Turks in Uzbekistan

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Osman Turks in Uzbekistan
Total population
15,000[1][2] to 20,000[3]
plus 700 Turkish nationals[4]
Regions with significant populations
Languages
Turkish
Religion
Islam

Turks in Uzbekistan are ethnic Osman Turks who live in Uzbekistan.

History[edit]

Ottoman migration[edit]

The First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union in 1926 recorded 8,570 Ottoman Turks living in the Soviet Union. The Ottoman Turks are no longer listed separately in the census, it is presumed that those who were living in Uzbekistan have either been assimilated into Uzbek society or have left the country.[5]

Meskhetian Turks migration[edit]

Turks in Uzbekistan according to Soviet Censuses
Year Population
1939[6] 474
1959[7] 21,269
1970[8] 46,398
1979[9] 48,726
1989[10] 106,302

During World War II, the Soviet Union was preparing to launch a pressure campaign against Turkey; Vyacheslav Molotov, then Minister of Foreign Affairs, demanded to the Turkish Ambassador in Moscow for the surrender of three Anatolian provinces (Kars, Ardahan and Artvin).[11] Thus, war against Turkey seemed possible, and Joseph Stalin wanted to clear the strategic Turkish population situated in Meskheti, near the Turkish-Georgian border, since during the Russo-Turkish Wars the Turks of the region had been loyal to the Ottoman Empire and were therefore likely to be hostile to Soviet intentions.[11][12] In 1944, the Meskhetian Turks were forcefully deported from Meskheti in Georgia and accused of smuggling, banditry and espionage in collaboration with their kin across the Turkish border.[13] Nationalistic policies at the time encouraged the slogan: "Georgia for Georgians" and that the Meskhetian Turks should be sent to Turkey "where they belong".[14][15] They were deported mainly to Uzbekistan, thousands dying en route in cattle-trucks,[16] and were not permitted by the Georgian government of Zviad Gamsakhurdia to return to their homeland.[14]

In the last Soviet Census, conducted in 1989, there were 207,500 Meskhetian Turks in the Soviet Union and over 51.2% were registered in Uzbekistan.[17] The majority of the Meskhetian Turks settled in the Ferghana Valley, where many of them became financially better off than the Uzbeks. However, in 1989, their prosperity led to xenophobia directed against them, and ethnic intolerance developed into anti-Meskhetian Turk rioting in the valley, including pogroms in some Meskhetian neighbourhoods.[18][19] The incident left over 100 people dead, over 1,000 injured and 700 houses were destroyed.[20] In its aftermath, there were indications of plots by nationalist Uzbeks to continue their carnage; the Soviet authorities issued an official ruling that 17,000 Meskhetian Turks, virtually the entire Turkish population in the Fergana Valley, be transported to Russia.[21] Another 70,000 Meskhetian Turks from other parts of Uzbekistan soon followed the first wave of migrants and resettled mainly to Azerbaijan and Russia.[21][19][22] However, Turks who wish to return to Georgia would be required to change their names from Turkish to Georgian, the vast majority of the Meskhetian Turks have rejected these conditions.[18]

Demographics[edit]

Uzbekistan has not conducted a census since 1989[23] therefore there are no official statistics regarding the current Turkish population in Uzbekistan. International organizations have given rough averages, it is believed that approximately 15,000–20,000 Turks live in Tashkent, Sirdarya, Jizzakh, Kashkadarya. Furthermore, there are 3,000 Turks in Bukhara, 4,000 in Samarkand and 2,000 in Nawoiy.[24]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Council of Europe 2006, 23.
  2. ^ Aydıngün et al. 2006, 13.
  3. ^ Blacklock 2005, 8.
  4. ^ Council of Europe 2007, 130.
  5. ^ Akiner 1983, 381.
  6. ^ Демоскоп Weekly. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1939 года. Национальный состав населения по республикам СССР". Retrieved 2011-06-05. 
  7. ^ Демоскоп Weekly. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1959 года. Национальный состав населения по республикам СССР". Retrieved 2011-06-05. 
  8. ^ Демоскоп Weekly. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1970 года. Национальный состав населения по республикам СССР". Retrieved 2011-06-05. 
  9. ^ Демоскоп Weekly. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 года. Национальный состав населения по республикам СССР". Retrieved 2011-06-05. 
  10. ^ Демоскоп Weekly. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года. Национальный состав населения по республикам СССР". Retrieved 2011-06-05. 
  11. ^ a b Bennigsen & Broxup 1983, 30.
  12. ^ Aydıngün 2002, 50.
  13. ^ Tomlinson 2005, 107.
  14. ^ a b Kurbanov & Kurbanov 1995, 237.
  15. ^ Cornell 2001, 183.
  16. ^ Minority Rights Group International. "Meskhetian Turks". Retrieved 2011-06-02. 
  17. ^ Babak, Vaisman & Wasserman 2004, 252.
  18. ^ a b Pohl 1999, 136.
  19. ^ a b Peimani 2009, 196.
  20. ^ Schnabel & Carment 2004, 63.
  21. ^ a b Ryazantsev 2009, 167.
  22. ^ Polian 2004, 220.
  23. ^ Uzbek News. "Local activist starts census in Tashkent". Retrieved 2011-06-05. 
  24. ^ Blacklock 2005, 8.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Akiner, Shirin (1983), Islamic Peoples of the Soviet Union, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-7103-0025-5 .
  • Atabaki, Touraj; Mehendale, Sanjyot (2005), Central Asia and the Caucasus: Transnationalism and Diaspora, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-33260-5 .
  • Aydıngün, Ayşegül (2002), "Ahiska (Meskhetian) Turks: Source of Conflict in the Caucasus?", The International Journal of Human Rights 6 (2): 49–64 
  • Aydıngün, Ayşegül; Harding, Çigğdem Balım; Hoover, Matthew; Kuznetsov, Igor; Swerdlow, Steve (2006), Meskhetian Turks: An Introduction to their History, Culture, and Resettelment Experiences, Center for Applied Linguistics 
  • Babak, Vladimir; Vaisman, Demian; Wasserman, Aryeh (2004), Political Organization in Central Asia and Azerbaijan: Sources and Documents, Routledge, ISBN 0-7146-4838-8 .
  • Bennigsen, Alexandre; Broxup, Marie (1983), The Islamic Threat to the Soviet State, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-7099-0619-6 .
  • Blacklock, Denika (2005), Finding Durable Solutions for the Meskhetians, European Centre for Minority Issues 
  • Cornell, Svante E. (2001), Small nations and great powers: a study of ethnopolitical conflict in the Caucasus, Routledge, ISBN 0-7007-1162-7 .
  • Council of Europe (2006), Documents: working papers, 2005 ordinary session (second part), 25-29 April 2005, Vol. 3: Documents 10407, 10449-10533, Council of Europe, ISBN 92-871-5754-5 .
  • Council of Europe (2007), Parliamentary Assembly: Working Papers 2007 Ordinary Session 22-26 January 2007, Council of Europe, ISBN 92-871-6191-7 .
  • Drobizheva, Leokadia; Gottemoeller, Rose; Kelleher, Catherine McArdle (1998), Ethnic Conflict in the Post-Soviet World: Case Studies and Analysis, M.E. Sharpe, ISBN 1-56324-741-0 .
  • Khazanov, Anatoly Michailovich (1995), After the USSR: Ethnicity, Nationalism and Politics in the Commonwealth of Independent States, University of Wisconsin Press, ISBN 0-299-14894-7 .
  • Kurbanov, Rafik Osman-Ogly; Kurbanov, Erjan Rafik-Ogly (1995), "Religion and Politics in the Caucasus", in Bourdeaux, Michael (ed), The Politics of Religion in Russia and the New States of Eurasia, M.E. Sharpe, ISBN 1-56324-357-1 .
  • Minahan, James (1998), Miniature Empires: A Historical Dictionary of the Newly Independent States, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-313-30610-9 .
  • Pohl, J. Otto (1999), Ethnic Cleansing in the USSR, 1937-1949, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-313-30921-3 .
  • Polian, Pavel (2004), Against Their Will: The History and Geography of Forced Migrations in the USSR, Central European University Press, ISBN 963-9241-68-7 .
  • Peimani, Hooman (2009), Conflict and Security in Central Asia and the Caucasus, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 1-59884-054-1 .
  • Schnabel, Albrecht; Carment, David (2004), Conflict Prevention from Rhetoric to Reality, Volume 1, Lexington Books, ISBN 0-7391-0738-0 .
  • Tomlinson, Kathryn (2005), "Living Yesterday in Today and Tomorrow: Meskhetian Turks in Southern Russia", in Crossley, James G.; Karner, Christian (eds.), Writing History, Constructing Religion, Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 0-7546-5183-5 .

External links[edit]