|Created by||Ed Friendly
|Starring||Tim Conway (guest host)
|Country of origin||United States|
|No. of episodes||2 (1 episode unaired)|
|Executive producer(s)||Ed Friendly
|Running time||24–25 minutes|
|Original airing||February 5, 1969|
Turn-On is an American sketch comedy series that aired on ABC in February 1969. Only one episode was shown leaving one episode unaired and the show is considered one of the most infamous flops in TV history.
Turn-On's sole episode was shown on Wednesday, February 5, 1969, at 8:30 p.m. Eastern. Among the cast were Teresa Graves (who would join the Laugh-In cast that autumn) and longtime children's show host, character actor, and voice artist Chuck McCann. The writing staff included a young Albert Brooks. The guest host for the first episode was Tim Conway.
The show was created by Ed Friendly and George Schlatter, the producers of Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In. Bristol-Myers contracted with them to develop the show, and provided it to ABC for a projected 13-week run after NBC and CBS rejected it. A CBS official confessed, "It was so fast with the cuts and chops that some of our people actually got physically disturbed by it." Production executive Digby Wolfe described it as a "visual, comedic, sensory assault involving animation, videotape, stop-action film, electronic distortion, computer graphics—even people." 
Turn-On's premise was that it was produced by a computer. Distinguishing characteristics of the show were its use of the Moog synthesizer and lack of sets, except for a white backdrop. Unlike Laugh-In the show "focused almost exclusively on sex as a comedic subject", using various rapid-fire jokes and risqué skits but no laugh track. The program was also filmed instead of presented live or on videotape. Several of the jokes were presented with the screen divided into four squares resembling comic strip panels. The production credits of the episode appeared after each commercial break, instead of conventionally at the beginning or end.
Conway has stated that Turn-On was canceled midway through its only episode, so that the party the cast and crew held to watch its premiere as the show aired across the United States also marked its cancellation. In reality, the show wasn't officially cancelled until several days later Cleveland, Ohio's WEWS-TV did not return to the show after the first commercial break  (after "11 minutes", according to Conway). The station sent ABC network management an angry telegram: "If your naughty little boys have to write dirty words on the walls, please don't use our walls. Turn-On is turned off, as far as WEWS is concerned." Denver, Colorado's KBTV did not air the episode, stating that after previewing it "We have decided, without hesitation, that it would be offensive to a major segment of the audience"; Portland, Oregon's KATU and Seattle, Washington's KOMO-TV also decided to not show the episode. Viewers of Little Rock, Arkansas's KATV, which disliked the show but decided to air it, "jam[med] the station's switchboard" with complaints.
Both The New York Times and the Associated Press gave the show poor reviews. An ABC executive stated that "creatively, Turn-On didn't work". He compared the show negatively to the comedy of Dean Martin, Laugh-In, and the Smothers Brothers, which the executive described as "absolutely beyond belief ... awfully blue", but were popular and less controversial because unlike Turn-On, "they're funny". After Turn-On 's cancellation TV Guide called it "The biggest bomb of the season". It stated that both CBS and NBC had rejected the show due to its perceived lack of quality, and that its sexual content was an important reason why viewers rejected the show. The magazine quoted a source who lamented Turn-On's lack of a regular host or interlocutor: "(T)here wasn't any sort of identification with the audience -- just a bunch of strangers up there insulting everything you believe in."
Conway said in 2008 that Turn-On was "way ahead of its time. I'm not sure even if you saw it today that maybe that time has also passed." Bart Andrews, in his 1980 book The Worst TV Shows Ever, stated that Turn-On was actually quite close to the original concept for Laugh-In. "It wasn't that it was a bad show, it was that it was an awkward show," concluded author Harlan Ellison, a fan of counter-cultural comedy and a TV critic for the Los Angeles Free Press in 1969.
On February 7, ABC announced that Turn-On would go on hiatus. Instead of the scheduled February 12 episode, the ABC Wednesday Night Movie (The Oscar, screenwritten by Ellison and itself a notorious flop) would start 30 minutes early. This announcement came after the following week's TV Guide went to press; it published a listing for the scheduled February 12 episode, which would have starred Robert Culp and then-wife France Nuyen as hosts. Finally, on February 10, the show was formally canceled. By this time, WEWS, KBTV, and KATV all told ABC that they would not air the show again; with several other affiliates having already turned it down, it no longer made financial sense to air it. ABC received 369 calls of complaint during the show, compared to 20 supporting it. Network officials told the sponsor, Bristol-Myers, that the show was unacceptable, and Bristol-Myers ordered Schlatter and Friendly to end production. Many assumed the show's title was itself an implicit reference to Timothy Leary's pro-drug maxim, "Turn on, tune in, drop out".
The network eventually replaced Turn On with a revival of The King Family Show. The controversy led ABC to reject a pilot written by Norman Lear, stating that the lead character was "foul-mouthed, and bigoted", out of fear that it might anger its affiliates again. CBS liked it, picked it up as All in the Family, and began airing it in 1971.
- "Bob MacKenzie...On Television..", Oakland Tribune, February 11, 1969, pB-24
- "'Turn-On' Turned Off By ABC". The Schenectady Gazette. Associated Press. 1969-02-10. p. 16. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
- Levine, Elana (2007). Wallowing in Sex: The New Sexual Culture of 1970s American Television. Duke University Press. p. 173. ISBN 0-8223-3919-6.
- Conway, Tim. PIONEERS OF TELEVISION: Tim Conway on "Turn-On" (#104) (Web). Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 2009-02-23.
- Associated Press (1975-07-06). "Comedian Tim Conway Will Join 'The Carol Burnett Show' As Regular Member". Retrieved April 19, 2011.
- Associated Press (February 8, 1969). "Stations Turn Off 'Turn On'". Retrieved April 19, 2011.
- The Plain Dealer: "WEWS-TV Turns Off 'Turn On'", February 6, 1969, via Cleveland Classic Media's Facebook page.
- "'Turn On' Turned Off". Eugene Register-Guard. 1969-02-06. pp. 3A. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
- Buck, Jerry (1969-02-14). "'Turn On' Producer Denies Bad Taste". St. Petersburg Times. Associated Press. pp. 13–D. Retrieved February 20, 2012.
- Richard K. Doan and Joseph Finnigan, "The Show That Died After One Night: The Inglorious History of 'Turn-On,' a $1,000,000 TV Disaster", TV Guide, May 17–23, 1969, p.6
- "Turn-On Is Switched Off While ABC Reconsiders". New York Times. 1969-02-08.
- Gitlin, Todd (2000). Inside Prime Time. University of California Press. p. 212. ISBN 0-520-21785-3.
- Neuwirth, Allan (2006). They'll never put that on the air: an oral history of taboo-breaking TV comedy. Allworth Communications, Inc. pp. 132–133. ISBN 1-58115-417-8.
- "50 Worst Shows of All Time". TV Guide. 2002.
- Hofstede, David (2004). What Were They Thinking: The 100 Dumbest Events in Television History. Back Stage Books. pp. 150–151. ISBN 0-8230-8441-8.