Turno

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This article is about a 19th and 20th century Spanish political arrangement. For the village in Poland, see Turno, Lublin Voivodeship. For the village in Slovenia, see Turno, Slovenia.

After almost a whole century of political instability and many civil wars, the aim of the Restoration was to ensure political stability in Spain. Under this plan, El Turno Pacífico (or "The Peaceful Turn") was a system put in place by Antonio Cánovas del Castillo whereby the two "official" parties of the Cánovas Restoration, the Partido Conservador (or Liberal-Conservatives of the centre-right) and Partido Liberal (or the Liberals on the centre-left), alternated in power. Its key features were that the government would first be chosen by the king and would then "make" the election (the so-called encasillado), ensuring victory.

After a period in office, it would then be the turn of the opposition. The key to the system was the link between the minister of the interior, the provincial civil governors, and the local bosses (caciques). With this system, no sector of the bourgeoisie felt isolated and patronage could be doubled. It worked effectively until 1898 but then became more difficult to operate because of divisions within the major parties and the growing mobilization of sectors of the electorate.

Growing opposition was first apparent, above all in Catalonia, after Spain's defeat in the Spanish–American War. A period of grave instability occurred in 1918 and 1919, but between 1920 and 1923, a serious attempt was made to reconstruct the turno. It was brought to an end by the military coup by General Miguel Primo de Rivera in September 1923.[1]

The Turno Pacifico excluded all other parties from the possibility of victory. This was achieved by electoral fraud: caciques in most constituencies would instruct their clients how to vote. Despite being modelled on the United Kingdom, it lacked a responsiveness to popular opinion as (until about 1914) the outcome was broadly decided in advance.

Deputies
Period Absten. PSOE C. Rep. Soc. Repub Rep. Dem. Democ. Reform. Progres. Constit. Liber. Dis. Liber. Of. Consr. Dis. Consr. Of. Moder. Carlist Region. Indep.
23/1/1876 45 5 1 27 333 12 7
20/4/1879 7 7 56 293 11 18
20/8/1881 29 32 297 39 5 19
27/4/1884 28 5 36 31 318 2
4/4/1886 22 10 278 11 56 2 13
1/2/1891 31 9 74 9 253 7 16
5/3/1893 47 281 17 44 7 4
12/4/1896 1 88 10 269 9 24
27/3/1898 16 284 18 66 32
16/4/1899 35 18 29 93 14 222 3 23
19/5/1901 33 19 12 233 8 79 7 6 37
26/4/1903 36 9 93 10 230 7 7 11
10/9/1905 30 229 26 96 5 7 11
21/4/1907 33 17 9 69 252 11 41 5
8/5/1910 17 1 37 219 102 10 8 11
8/3/1914 24.7 1 33 36 85 26 188 7 13 19
9/4/1916 20.3 20 11 230 25 88 10 14 11
24 February 1918 29.6 6 15 8 75 92 57 98 13 32 13
1 June 1919 28.8 6 15 8 81 52 109 93 5 23 10
19 December 1920 33.6 4 15 10 63 40 47 185 8 19 18
29 April 1923 23.2 7 11 20 203 27 81 6 22 32

References[edit]

  1. ^ Angel Smith Historical Dictionary of Spain p. 624.