Turks in Germany

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Turks in Germany / German Turks
Almanya Türkleri
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Total population

1,629,480 (Turkish citizens, in 2010)
2,500,000 - 6,000,000 (Residents in Germany with at least one parent from Turkey)[1]

about 4-5% of Germany's population[2]
Regions with significant populations
North Rhine-Westphalia · Stuttgart · Munich · Berlin · Frankfurt
Languages
German · Turkish
Religion

Predominantly Islam
(Sunni · Alevi)

Minority Atheism

Turks in Germany or German Turks (German: Deutsch-Türken; Turkish: Almanya'daki Türkler, "Almancılar") refers to German citizens of full or partial Turkish descent and persons living in Germany originating from Turkey. German Turks, form the largest ethnic minority in Germany.[3][4][5] Estimates range between 2.5–2.7 million,[6] 2.7 million,[7] 3.5 million[8] and more than 4 million Turks and German citizens with part or full Turkish ancestry in Germany,[9][10] forming about 4-5% of Germany's total population.[2]

History[edit]

Berlin's Turkish cemetery alongside an Ottoman style mosque, built in 1863

The earliest records of Turks residing in Germany was in the early 1800s but they were a minuscule proportion of the German and other European countries' population. Ottoman Turks have long visited and perhaps scant hundreds of them settled down in the Holy Roman Empire as the invading troops advanced towards Vienna, Prague, Warsaw and Budapest in the 1600s to eventually assimilate into the majority Christian European populations of the host countries.

Large-scale migration of Turkish citizens to West Germany developed during the Wirtschaftswunder ("economic miracle") of the 1960s and 1970s. West Germany suffered an acute labour shortage because of the economic boom, in 1961, the Bundesrepublik and officials at the Turkish Republic negotiated a trade of labour. Turkish workers were invited to move to Germany to fill in this void, particularly to work in the factories to do simple repetitive tasks. Turkish citizens soon became the largest group of Gastarbeiter—literally, guest workers—in West Germany, labouring alongside Italians, Yugoslavs, Spaniards, Greeks and other immigrants. The perception at the time on the part of both the West German Government and the Turkish Republic representatives was that working in Germany would "only" be temporary.

After 3 or 4 years, the migrant workers showed considerable signs of distress and were permitted to re-unite with their existing and abandoned families. Eventually, many became settled permanent residents by default with the birth of offspring, school and other obligations in the new lands.

Demographics[edit]

Estimates of the Turkish population in Germany range between 2.5–2.7 million,[6] 2.7 million,[7] 3.5 million[8][dead link][11][12][13][14] and 4 million[9][10][15][16][17][18][19] people having at least one parent immigrated from Turkey. Turks account for 63% of the total Muslim population in Germany, by far the largest single group.[6]

In 2008, there were 1,688,370 Turkish citizens (889,003 males and 799,367 females) in Germany which accounted for 25.1% of Germany's foreign population and thus the largest ethnic minority.[20] The official number of Turks with Turkish citizenship in Germany is falling, partly because about 30-70,000 are taking on German citizenship per year (with a downward trend, however[21]), and since the year 2000, children born in Germany are entitled to adopt German citizenship if at least one parent has lived for eight years in Germany and has a perpetual residence permit.[22][23]

In 2005, there were 840,000 German citizens of Turkish origin.[24] Overall, the number of German residents with origins in Turkey was approximately 2,812,000 or approximately 3.4% of Germany's population.[25] In 2010, the Embassy of Germany said that there are 3.5 million people of Turkish origin living in Germany and that a further 3 million Turks have spent part of their lives in Germany.[8] Other estimates suggest that there are now over 4 million people of Turkish descent living in Germany.[9]

Population distribution[edit]

Turks in Germany are concentrated predominantly in urban centers. Currently, about 60% of Turkish immigrants live in cities whilst at least a quarter of Turks live in smaller towns.[26] The vast majority are found in the former West Germany. The majority live in industrial regions such as the states of North Rhine-Westphalia, and Baden-Württemberg and the working-class neighbourhoods of cities like Berlin (especially in Neukölln), Cologne, Duisburg, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Mannheim, Mainz, Munich, and Stuttgart.[27][28]

State Number of Turks  % of State population  % of Turks in Germany[29][30][31]
North Rhine-Westphalia
1,100,000
6.0
32.0
Baden-Württemberg
600,000
5.5
17.0
Bavaria
450,000
3.5
11.0
Hessen
400,000
6.5
8.0
Berlin
300,000
8.5
8.5
Lower Saxony
250,000
3.0
6.5
Rhineland-Palatinate
130,000
3.0
3.5
Hamburg
120,000
6.5
3.5
Schleswig-Holstein
60,000
2.0
2.0
Bremen
60,000
7.0
1.5
Neue Länder (former East Germany)
30,000
0.3
1.0
Saarland
25,000
2.5
1.0
Total ~3,500,000 4.5 100.0

Characteristics[edit]

The German state does not keep statistics on ethnicity but, subsequently, categorizes ethnic groups originating from Turkey as being of Turkish national origin. This has the consequence of ethnic minorities from Turkey living in Germany being referred to as "Turks". However, about one-fourth[32][33] to one-fifth[34][35] of Turkish nationals are ethnic Kurds (amounting to some 350,000).[36] Furthermore, the number of ethnic Turks who have immigrated to Germany from Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece, the Republic of Macedonia, Romania and other traditional areas of Turkish settlement which were once part of the Ottoman territories in Europe are unknown as these Turkish minorities are categorised by their citizenship rather than their Turkish ethnicity.

Other Turkish communities[edit]

The official estimates of the Turkish immigrant population in Germany does not include the Turks whose origins go back to the Ottoman Empire. In Germany, there are ethnic Turkish people such as Turks from Bulgaria, Turks from Cyprus, Turks from Greece (Crete  / Dodecanese  / Western Thrace), Turks from Romania and Yugoslavia. These populations, which have different nationalities, share the same ethnic, linguistic, cultural and religious origins as Turkish nationals.[37]

Bulgaria[edit]

From the early 1990s Western Europe began to attract Turks from Bulgaria for the first time in their social history. Migration to Germany, in particular, was initiated by those Bulgarian Turks who, for various reasons, were unable to join the first massive migration wave to Turkey in 1989 or who were part of the subsequent return wave which was dissatisfied with the conditions of life or the social adjustment prospects there. The majority of Turks from Bulgaria migrated to Germany in the 1990s asylum regime, which provided generous social benefits.[38][39]

Cyprus[edit]

Approximately 2,000 Turkish Cypriots live in Germany.[40]

Greece[edit]

There are some members of the Greek Muslim community among the some 300,000 Greeks living in Germany who are Turkish-speaking or who espouse a Turkish identity.[41] The majority of Turks come from Western Thrace.[42] In the 1960s and 1970s, the Thracian tobacco industry was affected by a severe crisis and many tobacco growers lost their income. This resulted in many Turks leaving Greece and immigrating to Germany with estimates suggesting that today there are now between 19,000[43] and 29,000[44] residing in Germany.

Lebanon[edit]

In 1950, thousands of Turks left the Turkish city of Mardin and headed for Lebanon because of the economic crises and unemployment in Turkey. Though the first Turks who left for Lebanon were originally just going to make money, they started to plan the rest of their lives there (mainly in Beirut). However, most of these Turks then migrated to European countries due to the war between the Arabs and the Israelis. When the Israel Lebanon war took place in 2006, more than 20,000 Turks fled Lebanon, forced to take refuge in Germany and various other European countries.[45]

Republic of Macedonia[edit]

Culture[edit]

Turkish and Turkish Cypriot youth performing as an Ottoman military band in Uetersen
Turkish parade in Berlin

Due to the geographic proximity of Germany and Turkey, cultural transfer and influence from the country of origin has remained considerable among the Turkish minority. Furthermore, the majority of second-generation Turks appear to have developed emotional and cultural ties to their parents' country and also to the country which they live in and intend to remain.[46] Most Turks live in two conflicting cultures with contrasting behaviour codes and patterns of belonging. At work or school, German culture tends to dominate, while during leisure time social networks divide along ethnic lines of the Turkish culture. In the first generation of migrants, social networks were almost exclusively Turkish, and now in the second and third generations this segregation line remains just as effective as ever.[47]

Language[edit]

The Turkish language is Germany’s main immigrant language.[48][49][50] The second and third generation Turks often speak Turkish with a German accent or even modelled on a German dialect. Some modify their Turkish by adding German grammatical and syntactical structures. Turkish is offered as a foreign language in many German schools.[51] In some states of Germany, Turkish has even been approved as a subject to be studied for the Abitur.[52] Turkish in Germany is used both by members of its own community and those with a non-Turkish background. Especially in urban areas, it serves as vernacular for children and adolescents.[53]

Selimiye mosque, Lünen.

Religion[edit]

Turks are the predominant Muslim ethnic group in Germany. In fact, by the 1960s, the label Turk in Germany was synonymous with Muslim.[54] Today, Turks make up 63.2% of Germany’s Muslim population.[55] Thus, Islam in Germany has a largely Turkish character.[56] Religion has proven to be of particular importance for Turks in Germany for reasons more to do with ethnic reassurance rather than faith.[57] More than any other manifestation of their cultural values, Islam is regarded as the one feature that most strongly differentiates them in terms of identity from the majority of the German population.[58]

Not all Turks in Germany are Muslim though. 6% of Turkish youth in Germany adhere to no religion,[59] others adhere to non-Muslim faiths such as Christianity or Yazidi.

Religious practice[edit]

A study comparing Turkish Muslim youths living in Germany and German youth found that the former were more likely to attend religious services regularly (35% versus 14%). 41% of young Turkish Muslim boys and 52% of the girls said they prayed "sometimes or regularly", 64% of boys and 74% of girls said they wanted to teach their children religion.[60] 25% of the Turkish women from the first generation and 17% from the second generation wear a headscarf.[61]

Integration issues[edit]

Naturalisation of Turkish citizens:[62][63][64]
Year Population Year Population
1982 580 1996 46,294
1983 853 1997 42,420
1984 1,053 1998 59,664
1985 1,310 1999 103,900
1986 1,492 2000 82,861
1987 1,184 2001 76,573
1988 1,243 2002 64,631
1989 1,713 2003 56,244
1990 2,034 2004 44,465
1991 3,529 2005 32,661
1992 7,377 2006 33,388
1993 12,915 2007 28,861
1994 19,590 2008 25,230
1995 31,578 2009 24,647
Demonstration of Germans and Turks at the site of the Solingen arson attack of 1993 which was one of the most severe instances of anti-foreigner violence in modern Germany.

Turkish immigrants from the onset were regarded as temporary settlers, hence the name guest workers. Consequently, Germany did not put into place structures that would facilitate the integration of the Turks in the new society, and neither did the Turks themselves work toward becoming integrated into the new society. Furthermore, Turks are perceived by some to be the 'most foreign' group in Germany.[65][66]

Discrimination[edit]

See also: Neo-Nazism

For Turks in German society, patterns of discrimination maintain disadvantages of low economic and social status, whilst also restraining social advancement.[67] The number of violent acts by right-wing extremists in Germany increased dramatically between 1990 and 1992.[68] On November 25, 1992, three Turkish residents were killed in a firebombing in Mölln (Western Germany).[69] The attack prompted even further perplexity since the victims were neither refugees nor lived in a hostel.[70] Author Greg Nees, writing in 2000, stated that "Because Turks are both darker-skinned and Muslim, conservative Germans are largely against granting them citizenship."[71]

Integration problems[edit]

In recent years, the some in the Turkish minority have shown cultural problems in integrating into German society.[72] A recent non-governmental telephone survey, carried out jointly by Liljeberg and the Berlin-based INFO polling company sampled 1011 Turkish migrants living in Germany. It showed 72% of the Turks surveyed in Germany believe that Islam is the only true religion, 62% prefer social contacts only to fellow Turks, 46% wish that one day more Muslims live in Germany than Christians, 25% think atheists are inferior human beings and 18% felt that Jews are inferior people.[73][74][75]

Citizenship[edit]

Further information: Nationality law

Under previous German law, children born to foreigners in Germany were not entitled to German citizenship by birth. This was modified in 1991.[76] In 2000, legislation was passed which conferred German citizenship on the German-born children of foreigners (born after 1990), and the naturalisation process was made easier, although dual citizenship is only permitted to citizens of the EU and Switzerland and any other national possessing it (including citizens of Turkey) by virtue of birth must choose between the ages of 18 and 23 which citizenship she or he wishes to retain, and renounce their other passport.[77] If one parent is German, a dual citizen is not required to give up the German citizenship if they keep the other citizenship. These strict limits on dual citizenship are criticised by liberal parties in Germany and institutions which promote German-Turkish relations. Former Turkish citizens who have given up their Turkish citizenship can apply for the "Blue Card" (Mavi Kart), which gives them some citizens' rights back, e.g. the right to live and work in Turkey, the right to possess land or the right to inherit, but not, for example, the right to vote.

Political behaviour[edit]

Turks have been a somewhat inert force in German politics because the first generation of Turks saw their stay in Germany as temporary. Moreover, few Turks have German citizenship and the attention of many Turks focuses on Turkish rather than German politics. However, in recent years, there has been increasing political participation by Turks in Germany, even those who are not citizens. Because of its supportive stand on immigration and naturalisation, most Turks favour the Social Democratic Party (SPD).[36] A survey following the 2005 Federal election revealed close to 90 percent voted for Gerhard Schröder's SPD/Green alliance. There are now many parliamentarians — both at state and federal level — with family origins in Turkey. In 2008 German-born second generation Turk Cem Özdemir became leader of the German Green Party.

Popular culture[edit]

Turkish-German Cinema developed in the late 1990s and 2000s, dealing prominently with issues of transcultural contact and integration. One of the internationally most acclaimed Turkish-German directors is Fatih Akın, who is known for his movies Head-On (2004, with Sibel Kekilli) and The Edge of Heaven (2007). Especially since the 2000s, Turkish-German contributors and issues also entered German television, e.g. with the critically acclaimed television comedy-drama series Türkisch für Anfänger ('Turkish for Beginners', ARD 2006 – 2009, created by Bora Dağtekin). Its 2012 movie spin-off of the same title became the most successful German movie of the year.[78]

Timeline[edit]

Time Events
1961 Bilateral Recruitment Agreement with Turkey. A Central Recruitment Office is established in Istanbul, and by the year’s end, 7,000 Turkish workers are living in Germany.
1962 Founding of the first Turkish social and political organization in Germany, the Union of Turkish Workers in the Cologne Region.
March 1962 Conflicting information about taxation rates of salaries leads Turkish miners in Essen and Hamburg to stage a strike. 26 workers are fired and deported.
June 15, 1963 The International Committee for Information and Social Action founds monthly newspaper Anadolu—a newspaper for Turks living in Germany.
1964 West German Radio begins Turkish language broadcasts under the name Köln Radyosu throughout the West German territory.
September 30, 1964 Renewal of the Gastarbeiter (guest worker) agreement between West Germany and Turkey.
1965 WDR and ZDF begin to produce television series such as Neighbors, Our Homeland/Your Homeland, and later Babylon, geared towards the Turkish viewership.
1965 2,700 Turks live in West Berlin. Guest workers who have been employed in West Germany for five years may now receive an automatic five-year renewal of their work permit, regardless of whether they are citizens of a European country.
1967 Founding of the Turkish Union (Türk Federasyonu).
1971 Three daily Turkish newspapers: Akşam (Evening), Tercüman (The Interpreter), and Hürriyet (Liberty) print editions for migrant readership in Germany.
July 21, 1972 Turkish General Consul Metin Kusdaloglu greets Necati Güven, the 500,000th guest worker recruited at the Istanbul Recruitment Office, at Munich Airport.
1973 Turks account for 23% of all foreigners living in Germany. A strike at the Cologne Ford factory leads to press debates on the "politicization of foreign workers".
July 30, 1973 Spiegel magazine’s cover headline reads "Ghettos in Germany - 1 Million Turks".
November 23, 1973 West Germany halts recruitment of Guest workers. Many Guest workers, fearing imminent anti-immigration laws, arrange for family members to join them in Germany, thus leading to an increase in immigrant populations, rather than the decrease sought by the West German government.
1975 The West German government decrees that no foreigners may move to a neighborhood or region where the percentage of foreigners exceeds 12% of the entire population.
December 8, 1981 West German law prohibits children over the age of 16 from joining their parents in Germany. Younger children who have at least one parent in the home country also may not immigrate to Germany.
May 26, 1982 Semra Ertan lights herself on fire in the Hamburg Marketplace to protest an increase in xenophobia.
November 28, 1983 A new law for the Promotion of Readiness to Return (Das Gesetz zur Förderung der Rückkehrbereitschaft) offers jobless guest workers 10,500 DM to return to their country of origin. Only 13,000 individuals make use of this option.
Time Events
November 9, 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall
1990 TRT, Turkey’s state-run television and radio corporation, begins daily broadcasts to Germany.
1991 Emine Sevgi Özdamar, a Turkish writer/actress living in Berlin, wins the Ingeborg Bachmann Prize. Great controversy over the state of “German” literature ensues.
November 22, 1992 An arson attack in Moelln (Schleswig-Holstein) kills three Turkish women.
May 29, 1993 An arson attack in the city of Solingen, kills five Turkish residents, all members of a family that had lived in Germany for 23 years. The attack leads to many pro-Turkish/anti-xenophobia demonstrations and to a public discussion about right-wing activities and skinheads in Germany.
June 30, 1993 The naturalization of foreigners is governed by the Nationality Act of 1913 and a number of special acts. In order to facilitate the integration of foreigners who were born in Germany, have grown up there or have lived there for at least 15 years, they have a legal entitlement to naturalization under sections 85ff. of the Aliens Act as amended on this day.
1993 Teams of the German Soccer League participate in the “Peacefully With One Another” project by wearing a slogan on their uniforms which reads 'My friend is a foreigner'.
1994 Leyla Onur and Cem Özdemir become the first elected Bundestag representatives of Turkish descent.
January 1998 According to the Ministry of the Interior, 9.37 million foreigners live in Germany, 2.11 million are Turks.
July 1998 CDU election platform seeks to reduce immigration by reducing government subsidized housing for foreigners, and rejecting the possibility of dual citizenship.
November 1998 Newly appointed Commissioner for Foreigners Marieluise Beck (Greens) plans to develop an image for Germany as a 'country of immigration'. Berlin schools may legally provide Islamic education to pupils, after a court battle between the school district and the Islamic Federation in Berlin. Failed appeal to the Federal Constitutional Court to prohibit Bavaria from deporting a 14-year old legal offender born in Germany to Turkey.
2000 7.3 million legally resident foreigners in Germany; 2 million are Turkish citizens, 750,000 of whom were born in Germany.
2000 New citizenship law takes effect. Children born to foreigners in Germany automatically receive German citizenship, as long as one parent has been a legal resident for at least eight years. Children can also hold the nationality of their parents, but must decide to be citizens of one country before the age of 23.
2010 Chancellor Angela Merkel claims that Germany being a multicultural nation has "utterly failed".[79]
2013 Eleven people of Turkish origin are elected to the 18th Bundestag. The new grand coalition government intends to simplify the requirements for dual citizenship.

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ According to the definition of the German Federal Office of Statistics (Statistisches Bundesamt): "Zu den Menschen mit Migrationshintergrund zählen alle nach 1949 auf das heutige Gebiet der Bundesrepublik Deutschland Zugewanderten, sowie alle in Deutschland geborenen Ausländer und alle in Deutschland als Deutsche Geborenen mit zumindest einem zugewanderten oder als Ausländer in Deutschland geborenen Elternteil" ("Counted as people with immigrational background are all people who, after 1949, immigrated to the present territory of the Federal Republic of Germany, as well as everybody born as German citizen in Germany with at least one parent who immigrated to or was born as a foreigner in Germany.")
  2. ^ a b Younge, Gary (15 March 2011). "Germans still struggling to resolve issues of race". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2012-03-15. 
  3. ^ Schulte-Peevers et al. 2007, 49.
  4. ^ Levinson 1998, 37.
  5. ^ Horrocks & Kolinsky 1996, 17.
  6. ^ a b c Bundesministerium des Inneren: Zusammenfassung "Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland", p. 2
  7. ^ a b Liljeberg Research International: Deutsch-Türkische Lebens und Wertewelten 2012, July/August 2012, p. 8
  8. ^ a b c Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany London. "Turkey: strategically important partner". Retrieved 2010-09-08. [dead link]
  9. ^ a b c Kötter et al. 2003, 55.
  10. ^ a b Haviland et al. 2010, 675.
  11. ^ The Local. "'Learn the language,' Turkish minister tells countrymen in Germany". Retrieved 2010-10-28. 
  12. ^ New Europe. "Erdogan, Merkel discuss terrorism, EU accession". Retrieved 2010-10-28. 
  13. ^ The Globe and Mail (2010-10-18). "Germany's multiculturalism dilemma a cautionary tale for Canada". Toronto. Retrieved 2010-10-27. 
  14. ^ European Institute. "Merkel Stokes Immigration Debate in Germany". Retrieved 2010-11-15. 
  15. ^ European Recruitment Agency. "Turkish delight at William Hague's statement". Retrieved 2010-07-04. 
  16. ^ Radio Free Europe. "Germany's Merkel On Delicate Visit To Turkey". Retrieved 2010-07-04. 
  17. ^ Todays Zaman. "What Germany hopes contradicts what it does". Retrieved 2010-10-28. 
  18. ^ BBC (2010-10-17). "Germany's charged immigration debate". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-10-28. 
  19. ^ Spiegel (2011-06-17). "The World from Berlin 'Turkey is Facing Great Challenges'". Spiegel. Retrieved 2010-10-28. 
  20. ^ Statistisches Bundesamt 2009, 51.
  21. ^ Migration report 2005 of the Federal Office for Migrants and Fugitives
  22. ^ Observatory of European Foreign Policy. "Turkish Migrants in Germany, Prospects of Integration". Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  23. ^ § 29 StAG (Staatsangehörigkeitsgesetz - German nationality law).
  24. ^ Turkey in the EU Becomes German Election Issue, Spiegel Online, September 15, 2005.
  25. ^ Berlin-Institut 2009, 26.
  26. ^ Lucassen 2005, 159.
  27. ^ Kastoryano & Harshav 2002, 71.
  28. ^ Heine & Syed 2005, 280.
  29. ^ https://www.destatis.de/DE/Publikationen/Thematisch/Bevoelkerung/MigrationIntegration/Migrationshintergrund2010220107004.pdf?__blob=publicationFile
  30. ^ http://www.statistik-berlin-brandenburg.de/statis/login.do?guest=guest&db=EWRBEE
  31. ^ http://www.statistik-berlin-brandenburg.de/Publikationen/Stat_Berichte/2012/SB_A01-05-00_2011h02_BE.pdf
  32. ^ Friedmann 2002, 45.
  33. ^ Faist 2000, 89.
  34. ^ Jerome & Kimmel 2001, 290.
  35. ^ Migration News. "Kohl Calls for Expulsion of Violent Kurds". Retrieved 2009-06-06. 
  36. ^ a b Cook 2001, 987.
  37. ^ Gülçiçek 2006, 8.
  38. ^ BalkanEthnology. "BULGARIAN TURKS AND THE EUROPEAN UNION". Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  39. ^ Smith & Eade 2008, 166-179.
  40. ^ Star Kıbrıs. "'Sözünüzü Tutun'". Retrieved 10 September 2012. 
  41. ^ Westerlund & Svanberg 1999, 320-321.
  42. ^ Council of Europe: Parliamentary Assembly 2007, 118.
  43. ^ Clogg 2002, 84.
  44. ^ International Assembly of Western Thrace Turks. "POLITICAL AND CIVIL ORGANISATION COMMISSION". Retrieved 2010-05-19. 
  45. ^ "Turkish migrants grieve for Beirut from exile". Todays Zaman. Retrieved 2009-10-29. 
  46. ^ Horrocks & Kolinsky 1996, 116.
  47. ^ Horrocks & Kolinsky 1996, 117.
  48. ^ O'Reilly 2001, 152.
  49. ^ Hancock et al. 2006, 128.
  50. ^ Katzner 2002, 348.
  51. ^ Horrocks & Kolinsky 1996, 144.
  52. ^ Horrocks & Kolinsky 1996, 145.
  53. ^ Gogolin 2002, 9.
  54. ^ Byrnes & Katzenstein 2006, 211.
  55. ^ "Studie: Deutlich mehr Muslime in Deutschland" [Study: Markedly more Muslims in Germany] (in German). Deutsche Welle. 2009-06-23. Retrieved 2010-04-22. 
  56. ^ Hunter 2002, 29.
  57. ^ Jerome & Kimmel 2001, 292.
  58. ^ Horrocks & Kolinsky 1996, 157.
  59. ^ Frank Gesemann. "Die Integration junger Muslime in Deutschland. Interkultureller Dialog - Islam und Gesellschaft Nr. 5 (year of 2006). Friedrich Ebert Foundation, on p. 9 - the document is written in German
  60. ^ Frank Gesemann. "Die Integration junger Muslime in Deutschland. Interkultureller Dialog - Islam und Gesellschaft Nr. 5 (year of 2006). Friedrich Ebert Stiftung", on p. 9 - the document is written in German
  61. ^ Deutsche Welle. mehr Muslime in Deutschland
  62. ^ Nathans 2004, 250.
  63. ^ Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2008, 358.
  64. ^ Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. "Foreign Population - Naturlisations". Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  65. ^ Bade & Brown 2003, 243.
  66. ^ Lucassen 2005, 144-145.
  67. ^ Horrocks & Kolinsky 1996, 131.
  68. ^ Ramet 1999, 72.
  69. ^ Solsten 1999, 406.
  70. ^ Staab 1998, 144.
  71. ^ Nees 2000, 155.
  72. ^ Liljeberg Research International: Repräsentative Studie zum Integrationsverhalten von Türken in Deutschland
  73. ^ Liljeberg Research International: Deutsch-Türkische Lebens und Wertewelten 2012, July/August 2012, p. 67f., 73
  74. ^ Die Welt: Türkische Migranten hoffen auf muslimische Mehrheit, 17 August 2012, retrieved 23 August 2012
  75. ^ The Jewish Press: In Germany, Turkish Muslims Hope for Muslim Majority, 27 August 2012, retrieved 27 September 2012
  76. ^ Anderson 2000, 60.
  77. ^ Gülalp 2006, 31.
  78. ^ German movie charts (retrieved February 04, 2013)
  79. ^ "Merkel says German multicultural society has failed". www.bbc.co.uk. 2010-10-17. Retrieved 2010-11-19. 

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Further reading[edit]

  • Green, Simon (July 2003), "The Legal Status of Turks in Germany", Immigrants and Minorities 22 (2–3): 228–246, doi:10.1080/0261928042000244844. 
  • Pécoud, Antoine (July 2003), "Self-Employment and Immigrants' Incorporation: The Case of Turks in Germany", Immigrants and Minorities 22 (2–3): 247–261, doi:10.1080/0261928042000244853. 
  • Şen, Faruk (July 2003), "The Historical Situation of Turkish Migrants in Germany", Immigrants and Minorities 22 (2–3): 208–227, doi:10.1080/0261928042000244835. 
  • Söhn, Janina; Veysel Özcan (March 2006), "The Educational Attainment of Turkish Migrants in Germany", Turkish Studies 7 (1): 101–124, doi:10.1080/14683840500520626. 
  • Watzinger-Tharp, Johanna (October 2004), "Turkish-German language: an innovative style of communication and its implications for citizenship and identity", Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 24 (2): 285–294, doi:10.1080/1360200042000296663. 
  • Yukleyen, Ahmet. Localizing Islam in Europe: Turkish Islamic Communities in Germany and the Netherlands (Syracuse University Press; 2012) 280 pages; explores diversity with a comparative study of five religious communities in the two countries.

External links[edit]