Turks in Austria
|Regions with significant populations|
|Burgenland · Carinthia · Lower Austria · Salzburg · Styria · Tyrol · Upper Austria · Vorarlberg · Vienna|
|Turkish Citizens in Austria|
Early settlement 
After the reconquest of Austrian territories which had been occupied by the Ottoman Empire up to the 1530s, the majority of Ottoman Turks left the areas conquered by the Austrians; however, a number of them came to live under Austrian rule. When Joseph II ascended the throne, the Turkish language was one of ten languages spoken in Austria.
Immigration to Austria 
Faced with a shortage of workers, Austria was heavily reliant on labour immigration for post-war reconstruction and economic expansion. Turkey signed a bilateral agreement with Austria on May 15, 1964. Turks were recruited to Austria as guest workers with no intentions of settling for good. However, many married, gave birth to children, and decided to stay in Austria.
Austria halted guest worker recruitment in the 1970s, and dealt with family reunification among the settled guest workers. Furthermore, as a result of the 1973-74 recession, Austria began to deport large numbers of foreign workers. As a response to the recession, a new law- the Aliens Employment Act- was passed in 1975. Attempts were also made to get foreign workers to return home by offering them financial incentives. However, in the mid-1980s, in a favourable growth situation the Austrian economy resorted once more to foreign labour markets and Turkish guest workers came again.
|Turkish Citizens in Austria|
|States of Austria||1971||1981||1991||2001|
Turkish migrants and their families constitute an important minority in Austria's increasingly multicultural demography. According to the 2001 census, there was 127,226 Turkish nationals living in Austria (1.6% of the total population). 39,119 lived in Vienna, 19,911 in Lower Austria, 18,838 in Vorarlberg, 17,226 in Upper Austria, 16,017 in Tyrol, 8,800 in Salzburg, 4,793 in Styria, 1,280 in Burgenland and 1,192 in Carinthia. However, official data regarding the Turkish community excludes Austrian-born and dual heritage children of Turkish origin. According to Andreas Mölzer, there is now 500,000 people of Turkish origin living in Austria.
Birth rates 
Among the foreign born women, the growing Turkish minority stands out for its high fertility level (3.07 children per Turkish woman in 1955-60). Two thirds of Turkish-born women have three or more children and the progression rate to a third child (0.74) is more than twice as high as that of Austrian-born women. Almost 12% of children born in 2005 were born to foreign mothers; however this does not include births to naturalised immigrant women. Whereas the native Austrian women reached the lowest total fertility level of 1.29 after 2000, Turkish women approached three children.
|Period||Austrian citizens||Foreign citizens||Turkish citizens|
The Turkish language is spoken by the majority of the Turkish community, with 71,000 in Vienna alone. In 1991, there was some 120,000 Turkish speakers in Austria which was the third most spoken language. However, in 2001, Turkish was spoken by 183,445 people (2.3% of the Austrian population) and was therefore the second most spoken language in Austria. 60,028 of the Turkish-speaking persons were holding the Austrian citizenship at the time of the census in 2001. Various characteristics account for the high degree of language maintenance in the Turkish community. There are relatively few exogamous marriages and prospective spouses are generally looked for in Turkey. Turkish is also seen as an important commitment because of a possible move back to Turkey, and frequent summer holidays to Turkey re-establishes important Turkish-medium kinship and friendship bonds. Moreover, there is easy access to the Turkish media through satellite dishes and children are exposed to standard Turkish schools.
Children tend to grow up as successive bilinguals, meaning they start off as either Turkish monolinguals or as Turkish-dominant bilinguals. Until age 4, they tend to acquire Turkish in more or less the same way as their monolingual peers in Turkey. However, bilingual children start to change the balance of their two languages, the dominance tips from Turkish towards the majority language after age 8, presumably because of a dramatic decrease in Turkish input when they start school. However, this varies according to whether a child grows up in a solidly Turkish part of town or in an area with relatively few Turks.
Code switching 
|German language||German-Turkish (code switch)||Turkish language||English language|
|Ich warte im Bahnhof||Bahnhof'ta bekliyorum||Tren garında bekliyorum||I'm waiting in the train station|
|Das Arbeitsamt ist heute geschlossen||Arbeitsamt bugün kapalı||İşçi Bulma Kurumu bugün kapalı||The employment center/centre is closed today|
|Schreibe es auf!||Schreiben etsene!||Yazsana!||Write it down!|
|Ich habe sie (ihn) kennengelernt||Onu kennenlernen ettim||Onunla tanıştım||I met her (him)/ I have become acquainted with her (him)|
|Ich kaufe ein Handy||Handy kaufen edeceğim||Cep telefonu satın alacağım||I am going to buy a cell phone/I am buying a cell phone|
|Ich habe einen Vertrag abgeschlossen||Vertrag abschließen yaptım||Sözleşme yaptım||I signed a contract|
|Der Arzt hat mich krank geschrieben||Doktor beni krank yazdı||Doktor bana rapor verdi||I've got a note from the doctor|
Since the Ottoman Empire advanced towards Central Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Muslims have been present in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. After 1730, a community of Muslim merchants was established in Vienna. Furthermore, a Turkish ambassador resided in Vienna, and the Ottoman Empire's embassy hosted a mosque and an imam.
Islam in Austria has now become dominated by Turks, since labour immigration started during the 1960s, reaching its peak during the following decade. The census in 1981 showed a total of 77,000 residents- of these, 53,000 were Turks. Over the next two decades, the Muslim population grew to 300,000 which consisted of 140,000 Turkish nationals, with most of the rest being Bosniaks.
|Naturalisation of Turkish citizens:|
According to the Naturalisation Act 1998, Austrian citizenship is based on the principle of jus sanguinis and a regular waiting period of ten years for naturalisation. The new law shifted the burden of proof to the individual immigrant, who now has to show that they are sufficiently integrated into Austrian society. Most importantly, the migrant has to prove that they are economically self-sufficient, that is, not in need of social assistance, and sufficiently capable in speaking German. Minor criminal offences can also constitute reasons for denial of citizenship.
Since June 1995, Turkish emigrants who naturalise abroad can keep their citizenship rights in Turkey (apart from political rights). The pink-card provides former Turkish citizens with rights to residence, employment, acquisition of real estate and inheritance. Since then, naturalisations of Turkish citizens in Austria (particularly in Vienna) have been increasing significantly, but declined sharply since 2007. Between 1995-2008 108,630 Turkish nationals became Austrian citizens. 
Notable people 
Taner Ari, football player
Cem Atan, football player
Turhan Bey, actor
Bülent Kaan Bilgen, football player
Ekrem Dağ, football player
Harun Erbek, football player
Emel Heinreich, actress, author and film-director
Veli Kavlak, football player
Tanju Kayhan, football player
Alev Korun, congresswoman in the Austrian Parliament
Aylin Kösetürk, model
İlber Ortaylı, historian
Ramazan Özcan, football player
Yasin Pehlivan, football player
See also 
- BBC (2010-11-10). "Turkey's ambassador to Austria prompts immigration spat". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-11-10.
- Avrupa Türk-İslam Birliği. "Avusturya Türk İslam Kültür ve Sosyal Yardımlaşma Birliği:Sosyal Hayat ve Dini Yapı". Retrieved 2010-11-13.
- Yakın Dünya. "Türkiye'nin Avusturya Büyükelçisi Göçmen Meselesini Gündeme Getirdi". Retrieved 2010-11-13.
- Andreas Mölzer. "In Österreich leben geschätzte 500.000 Türken, aber kaum mehr als 10–12.000 Slowenen". Retrieved 2011-10-16.
- Juedische-Allgemeine. "Erheblicher Anstieg antisemitischer Vorfälle in Wien". Retrieved 2010-11-13.
- Statistik Austria. "Bevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeit und Geschlecht 1951 bis 2001". Retrieved 2009-09-23.[dead link]
- Potz & Wieshaider 2004, 200.
- Statistik Austria 2008, 21.
- Waardenburg 2003, 411.
- Abbott 2007, 474.
- Boswell & Royal Institute of International Affairs 2003, 10.
- Akgündüz 2008, 61.
- Plender 1988, 572.
- Kasaba 2008, 192.
- Martin & Weil 2006, 114.
- Panayi 1999, 145.
- Dana 2008, 426.
- Ache 2008, 138.
- Matzka 2009, 3.
- Kohl & Robertson 2006, 281.
- Frejka et al. 2008, 305.
- Frejka et al. 2008, 315.
- Frejka et al. 2008, 316.
- Nikolov & Curtain 2000, 14.
- Statistik Austria. "Bevölkerung 2001 nach Umgangssprache, Staatsangehörigkeit und Geburtsland". Retrieved 2009-09-25.
- Bhatia & Ritchie 2006, 694.
- Bhatia & Ritchie 2006, 696.
- Hunter 2002, 141.
- Hunter 2002, 142.
- Nielsen 2004, 92.
- Statistik Austria 2008, 280.
- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2008, 355.
- Dana 2008, 427.
- Bauböck 2006, 58.
- Abadan-Unat, Nermin (1976), Turkish Workers in Europe 1960-1975: A Socio-economic Reappraisal, BRILL, ISBN 90-04-04478-7.
- Abbott, John S. C. (2007), The Empire of Austria: Its Rise and Present Power, BiblioBazaar, ISBN 1-4264-9252-9.
- Ache, Peter (2008), Cities Between Competitiveness and Cohesion: Discourses, Realities and Implementation, Springer, ISBN 1-4020-8240-1.
- Akgündüz, Ahmet (2008), Labour Migration from Turkey to Western Europe, 1960-1974: A Multidisciplinary Analysis, Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 0-7546-7390-1.
- Bauböck, Rainer (2006), Migration and Citizenship: Legal Status, Rights and Political Participation, Amsterdam University Press, ISBN 90-5356-888-3.
- Bhatia, Tej K.; Ritchie, William C. (2006), The Handbook of Bilingualism, Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 0-631-22735-0.
- Boswell, Christina; Royal Institute of International Affairs (2003), European Migration Policies in Flux: Changing Patterns of Inclusion and Exclusion, Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 1-4051-0296-9.
- Dana, Leo Paul (2008), Handbook of Research on Ethnic Minority Entrepreneurship: A Co-evolutionary View on Resource Management, Edward Elgar Publishing, ISBN 1-84542-733-5.
- Frejka, Tomaš; Hoem, Jan Michael; Toulemon, Laurent; Sobotka, Tomáš (2008), Childbearing Trends and Policies in Europe, Books on Demand, ISBN 3-8370-6187-6.
- Hunter, Shireen (2002), Islam, Europe's Second Religion: The New Social, Cultural, and Political Landscape, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-275-97609-2.
- Kasaba, Reşat (2008), The Cambridge History of Turkey: Volume 4, Turkey in the Modern World, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-62096-1.
- Kohl, Katrin Maria; Robertson, Ritchie (2006), A History of Austrian Literature 1918-2000, Boydell & Brewer, ISBN 1-57113-276-7.
- Martin, Philip L.; Weil, Patrick (2006), Managing Migration: The Promise of Cooperation, Lexington Books, ISBN 0-7391-1341-0.
- Matzka, Christian (2009), Austria and Turkey: their burden of histories, http://www.herodot.net/: University of Vienna
- Nielsen, Jørgen S. (2004), Muslims in Western Europe, Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 0-7486-1844-9.
- Nikolov, Marianne; Curtain, Helena (2000), An Early Start: Young Learners and Modern Languages in Europe and Beyond, Council of Europe, ISBN 92-871-4411-7.
- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2008), International Migration Outlook: SOPEMI 2008, OECD Publishing, ISBN 92-64-04565-1.
- Panayi, Panikos (1999), Outsiders: A History of European Minorities, Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 1-85285-179-1.
- Plender, Richard (1988), International Migration Law, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, ISBN 90-247-3604-8.
- Potz, Wolfgang; Wieshaider (2004), Islam and the European Union, Peeters Publishers, ISBN 90-429-1445-9 More than one of
- Statistik Austria (2008), Demographisches Jahrbuch 2007, http://www.statistik.at/web_en/: Statistik Austria, ISBN 978-3-902587-73-2
- Waardenburg, Jacques (2003), Muslims and Others: Relations in Context, Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 3-11-017627-0.
Further reading 
- Kroissenbrunner, Sabine (July 2003), "Islam and Muslim Immigrants in Austria: Socio-Political Networks and Muslim Leadership of Turkish Immigrants", Immigrants and Minorities 22 (2–3): 188–207, doi:10.1080/0261928042000244826.
- Wets, Joha (March 2006), "The Turkish Community in Austria and Belgium: The Challenge of Integration", Turkish Studies 7 (1): 85–100, doi:10.1080/14683840500520600.
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