Turks in Germany
1.55 million (Turkish citizens, in 2013)
|Regions with significant populations|
|North Rhine-Westphalia · Stuttgart · Munich · Berlin · Frankfurt|
|Atheism and Christianity|
|Part of a series of articles on|
Turks in Germany (German: Türken in Deutschland; Turkish: Almanya'daki Türkler, "Almancılar") refers to persons living in Germany originating from Turkey. They form the largest ethnic minority in Germany. Before, some older sources overestimate and underestimate the number of people with Turkish background. 1.55 million people still hold Turkish citizenship, thus forming the largest group of non-citizens in Germany.
- 1 History
- 2 Demographics
- 3 Culture
- 4 Integration issues
- 5 Political behaviour
- 6 Popular culture
- 7 Timeline
- 8 Notable people
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 Bibliography
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
The earliest records of Turks residing in Germany was in the early 1800s but they were a minuscule proportion of the German and other European countries' population. Ottoman Turks have long visited and perhaps scant hundreds of them settled down in the Holy Roman Empire as the invading troops advanced towards Vienna, Prague, Warsaw and Budapest in the 1600s to eventually assimilate into the majority Christian European populations of the host countries.
Large-scale migration of Turkish citizens to West Germany developed during the Wirtschaftswunder ("economic miracle") of the 1960s and 1970s. West Germany suffered an acute labour shortage because of the economic boom, in 1961, the Bundesrepublik and officials at the Turkish Republic negotiated a trade of labour. Turkish workers were invited to move to Germany to fill in this void, particularly to work in the factories to do simple repetitive tasks. Turkish citizens soon became the largest group of Gastarbeiter—literally, guest workers—in West Germany, labouring alongside Italians, Yugoslavs, Spaniards, Greeks and other immigrants. The perception at the time on the part of both the West German Government and the Turkish Republic representatives was that working in Germany would "only" be temporary.
After 3 or 4 years, the migrant workers showed considerable signs of distress and were permitted to re-unite with their existing and abandoned families. Eventually, many became settled permanent residents by default with the birth of offspring, school and other obligations in the new lands.
According to the census 2011 there are almost 3 million people having at least one parent immigrated from Turkey. Turks account for 63% of the total Muslim population in Germany, by far the largest single group.
In 2013, there were 1,550,000 Turkish citizens in Germany which accounted for 22.1% of Germany's foreign population and thus the largest ethnic minority. The official number of Turks with Turkish citizenship in Germany is falling, partly because about 30-70,000 are taking on German citizenship per year (with a downward trend, however), and since the year 2000, children born in Germany are entitled to adopt German citizenship if at least one parent has lived for eight years in Germany and has a perpetual residence permit.
In 2005, there were 840,000 German citizens of Turkish origin. Overall, the number of German residents with origins in Turkey was approximately 2,998,000 or approximately 3.7% of Germany's population.
Turks in Germany are concentrated predominantly in urban centers. Currently, about 60% of Turkish immigrants live in cities whilst at least a quarter of Turks live in smaller towns. The vast majority are found in the former West Germany. The majority live in industrial regions such as the states of North Rhine-Westphalia, and Baden-Württemberg and the working-class neighbourhoods of cities like Berlin (especially in Neukölln), Cologne, Duisburg, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Mannheim, Mainz, Munich, and Stuttgart.
|State||Number of Turks||% of State population||% of Turks in Germany|
|Neue Länder (former East Germany)||
The German state does not keep statistics on ethnicity but, subsequently, categorizes ethnic groups originating from Turkey as being of Turkish national origin. This has the consequence of ethnic minorities from Turkey living in Germany being referred to as "Turks". However, about one-fourth to one-fifth of Turkish nationals are ethnic Kurds (amounting to some 350,000). Furthermore, the number of ethnic Turks who have immigrated to Germany from Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece, the Republic of Macedonia, Romania and other traditional areas of Turkish settlement which were once part of the Ottoman territories in Europe are unknown as these Turkish minorities are categorised by their citizenship rather than their Turkish ethnicity.
Other Turkish communities
The official estimates of the Turkish immigrant population in Germany does not include the Turks whose origins go back to the Ottoman Empire. In Germany, there are ethnic Turkish people such as Turks from Bulgaria, Turks from Cyprus, Turks from Greece (Crete / Dodecanese / Western Thrace), Turks from Romania and Yugoslavia. These populations, which have different nationalities, share the same ethnic, linguistic, cultural and religious origins as Turkish nationals.
From the early 1990s Western Europe began to attract Turks from Bulgaria for the first time in their social history. Migration to Germany, in particular, was initiated by those Bulgarian Turks who, for various reasons, were unable to join the first massive migration wave to Turkey in 1989 or who were part of the subsequent return wave which was dissatisfied with the conditions of life or the social adjustment prospects there. The majority of Turks from Bulgaria migrated to Germany in the 1990s asylum regime, which provided generous social benefits.
There are some members of the Greek Muslim community among the some 300,000 Greeks living in Germany who are Turkish-speaking or who espouse a Turkish identity. The majority of Turks come from Western Thrace. In the 1960s and 1970s, the Thracian tobacco industry was affected by a severe crisis and many tobacco growers lost their income. This resulted in many Turks leaving Greece and immigrating to Germany with estimates suggesting that today there are now between 19,000 and 29,000 residing in Germany.
In 1950, thousands of Turks left the Turkish city of Mardin and headed for Lebanon because of the economic crises and unemployment in Turkey. Though the first Turks who left for Lebanon were originally just going to make money, they started to plan the rest of their lives there (mainly in Beirut). However, most of these Turks then migrated to European countries due to the war between the Arabs and the Israelis. When the Israel Lebanon war took place in 2006, more than 20,000 Turks fled Lebanon, forced to take refuge in Germany and various other European countries.
Republic of Macedonia
Due to the geographic proximity of Germany and Turkey, cultural transfer and influence from the country of origin has remained considerable among the Turkish minority. Furthermore, the majority of second-generation Turks appear to have developed emotional and cultural ties to their parents' country and also to the country which they live in and intend to remain. Most Turks live in two conflicting cultures with Taim Al Jarrah with contrasting behaviour codes and patterns of belonging. At work or school, German culture tends to dominate, while during leisure time social networks divide along ethnic lines of the Turkish culture. In the first generation of migrants, social networks were almost exclusively Turkish, and now in the second and third generations this segregation line remains just as effective as ever.
The Turkish language is Germany’s main immigrant language. The second and third generation Turks often speak German with a Turkish accent. Some modify their Turkish by adding German grammatical and syntactical structures or the other way round. In the early 1990s a new sociolect called "Türkendeutsch" emerged which is often seen as "ghetto-language". Grammatically poor German and a certain pronunciation as well as a colloquial tone are characteristic of this lingual variety. Today it is not only used by many people with Turkish background but also by different ethnic groups including Germans in urban areas with a high concentration of migrants. In some schools of Germany, Turkish has even been approved as a subject to be studied for the Abitur.
Turks are the predominant Muslim ethnic group in Germany. In fact, by the 1960s, the label Turk in Germany was synonymous with Muslim. Today, Turks make up 63.2% of Germany’s Muslim population. Thus, Islam in Germany has a largely Turkish character. Religion has proven to be of particular importance for Turks in Germany for reasons more to do with ethnic reassurance rather than faith. More than any other manifestation of their cultural values, Islam is regarded as the one feature that most strongly differentiates them in terms of identity from the majority of the German population.
A study comparing Turkish Muslim youths living in Germany and German youth found that the former were more likely to attend religious services regularly (35% versus 14%). 41% of young Turkish Muslim boys and 52% of the girls said they prayed "sometimes or regularly", 64% of boys and 74% of girls said they wanted to teach their children religion. 25% of the Turkish women from the first generation and 17% from the second generation wear a headscarf.
Turkish immigrants from the onset were regarded as temporary settlers, hence the name guest workers. Consequently, Germany did not put into place structures that would facilitate the integration of the Turks in the new society, and neither did the Turks themselves work toward becoming integrated into the new society. Furthermore, Turks are perceived by some to be the 'most foreign' group in Germany.
For Turks in German society, patterns of discrimination maintain disadvantages of low economic and social status, whilst also restraining social advancement. The number of violent acts by right-wing extremists in Germany increased dramatically between 1990 and 1992. On November 25, 1992, three Turkish residents were killed in a firebombing in Mölln (Western Germany). The attack prompted even further perplexity since the victims were neither refugees nor lived in a hostel. Author Greg Nees, writing in 2000, stated that "Because Turks are both darker-skinned and Muslim, conservative Germans are largely against granting them citizenship."
In recent years, some in the Turkish minority have shown cultural problems in integrating into German society. A recent non-governmental telephone survey, carried out jointly by Liljeberg and the Berlin-based INFO polling company sampled 1011 Turkish migrants living in Germany. It showed 72% of the Turks surveyed in Germany believe that Islam is the only true religion, 62% prefer social contacts only to fellow Turks, 46% wish that one day more Muslims live in Germany than Christians, 25% think atheists are inferior human beings and 18% felt that Jews are inferior people.
Under previous German law, children born to foreigners in Germany were not entitled to German citizenship by birth. This was modified in 1991. In 2000, legislation was passed which conferred German citizenship on the German-born children of foreigners (born after 1990), and the naturalisation process was made easier, although dual citizenship is only permitted to citizens of the EU and Switzerland and any other national possessing it (including citizens of Turkey) by virtue of birth must choose between the ages of 18 and 23 which citizenship she or he wishes to retain, and renounce their other passport. If one parent is German, a dual citizen is not required to give up the German citizenship if they keep the other citizenship. These strict limits on dual citizenship are criticised by liberal parties in Germany and institutions which promote German-Turkish relations. Former Turkish citizens who have given up their Turkish citizenship can apply for the "Blue Card" (Mavi Kart), which gives them some citizens' rights back, e.g. the right to live and work in Turkey, the right to possess land or the right to inherit, but not, for example, the right to vote.
Turks have been a somewhat inert force in German politics because the first generation of Turks saw their stay in Germany as temporary. Moreover, few Turks have German citizenship and the attention of many Turks focuses on Turkish rather than German politics. However, in recent years, there has been increasing political participation by Turks in Germany, even those who are not citizens. Because of its supportive stand on immigration and naturalisation, most Turks favour the Social Democratic Party (SPD). A survey following the 2005 Federal election revealed close to 90 percent voted for Gerhard Schröder's SPD/Green alliance. There are now many parliamentarians — both at state and federal level — with family origins in Turkey. In 2008 German-born second generation Turk Cem Özdemir became leader of the German Green Party.
Turkish-German Cinema developed in the late 1990s and 2000s, dealing prominently with issues of transcultural contact and integration. One of the internationally most acclaimed Turkish-German directors is Fatih Akın, who is known for his movies Head-On (2004, with Sibel Kekilli) and The Edge of Heaven (2007). Especially since the 2000s, Turkish-German contributors and issues also entered German television, e.g. with the critically acclaimed television comedy-drama series Türkisch für Anfänger ('Turkish for Beginners', ARD 2006 – 2009, created by Bora Dağtekin). Its 2012 movie spin-off of the same title became the most successful German movie of the year.
Mesut Özil, footballer
Halil Altıntop, footballer
Hamit Altıntop, footballer
Kaya Yanar, comedian
Bülent Ceylan, comedian
Fatih Akın, film director
Nazan Eckes, television presenter
Mehmet Scholl, footballer
Cem Özdemir, politician
Ekin Deligöz, politician
Django Asül, comedian
Atiye Deniz, singer
Eko Fresh, rapper
Malik Fathi, footballer
Sibel Kekilli, actress
Bahar Kızıl, singer
Gökalp Özekler, boxer
Berkant Göktan, footballer
Asiye Özlem Şahin, boxer
Nuri Şahin, footballer
Kool Savas, rapper
Serdar Tasci, footballer
İlkay Gündoğan, footballer
Gökhan Töre, footballer
- Demographics of Germany
- Diyanet İşleri Türk İslam Birliği
- German–Turkish relations
- List of Turkish Germans
- Turks in Berlin
- Turks in Europe
- Turks in the Netherlands
- Turkish American
- According to the definition of the German Federal Office of Statistics (Statistisches Bundesamt): "Zu den Menschen mit Migrationshintergrund zählen alle nach 1949 auf das heutige Gebiet der Bundesrepublik Deutschland Zugewanderten, sowie alle in Deutschland geborenen Ausländer und alle in Deutschland als Deutsche Geborenen mit zumindest einem zugewanderten oder als Ausländer in Deutschland geborenen Elternteil" ("Counted as people with immigrational background are all people who, after 1949, immigrated to the present territory of the Federal Republic of Germany, as well as everybody born as German citizen in Germany with at least one parent who immigrated to or was born as a foreigner in Germany.")
- File Migrationsberichtdes Bundesamtes für Migration und Flüchtlinge im Auftrag der Bundesregierung, Migrationsbericht 2012
- Schulte-Peevers et al. 2007, 49.
- Levinson 1998, 37.
- Horrocks & Kolinsky 1996, 17.
- Destatis - Federal Statistical Office of Germany
- Bundesministerium des Inneren: Zusammenfassung "Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland", p. 2
- Migration report 2005 of the Federal Office for Migrants and Fugitives
- Observatory of European Foreign Policy. "Turkish Migrants in Germany, Prospects of Integration". Retrieved 2009-06-05.
- § 29 StAG (Staatsangehörigkeitsgesetz - German nationality law).
- Turkey in the EU Becomes German Election Issue, Spiegel Online, September 15, 2005.
- Lucassen 2005, 159.
- Kastoryano & Harshav 2002, 71.
- Heine & Syed 2005, 280.
- Destatis, site 99-100
- Friedmann 2002, 45.
- Faist 2000, 89.
- Jerome & Kimmel 2001, 290.
- Migration News. "Kohl Calls for Expulsion of Violent Kurds". Retrieved 2009-06-06.
- Cook 2001, 987.
- Gülçiçek 2006, 8.
- BalkanEthnology. "BULGARIAN TURKS AND THE EUROPEAN UNION". Retrieved 2009-06-05.
- Smith & Eade 2008, 166-179.
- Star Kıbrıs. "'Sözünüzü Tutun'". Retrieved 10 September 2012.
- Westerlund & Svanberg 1999, 320-321.
- Council of Europe: Parliamentary Assembly 2007, 118.
- Clogg 2002, 84.
- International Assembly of Western Thrace Turks. "POLITICAL AND CIVIL ORGANISATION COMMISSION". Retrieved 2010-05-19.
- "Turkish migrants grieve for Beirut from exile". Today's Zaman. Retrieved 2009-10-29.
- Horrocks & Kolinsky 1996, 116.
- Horrocks & Kolinsky 1996, 117.
- O'Reilly 2001, 152.
- Hancock et al. 2006, 128.
- Katzner 2002, 348.
- Horrocks & Kolinsky 1996, 145.
- Byrnes & Katzenstein 2006, 211.
- "Studie: Deutlich mehr Muslime in Deutschland" [Study: Markedly more Muslims in Germany] (in German). Deutsche Welle. 2009-06-23. Retrieved 2010-04-22.
- Hunter 2002, 29.
- Jerome & Kimmel 2001, 292.
- Horrocks & Kolinsky 1996, 157.
- Frank Gesemann. "Die Integration junger Muslime in Deutschland". Interkultureller Dialog - Islam und Gesellschaft Nr. 5 (year of 2006). Friedrich Ebert Foundation, on p. 9 - the document is written in German
- Frank Gesemann. "Die Integration junger Muslime in Deutschland. Interkultureller Dialog - Islam und Gesellschaft Nr. 5 (year of 2006). Friedrich Ebert Stiftung", on p. 9 - the document is written in German
- Deutsche Welle. mehr Muslime in Deutschland
- Nathans 2004, 250.
- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2008, 358.
- Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. "Foreign Population - Naturlisations". Retrieved 2009-06-05.
- Bade & Brown 2003, 243.
- Lucassen 2005, 144-145.
- Horrocks & Kolinsky 1996, 131.
- Ramet 1999, 72.
- Solsten 1999, 406.
- Staab 1998, 144.
- Nees 2000, 155.
- Liljeberg Research International: Repräsentative Studie zum Integrationsverhalten von Türken in Deutschland
- Liljeberg Research International: Deutsch-Türkische Lebens und Wertewelten 2012, July/August 2012, p. 67f., 73
- Die Welt: Türkische Migranten hoffen auf muslimische Mehrheit, 17 August 2012, retrieved 23 August 2012
- The Jewish Press: In Germany, Turkish Muslims Hope for Muslim Majority, 27 August 2012, retrieved 27 September 2012
- Anderson 2000, 60.
- Gülalp 2006, 31.
- German movie charts (retrieved February 04, 2013)
- "Merkel says German multicultural society has failed". www.bbc.co.uk. 2010-10-17. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- Al-Shahi, Ahmed; Lawless, Richard (2005), Middle East and North African immigrants in Europe, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-34830-7.
- Anderson, Malcolm (2000), States and Nationalism in Europe Since 1945, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-19558-6.
- ATCA News (3 March 2010), Press statement by ATCA’s UK arm on an article written in The Guardian by Mr. Robert Ellis, http://www.atcanews.org/
- Barbieri, William (1998), Ethics of Citizenship: Immigration and Group Rights in Germany, Duke University Press, ISBN 0-8223-2071-1.
- Berlin-Institut (2009), Zur Lage der Integration in Deutschland, http://www.berlin-institut.org: Retrieved on 3 July 2009
- Bernstein, Eckhard (2004), Culture and Customs of Germany, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-313-32203-1.
- Bade, Klaus; Brown, Allison (2003), Migration in European History, Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 0-631-18939-4.
- Böer, Ingeborg; Haerkötter, Ruth; Kappert, Petra; Adatepe, Sabine (2002), Türken in Berlin 1871-1945: eine Metropole in den Erinnerungen osmanischer und türkischer Zeitzeugen, Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 3-11-017465-0.
- Byrnes, Timothy; Katzenstein, Peter (2006), Religion in an Expanding Europe, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-85926-3.
- Clogg, Richard (2002), Minorities in Greece: Aspects of a Plural Society, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, ISBN 1-85065-705-X.
- Clutterbuck, Richard (1990), Terrorism, Drugs, and Crime in Europe: After 1992, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-05443-5.
- Cook, Bernard (2001), Europe since 1945: An Encyclopedia, Garland, ISBN 0-8153-4058-3.
- Cornelius, Wayne; Martin, Philip; Hollifield, James (1994), Controlling Immigration: A Global Perspective, Stanford University Press, ISBN 0-8047-2498-9.
- Council of Europe: Parliamentary Assembly (2007), Parliamentary Assembly: Working Papers 2007 Ordinary Session 22–26 January 2007, Council of Europe, ISBN 92-871-6191-7.
- Dettke, Dieter (2003), The Spirit of the Berlin Republic, Berghahn Books, ISBN 1-57181-343-8.
- Dummett, Michael (2001), On Immigration and Refugees, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-22707-0.
- Duvier, Janine (2009), Immigration and Integration in Germany and England[dead link], http://www.lse.ac.uk/: London School of Economics
- Erdem, Kutay (2007), Ethnic Marketing for Turks in Germany - Influences on the Attitude Towards Ethnic Marketing, GRIN Verlag, ISBN 3-638-71143-9.
- Eryılmaz, Aytaç (2002), 40 years in Germany: At Home Abroad, http://www.tusiad.us: Retrieved on 5 June 2009
- Esposito, John; Burgat, François (2003), Modernizing Islam: Religion in the Public Sphere in the Middle East and Europe, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, ISBN 1-85065-678-9.
- Faist, Thomas (2000), The Volume and Dynamics of International Migration and Transnational Social Spaces, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-829726-2.
- Findley, Carter (2005), The Turks in World History, Oxford University Press US, ISBN 0-19-517726-6.
- Friedmann, John (2002), The Prospect of Cities, University of Minnesota Press, ISBN 0-8166-3884-5.
- Gogolin, Ingrid (2002), Linguistic Diversity and New Minorities in Europe, Retrieved on 29 July 2009.
- Gülalp, Haldun (2006), Citizenship and Ethnic Conflict: Challenging the Nation-State, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-415-36897-9.
- Gülçiçek, Ali Riza (2006), The Turkish presence in Europe: Migrant Workers and New European Citizens, http://assembly.coe.int/: Parliamentary Assembly
- Hancock, Andrew; Hermeling, Susanne; Landon, John; Young, Andrea (2006), Building on Language Diversity with Young Children: Teacher Education for the Support of Second Language Acquisition, LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster, ISBN 3-8258-9786-9.
- Haviland, William A.; Prins, Harald E. L.; Walrath, Dana; McBride, Bunny (2010), Anthropology: The Human Challenge, Cengage Learning, ISBN 0-495-81084-3.
- Heine, Peter; Syed, Aslam (2005), Muslimische Philanthropie und bürgerschaftliches Engagement, Maecenata Verlag, ISBN 3-935975-40-6.
- Horrocks, David; Kolinsky, Eva (1996), Turkish Culture in German Society Today (Culture & Society in Germany), Berghahn Books, ISBN 1-57181-047-1.
- Hunter, Shireen (2002), Islam, Europe's Second Religion: The New Social, Cultural, and Political Landscape, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-275-97608-4.
- Inda, Jonathan; Rosaldo, Renato (2008), The Anthropology of Globalization: A Reader, Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 1-4051-3612-X.
- Jaques, Tony (2006), Dictionary of Battles and Sieges [Three Volumes]: A Guide to 8,500 Battles from Antiquity Through the Twenty-First Century, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-313-33536-2.
- Jenkins, Philip (2007), God's Continent: Christianity, Islam, and Europe's Religious Crisis, Oxford University Press US, ISBN 0-19-531395-X.
- Jerome, Roy; Kimmel, Michael (2001), Conceptions of Postwar German Masculinity, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-7914-4937-8.
- Kastoryano, Riva; Harshav, Barbara (2002), Negotiating Identities: States and Immigrants in France and Germany, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-01015-3.
- Katzner, Kenneth (2002), The Languages of the World, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-25003-X.
- Kötter, I; Vonthein, R; Günaydin, I; Müller, C; Kanz, L; Zierhut, M; Stübiger, N (2003), "Behçet's Disease in Patients of German and Turkish Origin- A Comparative Study", in Zouboulis, Christos (ed.), Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Volume 528, Springer, ISBN 0-306-47757-2.
- Lee, Martin (1999), The Beast Reawakens, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-415-92546-0.
- Legge, Jerome (2003), Jews, Turks, and other Strangers: The Roots of Prejudice in Modern Germany, University of Wisconsin Press, ISBN 0-299-18400-5.
- Levinson, David (1998), Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 1-57356-019-7.
- Lewis, Rand (1996), The Neo-Nazis and German Unification, Greenwood Publishing, ISBN 0-275-95638-5.
- Lucassen, Leo (2005), The Immigrant Threat: The Integration of Old and New Migrants in Western Europe Since 1850, University of Illinois Press, ISBN 0-252-03046-X.
- Migdal, Joel S. (2004), Boundaries and belonging: states and societies in the struggle to shape identities and local practices, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-83566-6.
- Mitchell, Don (2000), Cultural Geography: A Critical Introduction, Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 1-55786-892-1.
- Moch, Leslie (2003), Moving Europeans: Migration in Western Europe Since 1650, Indiana University Press, ISBN 0-253-21595-1.
- Nathans, Eli (2004), The Politics of Citizenship in Germany: Ethnicity, Utility and Nationalism, Berg Publishers, ISBN 1-85973-781-1.
- Nees, Greg (2000), Germany: Unraveling an Enigma, Intercultural Press, ISBN 1-877864-75-7.
- Nielsen, Jørgen (1999), Towards a European Islam, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 0-312-22143-6.
- Nielsen, Jørgen (2004), Muslims in Western Europe, Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 0-7486-1844-9.
- O'Reilly, Camille (2001), Language, Ethnicity and the State: Minority languages in the European Union, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-92925-X.
- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2008), International Migration Outlook: SOPEMI 2008, OECD Publishing, ISBN 92-64-04565-1.
- Østergaard-Nielsen, Eva (2003), Transnational politics: Turks and Kurds in Germany, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-26586-X.
- Ramet, Sabrina (1999), The Radical Right in Central and Eastern Europe Since 1989, Penn State Press, ISBN 0-271-01811-9.
- Ramm, Christoph (2005), Construction of Identity beyond Recognized Borders: The Turkish Cypriot Community between Cyprus, Turkey and the European Union, http://www.sant.ox.ac.uk/
- Schissler, Hanna (2000), The Miracle Years: A Cultural History of West Germany, 1949-1968, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-05820-2.
- Schönwälder, Karen; Ohliger, Rainer; Triadafilopoulos, Triadafilos (2003), European Encounters: Migrants, Migration, and European Societies Since 1945, Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 0-7546-3086-2.
- Schulte-Peevers, Andrea; Haywood, Anthony; Johnstone, Sarah; Gray, Jeremy; Daniel, Robinson (2007), Germany, Lonely Planet, ISBN 1-74059-988-8.
- Sirkeci, Ibrahim (2006), The Environment of Insecurity in Turkey and the Emigratioon of Turkish Kurds to Germany, New York and Lampeter: Edwin Mellen Press, ISBN 978-0-7734-5739-3.
- Şen, Faruk (2002), Forty years Later: Turkish Immigrants in Germany, http://www.tusiad.us: Retrieved on 5 June 2009
- Shadid, W.A.R; van Koningsveld, P.S (1996), Political Participation and Identities of Muslims in non-Muslim States, Peeters Publishers, ISBN 90-390-0611-3.
- Smith, Michael; Eade, John (2008), Transnational Ties: Cities, Migrations, and Identities, Transaction Publishers, ISBN 1-4128-0806-5.
- Solsten, Eric (1999), Germany: A Country Study, DIANE Publishing, ISBN 0-7881-8179-3.
- Staab, Andreas (1998), National Identity in Eastern Germany: Inner Unification or Continued Separation?, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-275-96177-X.
- Statistisches Bundesamt (2009), Statistical Yearbook 2009 For the Federal Republic of Germany, http://www.destatis.de/: Statistisches Bundesamt, Wiesbaden, ISBN 978-3-8246-0839-3
- Westerlund, David; Svanberg, Ingvar (1999), Islam Outside the Arab World, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 0-312-22691-8.
- Green, Simon (July 2003), "The Legal Status of Turks in Germany", Immigrants and Minorities 22 (2–3): 228–246, doi:10.1080/0261928042000244844.
- Pécoud, Antoine (July 2003), "Self-Employment and Immigrants' Incorporation: The Case of Turks in Germany", Immigrants and Minorities 22 (2–3): 247–261, doi:10.1080/0261928042000244853.
- Şen, Faruk (July 2003), "The Historical Situation of Turkish Migrants in Germany", Immigrants and Minorities 22 (2–3): 208–227, doi:10.1080/0261928042000244835.
- Söhn, Janina; Veysel Özcan (March 2006), "The Educational Attainment of Turkish Migrants in Germany", Turkish Studies 7 (1): 101–124, doi:10.1080/14683840500520626.
- Watzinger-Tharp, Johanna (October 2004), "Turkish-German language: an innovative style of communication and its implications for citizenship and identity", Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 24 (2): 285–294, doi:10.1080/1360200042000296663.
- Yukleyen, Ahmet. Localizing Islam in Europe: Turkish Islamic Communities in Germany and the Netherlands (Syracuse University Press; 2012) 280 pages; explores diversity with a comparative study of five religious communities in the two countries.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Turks in Germany.|
- "Germany's guest workers mark 40 years", By Rob Broomby, BBC News
- Berlin Türk Kulübü
- Turkish Flair in Berlin
- Citizenship Test
- Migrants in Germany