN 978-0-521-86960-7.
- Ahmet T. Kuru; Alfred C. Stepan (2012). Democracy, Islam, and secularism in Turkey. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-53025-5.
- "More secular, green Turkey wanted: Poll". Hürriyet Daily News. 23 November 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- Home Affairs Committee 2011, Ev 34
- Laschet, Armin (17 September 2011). "İngiltere'deki Türkler". Hürriyet Daily News. Archived from the original on 30 September 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
- Akben, Gözde (11 February 2010). "Olmalı mı Olmamalı mı?". Star Kıbrıs. Archived from the original on 13 April 2011. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- Cemal, Akay (2 June 2011). "Dıştaki gençlerin askerlik sorunu çözülmedikçe…". Kıbrıs Gazetesi. Archived from the original on 1 August 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
- U.S. Census Bureau: American FactFinder. "2008 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". Retrieved 22 September 2009.
- The Sophia Echo. "Turkish Bulgarians fastest-growing group of immigrants in The Netherlands". Retrieved 26 July 2009.
- Hatay 2007, 40.
- "Old foes, new friends". The Sydney Morning Herald. 23 April 2005. Retrieved 26 December 2008.
- Presidency of the Republic of Turkey (2010). "Turkey-Australia: "From Çanakkale to a Great Friendship". Retrieved 14 July 2011.
- OECD (2009). "International Questionnaire: Migrant Education Policies in Response to Longstanding Diversity: TURKEY". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. p. 3.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics. "2006 Census Ethnic Media Package". Retrieved 13 July 2011.
- MigrantsInGreece. "Data on immigrants in Greece, from Census 2001, Legalization applications 1998, and valid Residence Permits, 2004". Retrieved 26 March 2009.[dead link]
- Агентство РК по статистике. "ПЕРЕПИСЬ НАСЕЛЕНИЯ РЕСПУБЛИКИ КАЗАХСТАН 2009 ГОДА". p. 10. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
- National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic. "Population and Housing Census 2009". Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- Демоскоп Weekly. "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 г. Национальный состав населения Российской Федерации". Retrieved 30 January 2012.
- State statistics committee of Ukraine - National composition of population, 2001 census (Ukrainian)
- Демоскоп Weekly. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года. Национальный состав населения по республикам СССР". Retrieved 5 June 2011.
- Khazanov 1995, 202.
- Babak, Vaisman & Wasserman 2004, 253.
- Helton, Arthur C. (1998). Chapter Two: Contemporary Conditions and Dilemmas. "Meskhetian Turks: Solutions and Human Security". Open Society Institute. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
- Laczko, Stacher & von Koppenfels 2002, 187.
- Steven A. Glazer (2011-03-22). "Turkey: Country Studies". Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Retrieved 2013-06-15.
- L. Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza; Paolo, Menozzi; Alberto, Piazza (1994). The history and geography of human genes. Princeton University Press. pp. 243, 299. ISBN 978-0-691-08750-4. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
- Abadan-Unat, Nermin (2011), Turks in Europe: From Guest Worker to Transnational Citizen, Berghahn Books, ISBN 1-84545-425-1.
- Abazov, Rafis (2009), Culture and Customs of Turkey, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0313342156.
- Akar, Metin (1993), "Fas Arapçasında Osmanlı Türkçesinden Alınmış Kelimeler", Türklük Araştırmaları Dergisi 7: 91–110
- Abrahams, Fred (1996), A Threat to "Stability": Human Rights Violations in Macedonia, Human Rights Watch, ISBN 1-56432-170-3.
- Ágoston, Gábor (2010), "Introduction", in Ágoston, Gábor; Masters, Bruce Alan, Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire, Infobase Publishing, ISBN 1438110251.
- Akar, Metin (1993), "Fas Arapçasında Osmanlı Türkçesinden Alınmış Kelimeler", Türklük Araştırmaları Dergisi 7: 91–110
- Akgündüz, Ahmet (2008), Labour migration from Turkey to Western Europe, 1960–1974: A multidisciplinary analysis, Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 0-7546-7390-1.
- Aydıngün, Ayşegül; Harding, Çiğdem Balım; Hoover, Matthew; Kuznetsov, Igor; Swerdlow, Steve (2006), Meskhetian Turks: An Introduction to their History, Culture, and Resettelment Experiences, Center for Applied Linguistics
- Babak, Vladimir; Vaisman, Demian; Wasserman, Aryeh (2004), Political Organization in Central Asia and Azerbaijan: Sources and Documents, Routledge, ISBN 0-7146-4838-8.
- Baedeker, Karl (2000), Egypt, Elibron, ISBN 1402197055.
- Bainbridge, James (2009), Turkey, Lonely Planet, ISBN 174104927X.
- Baran, Zeyno (2010), Torn Country: Turkey Between Secularism and Islamism, Hoover Press, ISBN 0817911448.
- Bennigsen, Alexandre; Broxup, Marie (1983), The Islamic threat to the Soviet State, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-7099-0619-6.
- Bokova, Irena (2010), "Recontructions of Identities: Regional vs. National or Dynamics of Cultrual Relations", in Ruegg, François; Boscoboinik, Andrea, From Palermo to Penang: A Journey Into Political Anthropology, LIT Verlag Münster, ISBN 3643800622
- Bogle, Emory C. (1998), Islam: Origin and Belief, University of Texas Press, ISBN 0292708629.
- Bosma, Ulbe; Lucassen, Jan; Oostindie, Gert (2012), "Introduction. Postcolonial Migrations and Identity Politics: Towards a Comparative Perspective", Postcolonial Migrants and Identity Politics: Europe, Russia, Japan and the United States in Comparison, Berghahn Books, ISBN 0857453270.
- Brendemoen, Bernt (2002), The Turkish Dialects of Trabzon: Analysis, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 3447045701.
- Brendemoen, Bernt (2006), "Ottoman or Iranian? An example of Turkic-Iranian language contact in East Anatolian dialects", in Johanson, Lars; Bulut, Christiane, Turkic-Iranian Contact Areas: Historical and Linguistic Aspects, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 3447052767.
- Brizic, Katharina; Yağmur, Kutlay (2008), "Mapping linguistic diversity in an emigration and immigration context: Case studies on Turkey and Austria", in Barni, Monica; Extra, Guus (eds), Mapping Linguistic Diversity in Multicultural Contexts, Walter de Gruyter, p. 248, ISBN 3110207346.
- Brozba, Gabriela (2010), Between Reality and Myth: A Corpus-based Analysis of the Stereotypic Image of Some Romanian Ethnic Minorities, GRIN Verlag, ISBN 3-640-70386-3.
- Bruce, Anthony (2003), The Last Crusade. The Palestine Campaign in the First World War, John Murray, ISBN 0719565057.
- Çaǧaptay, Soner (2006), Islam, Secularism, and Nationalism in Modern Turkey: Who is a Turk?, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0415384583.
- Çaǧaptay, Soner (2006b), "Passage to Turkishness: immigration and religion in modern Turkey", in Gülalp, Haldun, Citizenship And Ethnic Conflict: Challenging the Nation-state, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0415368979.
- Campbell, George L. (1998), Concise Compendium of the World's Languages, Psychology Press, ISBN 0415160499.
- Cassia, Paul Sant (2007), Bodies of Evidence: Burial, Memory, and the Recovery of Missing Persons in Cyprus, Berghahn Books, ISBN 1845452283.
- Chaurasia, Radhey Shyam (2005), History Of Middle East, Atlantic Publishers & Dist, ISBN 8126904488.
- Cleland, Bilal (2001), "The History of Muslims in Australia", in Saeed, Abdullah; Akbarzadeh, Shahram, Muslim Communities in Australia, University of New South Wales, ISBN 0-86840-580-9.
- Clogg, Richard (2002), Minorities in Greece, Hurst & Co. Publishers, ISBN 1-85065-706-8.
- Constantin, Daniela L.; Goschin, Zizi; Dragusin, Mariana (2008), "Ethnic entrepreneurship as an integration factor in civil society and a gate to religious tolerance. A spotlight on Turkish entrepreneurs in Romania", Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 7 (20): 28–41
- Cornell, Svante E. (2001), Small Nations and Great Powers: A Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Caucasus, Routledge, ISBN 0-7007-1162-7.
- Darke, Diana (2011), Eastern Turkey, Bradt Travel Guides, ISBN 1841623393.
- Delibaşı, Melek (1994), "The Era of Yunus Emre and Turkish Humanism", Yunus Emre: Spiritual Experience and Culture, Università Gregoriana, ISBN 8876526749.
- Duiker, William J.; Spielvogel, Jackson J. (2012), World History, Cengage Learning, ISBN 1111831653.
- Elsie, Robert (2010), Historical Dictionary of Kosovo, Scarecrow Press, ISBN 0-8108-7231-5.
- Eminov, Ali (1997), Turkish and other Muslim minorities in Bulgaria, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, ISBN 1-85065-319-4.
- Ergener, Rashid; Ergener, Resit (2002), About Turkey: Geography, Economy, Politics, Religion, and Culture, Pilgrims Process, ISBN 0971060967.
- Evans, Thammy (2010), Macedonia, Bradt Travel Guides, ISBN 1-84162-297-4.
- Farkas, Evelyn N. (2003), Fractured States and U.S. Foreign Policy: Iraq, Ethiopia, and Bosnia in the 1990s, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 1403963738.
- Faroqhi, Suraiya (2005), Subjects Of The Sultan: Culture And Daily Life In The Ottoman Empire, I.B.Tauris, ISBN 1850437602.
- Findley, Carter V. (2005), The Turks in World History, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195177266.
- Fleet, Kate (1999), European and Islamic Trade in the Early Ottoman State: The Merchants of Genoa and Turkey, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521642213.
- Friedman, Victor A. (2003), Turkish in Macedonia and Beyond: Studies in Contact, Typology and other Phenomena in the Balkans and the Caucasus, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 3447046406.
- Friedman, Victor A. (2006), "Western Rumelian Turkish in Macedonia and adjacent areas", in Boeschoten, Hendrik; Johanson, Lars, Turkic Languages in Contact, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 3447052120.
- Gogolin, Ingrid (2002), Guide for the Development of Language Education Policies in Europe: From Linguistic Diversity to Plurilingual Education, Council of Europe.
- Göcek, Fatma Müge (2011), The Transformation of Turkey: Redefining State and Society from the Ottoman Empire to the Modern Era, I.B.Tauris, ISBN 1848856113.
- Hatay, Mete (2007), Is the Turkish Cypriot Population Shrinking?, International Peace Research Institute, ISBN 978-82-7288-244-9.
- Haviland, William A.; Prins, Harald E. L.; Walrath, Dana; McBride, Bunny (2010), Anthropology: The Human Challenge, Cengage Learning, ISBN 0-495-81084-3.
- Hizmetli, Sabri (1953), "Osmanlı Yönetimi Döneminde Tunus ve Cezayir’in Eğitim ve Kültür Tarihine Genel Bir Bakış", Ankara Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 32 (0): 1–12
- Hodoğlugil, Uğur; Mahley, Robert W. (2012), "Turkish Population Structure and Genetic Ancestry Reveal Relatedness among Eurasian Populations", Annals of Human Genetics (Blackwell Publishing) 76 (2): 128–141, doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2011.00701.x
- Home Affairs Committee (2011), Implications for the Justice and Home Affairs area of the accession of Turkey to the European Union, The Stationery Office, ISBN 0-215-56114-7
- Hopkins, Liza (2011), "A Contested Identity: Resisting the Category Muslim-Australian", Immigrants & Minorities (Routledge) 29 (1): 110–131.
- Hüssein, Serkan (2007), Yesterday & Today: Turkish Cypriots of Australia, Serkan Hussein, ISBN 0-646-47783-8.
- İhsanoğlu, Ekmeleddin (2005), "Institutionalisation of Science in the Medreses of Pre-Ottoman and Ottoman Turkey", in Irzik, Gürol; Güzeldere, Güven, Turkish Studies in the History And Philosophy of Science, Springer, ISBN 140203332X.
- Ilican, Murat Erdal (2011), "Cypriots, Turkish", in Cole, Jeffrey, Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 1598843028.
- International Business Publications (2004), Turkey Foreign Policy And Government Guide, International Business Publications, ISBN 0739762826.
- International Crisis Group (2008), Turkey and the Iraqi Kurds: Conflict or Cooperation?, Middle East Report N°81 –13 November 2008: International Crisis Group
- International Crisis Group (2010). "Cyprus: Bridging the Property Divide". International Crisis Group..
- Jawhar, Raber Tal’at (2010), "The Iraqi Turkmen Front", in Catusse, Myriam; Karam, Karam (eds.), Returning to Political Parties?, The Lebanese Center for Policy Studies, pp. 313–328, ISBN 1-886604-75-4.
- Johanson, Lars (2001), Discoveries on the Turkic Linguistic Map, Stockholm: Svenska Forskningsinstitutet i Istanbul
- Johanson, Lars (2011), "Multilingual states and empires in the history of Europe: the Ottoman Empire", in Kortmann, Bernd; Van Der Auwera, Johan (eds), The Languages and Linguistics of Europe: A Comprehensive Guide, Volume 2, Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 3110220253
- Kaplan, Robert D. (2002), "Who Are the Turks?", in Villers, James, Travelers' Tales Turkey: True Stories, Travelers' Tales, ISBN 1885211821.
- Karpat, Kemal H. (2000), "Historical Continuity and Identity Change or How to be Modern Muslim, Ottoman, and Turk", in Karpat, Kemal H., Studies on Turkish Politics and Society: Selected Articles and Essays, BRILL, ISBN 9004115625.
- Karpat, Kemal H. (2004), Studies on Turkish Politics and Society: Selected Articles and Essays, BRILL, ISBN 9004133224.
- Kasaba, Reşat (2008), The Cambridge History of Turkey: Turkey in the Modern World, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-62096-1.
- Kasaba, Reşat (2009), A Moveable Empire: Ottoman Nomads, Migrants, and Refugees, University of Washington Press, ISBN 0295989483.
- Kermeli, Eugenia (2010), "Byzantine Empire", in Ágoston, Gábor; Masters, Bruce Alan, Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire, Infobase Publishing, ISBN 1438110251.
- Khazanov, Anatoly Michailovich (1995), After the USSR: Ethnicity, Nationalism and Politics in the Commonwealth of Independent States, University of Wisconsin Press, ISBN 0-299-14894-7.
- Kia, Mehrdad (2011), Daily Life in the Ottoman Empire, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 0313064024.
- King Baudouin Foundation (2008), "Diaspora philanthropy – a growing trend", Turkish communities and the EU, King Baudouin Foundation.
- Kirişci, Kemal (2006), "Migration and Turkey: the dynamics of state, society and politics", in Kasaba, Reşat (ed), The Cambridge History of Turkey: Turkey in the Modern World, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521620961.
- Knowlton, MaryLee (2005), Macedonia, Marshall Cavendish, ISBN 0-7614-1854-7.
- Köprülü, Mehmet Fuat (1992), The Origins of the Ottoman Empire, SUNY Press, ISBN 0791408205.
- Kötter, I; Vonthein, R; Günaydin, I; Müller, C; Kanz, L; Zierhut, M; Stübiger, N (2003), "Behçet's Disease in Patients of German and Turkish Origin- A Comparative Study", in Zouboulis, Christos (ed.), Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Volume 528, Springer, ISBN 0-306-47757-2.
- Kurbanov, Rafik Osman-Ogly; Kurbanov, Erjan Rafik-Ogly (1995), "Religion and Politics in the Caucasus", in Bourdeaux, Michael (ed), The Politics of Religion in Russia and the New States of Eurasia, M.E. Sharpe, ISBN 1-56324-357-1.
- Kushner, David. 1997. "Self-Perception and Identity in Contemporary Turkey." Journal of Contemporary History 32:219-233.
- Laczko, Frank; Stacher, Irene; von Koppenfels, Amanda Klekowski (2002), New challenges for Migration Policy in Central and Eastern Europe, Cambridge University Press, p. 187, ISBN 906704153X.
- Leiser, Gary (2005), "Turks", in Meri, Josef W., Medieval Islamic Civilization, Routledge, ISBN 0415966906.
- Leveau, Remy; Hunter, Shireen T. (2002), "Islam in France", in Hunter, Shireen, Islam, Europe's Second Religion: The New Social, Cultural, and Political Landscape, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0275976092.
- Levine, Lynn A. (2010), Frommer's Turkey, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0470593660.
- Minahan, James (2002), Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: L-R, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-313-32111-6.
- Meeker, M. E. 1971. "The Black Sea Turks: Some Aspects of Their Ethnic and Cultural Background." International Journal of Middle East Studies 2:318-345.
- National Institute of Statistics (2002), Population by ethnic groups, regions, counties and areas, Romania - National Institute of Statistics
- Oçak, Ahmet Yaçar (2012), "Islam in Asia Minor", in El Hareir, Idris; M'Baye, Ravane, Different Aspects of Islamic Culture: Vol.3: The Spread of Islam Throughout the World, UNESCO, ISBN 9231041533.
- Orhan, Oytun (2010), The Forgotten Turks: Turkmens of Lebanon, ORSAM.
- OSCE (2010), "Community Profile: Kosovo Turks", Kosovo Communities Profile, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
- Oxford Business Group (2008), The Report: Algeria 2008, Oxford Business Group, ISBN 1-902339-09-6.
- Özkaya, Abdi Noyan (2007), "Suriye Kürtleri: Siyasi Etkisizlik ve Suriye Devleti’nin Politikaları", Review of International Law and Politics 2 (8).
- Öztürkmen, Ali; Duman, Bilgay; Orhan, Oytun (2011), Suriye'de değişim ortaya çıkardığı toplum: Suriye Türkmenleri, ORSAM.
- Pan, Chia-Lin (1949), "The Population of Libya", Population Studies 3 (1): 100–125
- Park, Bill (2005), Turkey's policy towards northern Iraq: problems and perspectives, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-415-38297-1
- Phillips, David L. (2006), Losing Iraq: Inside the Postwar Reconstruction Fiasco, Basic Books, ISBN 0-465-05681-4
- Phinnemore, David (2006), The EU and Romania: Accession and Beyond, The Federal Trust for Education & Research, ISBN 1-903403-78-2.
- Polian, Pavel (2004), Against Their will: The History and Geography of Forced Migrations in the USSR, Central European University Press, ISBN 963-9241-68-7.
- Quataert, Donald (2000), The Ottoman Empire, 1700–1922, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521633281.
- Republic of Macedonia State Statistical Office (2005), Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Macedonia, 2002, Republic of Macedonia – State Statistical Office
- Romanian National Institute of Statistics (2011), Comunicat de presă privind rezultatele provizorii ale Recensământului Populaţiei şi Locuinţelor – 2011, Romania-National Institute of Statistics
- Ryazantsev, Sergey V. (2009), "Turkish Communities in the Russian Federation", International Journal on Multicultural Societies 11 (2): 155–173.
- Saeed, Abdullah (2003), Islam in Australia, Allen & Unwin, ISBN 1-86508-864-1.
- Saunders, John Joseph (1965), "The Turkish Irruption", A History of Medieval Islam, Routledge, ISBN 0415059143.
- Scarce, Jennifer M. (2003), Women's Costume of the Near and Middle East, Routledge, ISBN 0700715606.
- Seher, Cesur-Kılıçaslan; Terzioğlu, Günsel (2012), "Families Immigrating from Bulgaria to Turkey Since 1878", in Roth, Klaus; Hayden, Robert, Migration In, From, and to Southeastern Europe: Historical and Cultural Aspects, Volume 1, LIT Verlag Münster, ISBN 3643108958.
- Shaw, Stanford J. (1976), History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey Volume 1 , Empire of the Gazis: The Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire 1280–1808, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521291631.
- Somel, Selçuk Akşin (2003), Historical Dictionary of the Ottoman Empire, Scarecrow Press, ISBN 0810843323.
- Sosyal, Levent (2011), "Turks", in Cole, Jeffrey, Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 1598843028.
- Stansfield, Gareth R. V. (2007), Iraq: People, History, Politics, Polity, ISBN 0-7456-3227-0.
- Stavrianos, Leften Stavros (2000), The Balkans Since 1453, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, ISBN 1850655510.
- Stokes, Jamie; Gorman, Anthony (2010), "Turkic Peoples", Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East, Infobase Publishing, ISBN 143812676X.
- Taylor, Scott (2004), Among the Others: Encounters with the Forgotten Turkmen of Iraq, Esprit de Corps Books, ISBN 1-895896-26-6.
- Stokes, Jamie; Gorman, Anthony (2010), "Turks: nationality", Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East, Infobase Publishing, ISBN 143812676X.
- Tomlinson, Kathryn (2005), "Living Yesterday in Today and Tomorrow: Meskhetian Turks in Southern Russia", in Crossley, James G.; Karner, Christian (eds.), Writing History, Constructing Religion, Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 0-7546-5183-5.
- Turkish Embassy in Algeria (2008), Cezayir Ülke Raporu 2008, Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
- Twigg, Stephen; Schaefer, Sarah; Austin, Greg; Parker, Kate (2005), Turks in Europe: Why are we afraid?, The Foreign Policy Centre, ISBN 1903558794
- UNHCR (1999), Background Paper on Refugees and Asylum Seekers from Azerbaijan, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
- UNHCR (1999b), Background Paper on Refugees and Asylum Seekers from Georgia, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
- Whitman, Lois (1990), Destroying ethnic identity: the Turks of Greece, Human Rights Watch, ISBN 0-929692-70-5.
- Wolf-Gazo, Ernest. (1996) "John Dewey in Turkey: An Educational Mission". Retrieved 6 March 2006.
- Yardumian, Aram; Schurr, Theodore G. (2011). "Who Are the Anatolian Turks? A Reappraisal of the Anthropological Genetic Evidence". Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia (M.E. Sharpe) 50 (1): 6–42. doi:10.2753/AAE1061-1959500101.
- Yiangou, Anastasia (2010), Cyprus in World War II: Politics and Conflict in the Eastern Mediterranean, I.B.Tauris, ISBN 1848854366.
- Zeytinoğlu, Güneş N.; Bonnabeau, Richard F.; Eşkinat, Rana (2012), "Ethnopolitical Conflict in Turkey: Turkish Armenians: From Nationalism to Diaspora", in Landis, Dan; Albert, Rosita D., Handbook of Ethnic Conflict: International Perspectives, Springer, ISBN 1461404479.
- Media related to Turkish people at Wikimedia Commons