Turnpike trusts in Greater Manchester

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Turnpike trusts were bodies set up by Acts of Parliament in the United Kingdom during the 18th and 19th centuries. The trusts had powers to collect road tolls for the maintenance of principal highways. The length of turnpike roads within what is now Greater Manchester varied considerably, from the 0.5 miles (0.80 km) Little Lever Trust,[1] to the 22 miles (35 km) Manchester to Saltersbrook Trust.[2]

Turnpikes contributed significantly to England's economic development before and during the Industrial Revolution. Although the trusts were abolished in the late-19th century, the roads themselves broadly remain as modern routes, and some of the original toll houses and roadside milestones have survived.

The metropolitan county of Greater Manchester was created in 1974 and so the turnpike trusts predate its existence. Greater Manchester lies at the conjunction of the historic county boundaries of Cheshire, Derbyshire, Lancashire and Yorkshire; many trusts operated roads which crossed those ancient county boundaries. The list below is divided according to historic county, with the first part of the name of each trust determining which table it appears in.

History[edit]

Method of construction and the design of the road surface varied. Before construction of its road, the Bury, Blackburn and Whalley Trust engaged "skilled persons" as temporary surveyors, to make a survey of the districts through which the road would pass. It then advertised for tenders for construction of varied parts of the roads, with contractors responsible for building their respective portions, under the supervision of permanent surveyors.[3] The trust bought limestone for the road surface largely from limestone quarries in Clitheroe.[4] In Manchester, Liverpool, and Wigan, due to heavy coal traffic it was necessary to lay pavements of large stones along the roads. Suitable material would, if not found in the vicinity, be imported from the coasts of Wales and Scotland. Normally the pavement ran down the middle of the road, with a gravelled way on either side. An exception was along Bury New Road (built in 1826), where the middle track was 4 yards (3.7 m) of gravel, with stone pavements 3 yards (2.7 m) outside it. Such pavements were expensive, and unpopular with travellers who regularly described their discomfort travelling upon them.[5]

Toll rates varied across the region, but preferential rates were often available to local residents, and for particular kinds of local traffic. The 1819 Act of the Crossford Bridge and Manchester Trust allowed it to charge half tolls on the inhabitants and occupiers of Trafford House, Old Trafford, and Stretford Moss. The Bolton and Westhoughton Trust allowed farmers from Rumworth and Westhoughton to use the roads free of charge, when taking horses and carts laden with produce from their own farms to Bolton Market. Carriage of coal was often charged at half the normal rate, and no tolls were payable by persons travelling on foot. Other road users who were entitled to free passage included posthorses, carriage of ordnance and military stores, and cattle going to pasture.[6]

Turnpike roads had a huge impact on the nature of business transport around Manchester. Packhorses were superseded by waggons, and merchants would no longer accompany their caravans to markets and fairs, instead sending agents with samples, and despatching the goods at a later date. In 1804 it was said that Manchester employed more than 120 "land carriers".[7]

The railway era spelt disaster for most turnpike trusts. Although some trusts in districts not served by railways managed to increase revenue, most did not. In 1829, the year before the Liverpool and Manchester Railway opened, the Warrington and Lower Irlam Trust had receipts of £1,680, but by 1834 this had fallen to £332. The Bolton and Blackburn Trust had an income of £3,998 in 1846, but in 1847 following the completion of a railway between the two towns this had fallen to £3,077, and in 1849 £1,185.[8]

The end of the turnpike system created serious problems for the local parishes and highway district boards upon whom the burden of maintenance fell. The Local Government Act 1888 made the repair of all main roads the responsibility of the new County Councils. Lancashire County Council determined that any road leading to a town with a population of 25,000 or more would become a main road, which included almost all of the old turnpike roads in the region.[9]


Cheshire[edit]

Name Interest Income Length Main Gates Side gates Act Year date expired county modern road(s)
Cranage Green to Altrincham 26 Geo. II, c. 26[11] 1753[11] 1881[12] Cheshire
Stockport to Marple Bridge 10 miles (16 km) (1852)[13] 5[13] 1 (chain)[13] 41 Geo. III, c. 98[14] 1801[14] Cheshire & Derbys A626 A626 road[15][16]
Washway (Crossford Bridge to Altringham)[17] 3 miles, 4 furlongs, 164 yards (5.8 km) (1852)[18]

Derbyshire[edit]

Name Interest Income Length (1848) Main Gates Side gates Act Year date expired county modern road(s)
Glossop to Marple Bridge 43 Geo III. c. 18[14] 1803[14] Derbys

Lancashire[edit]

Name Interest Income Length (1848) Main Gates Side gates Act Year Year ended county modern road(s)
Adlington and Westhoughton Trust £201, 14s, 10d[19] Lancs A6 A6 road[20]
Ashton and Platt Bridge £175 13s 6d[19] 3 miles 4 furlongs (5.6 km)[21] 46 Geo III. c. 2[22] 1806[22] Lancs A58 A58 road[23]
Ashton under Lyne to Saddleworth 7 Geo. IV c. 21[24] 1826[24] Lancs & Yorks
Barton Bridge and Moses Gate £933 13s 4d[19] 13 miles 1 furlong 110 yards (21.2 km)[21]
Barton Bridge and Stretford £300 19s[19] 4 miles 3 furlongs 2 yards (7 km)[21] 51 Geo III. c. 31[22] 1811[22] Lancs Barton Road, Stretford (partial)[25]
Bolton and Blackburn £1,267 6d[19] 12 miles 5 furlongs 41 yards (20.4 km)[21] A666 A666 road[23]
Bolton and Nightingale £1,755 10s 9d[19] 19 miles (30.6 km)[21] A673 A673 road
A6099 A6099 road
B6226
Smithills Dean Road
Colliers Row Road
Scout Road[23]
Bolton and St Helens 17 miles 2 furlongs 44 yards (27.8 km)[21] 5[26] 8[26] A6 A6 road
A579 A579 road
B5215[23]
Bolton and Westhoughton 2 miles 7 furlongs (4.6 km)[21] Bolton Road
A58 A58 road
A676 A676 road[20]
Bolton to Haslingdon (dormant) 6 Geo IV. c. 92[27] 1825[27] Dormant Lancs
Bolton to Leigh 2 Geo III. c. 44[28] 1762[28] Lancs
Burnley to Tottington 32 Geo III. c. 146[29] 1795[29] Lancs
Bury to Little Bolton 5 miles 4 furlongs 176 yards (9 km)[21] 3[30] 4[30] 1 & 2 Geo IV. c. 90[31] 1821[31] Lancs A58 A58 road[23]
Bury to Blackburn, Whalley etc. 33 miles 5 furlongs 9 yards (54.1 km)[21]
Bury to Haslingden to Blackburn 29 Geo III. c. 107[32] 1789[32] Lancs A56 A56 road[33]
Dryclough, Shaw, Rochdale 10 miles 7 furlongs 102 yards (17.6 km)[21] 1805[34] Lancs A669 A669 road[25]
Eccles to Farnworth
Edenfield and Little Bolton B6213[20]
Edenfield Chapel and Bury Bridge
Elton and Blackburn 12 miles 6 furlongs (20.5 km)[21] B6214[33]
Gilda Brook and Irlam 7 miles 7 furlongs 173 yards (12.8 km)[21] B5320[25]
Heath Charnock to Bolton 3 Geo III. c. 31[35] 1763[35] Lancs
Heywood to Heaton 29 Geo III. c. 110[32] 1789[32]
Hulme and Eccles 3 miles 5 furlongs 214 yards (6 km)[21] 46 Geo III.[36] 22 March 1806[36] Lancs A56 A56 road[25]
Hulme and Stretford 5 miles 4 furlongs 183 yards (9 km)[21] A56 A56 road[25]
Hulton 5 miles 20 yards (8.1 km)[21]
Ince, Hindley and Westhoughton 6 miles (9.7 km)[21] A577 A577 road
A58 A58 road[23]
Irlam's-o'-th'-Heights 3 miles 7 furlongs 87 yards (6.3 km)[21] A666 A666 road[20]
Little Lever 4 furlongs (0.8 km)[2] 1[37] 5 Geo. IV c. 143[37] 1824[37] 1849 (disturnpiked)[37] A6053 A6053 road[20]
Manchester and Ashton under Lyne 3 miles 7 furlongs (6.2 km)[2] 6 Geo. IV c. 51[24] 1825[24] Lancs
Manchester and Bury A56 A56 road[20]
Manchester and Oldham and Austerlands 19 miles 1 furlong (30.8 km)[2] 8 Geo. II c. 3[38] 1735[27][38][39] 1880[12] Lancs & Yorks
Manchester to Bolton
Manchester to Newton Chapel (dormant) 57 Geo III. c. 47[27] 1817[27] Dormant Lancs
Manchester to Pilkington
Manchester to Rochdale, Bury and Radcliffe 5 miles 7 furlongs (9.5 km)[2] 28 Geo II. c. 58[40] 1755[40] 1873-80[12] Lancs A665 A665 road[25][41]
Manchester to Saltersbrook 22 miles (35.4 km)[2] 5 Geo II. c. 10[38] 1732[27][38] 1884[12] Lancs & Cheshire A635 A635 road[25]
Manchester, Denton, Stockport 58 Geo III. c. 6[31] 1818[31] Lancs & Cheshire
Mather Fold and Hardmans, Moses Gate District 3 miles 2 furlongs (5.2 km)[2]
Mather Fold and Hardmans, Ringley District 3 miles 6 furlongs (6 km)[2] A667 A667 road[20]
Pendleton Trust Agecroft District £300[19] 4 miles 187 yards (6.6 km)[21] A6044 A6044 road
Moor Lane
Singleton Road[20]
Pendleton Trust Irlam's-o'-th'-Heights District A666 A666 road[20]
Pendleton Trust Pendleton District 2 miles 2 furlongs (3.6 km)[2] A6 A6 road[20]
Pendleton Trust Swinton District 5 miles 2 furlongs (8.5 km)[2] A572 A572 road[20]
Prestwich and Bury 5 miles 3 furlongs (8.7 km)[2] A667 A667 road
A665 A665 road
A56 A56 road
Stand Lane[20]
Radcliffe 6 miles 1 furlongs (9.9 km)[2] A665 A665 road[20]
Rochdale and Burnley 18 miles 4 furlongs (29.8 km)[2] 28 Geo II. c. 53[40] 1755[40] 1880[12] Lancs
Rochdale and Edenfield 7 miles (11.3 km)[2] 34 Geo III. c. 124[29] 1794[29] Lancs A680 A680 road[20]
Rochdale and Manchester, Manchester District A579 A579 road[20]
Rochdale and Manchester, Rochdale District A664 A664 road[20]
Rochdale, Bamford and Bury 7 miles 4 furlongs (12.1 km)[2] 1797[34] 1866[42] Lancs Norden Road
Bagslate Moor Road[33]
Salford to Wigan 26 Geo II. c. 27[11] 1753[11] Lancs
Sharples and Hoghton 10 miles 4 furlongs (16.9 km) (1848)[2] 3 (1852)[2] 41 Geo III. c. 123[43] A675 A675 road[20]
Standedge and Oldham 10 miles 7 furlongs (17.5 km)[2]
Stretford to Manchester 24 Geo II. c. 13[44] 1751[44] 1872[12] Lancs
Sudden Bridge to Bury 4 miles 6 furlongs (7.6 km)[2] 1797[34] Lancs A58 A58 road[33]
Swinton District 5 miles 2 furlongs (8.4 km)[2] A572 A572 road[25]
Warrington and Lower Irlam 7 miles 5 furlongs (12.3 km)[2] A57 A57 road[23]
Warrington and Wigan 11 miles 2 furlongs (18.1 km)[2] 13 Geo I. c. 10[45] 1727[45] Lancs
Radcliffe to Bolton & Bury 6&7 Wm IV. c. 10[46] 1836[46] Lancs
Wigan and Preston, south of (River) Yarrow 12 miles 6 furlongs (20.5 km)[2] 13 Geo I. c. 9[45] 1727[45] 1866-67[12] Lancs A49 A49 road[23]
Manchester and Buxton 11 Geo. I c.13[45] 1725[27][39][45] 1860-75[12] Lancs & Derbys
Stockport and Ashton 5 Geo. III c.100[35] 1765[35] Lancs & Cheshire
Stockport and Warrington 1 Geo. IV, c. 28[47] 1820[47] Lancs & Cheshire A560 A560 road[48]
Stockport and Warrington (Edgley Branch)
Wilmslow 26 Geo II.[49] 1753[49] 1881[12][49] Lancs & Cheshire B5167[25]
Worsley Trust A572 A572 road[25]
A5082 A5082 road[23]

Yorkshire[edit]

Name Interest Income Length (1848) Main Gates Side gates Act Year date expired county modern road(s)
Halifax to Littleborough 33 Geo II. c. 48[50] 1760[50] Yorks & Lancs
Oldham and Ripponden 16 miles 7 furlongs (27.2 km)[2] 35 Geo III. c. 137[29] 1795[29] Yorks & Lancs
Rochdale to Halifax and Elland 8 Geo. II c. 7[38] 1735[27][38] 1872[12] Yorks
Saddleworth to Oldham 32 Geo III. c. 139[29] 1792[29] Yorks & Lancs

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Tupling 1952, pp. 4–5.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Parliamentary Papers, Turnpike Trusts. Harvard University: HMSO. 1848. p. 9. 
  3. ^ Tupling 1952, p. 6.
  4. ^ Tupling 1952, p. 8.
  5. ^ Tupling 1952, pp. 8–9.
  6. ^ Tupling 1952, p. 13.
  7. ^ Tupling 1952, p. 15.
  8. ^ Tupling 1952, p. 18.
  9. ^ Tupling 1952, p. 23.
  10. ^ "Listed Building Register B". www.salford.gov.uk. Retrieved 2009-01-11. 
  11. ^ a b c d Albert 2007, p. 206.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Moffit 1963, p. 290.
  13. ^ a b c Parliamentary Papers - No.1, Stockport and Marple Road. Harvard University: HMSO. 1852. p. 2. 
  14. ^ a b c d Albert 2007, p. 218.
  15. ^ Arnott, Sue (2008-05-07). "Order decision Ref: FPS/C4235/7/16" (PDF). The Planning Inspectorate. Retrieved 2009-01-03. 
  16. ^ Although no map exists to demonstrate the location of this road, the previous reference provides a strong indication that it was this road
  17. ^ Altringham is the old spelling of Altrincham
  18. ^ Parliamentary Papers, Turnpike Trusts. HMSO. 1848. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f g Abstract statements of income and expenditure of Turnpike Trusts in England and Wales, 1850. HMSO. 1852. 
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Ordnance Survey (1850). Lancashire & Furness (Map). http://www.old-maps.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-01-03.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Parliamentary Papers, Turnpike Trusts. Harvard University: Great Britain Parliament. 1848. p. 8. 
  22. ^ a b c d Albert 2007, p. 219.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i Ordnance Survey (1849). Lancashire & Furness (Map). http://www.old-maps.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-01-03.
  24. ^ a b c d Albert 2007, p. 222.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Ordnance Survey (1848). Lancashire & Furness (Map). http://www.old-maps.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-01-03.
  26. ^ a b check this ref!! Parliamentary Papers, section 16. Harvard University: HMSO. 1852. p. 76. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h Tupling 1952, p. 4.
  28. ^ a b Albert 2007, p. 210.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h Albert 2007, p. 217.
  30. ^ a b Parliamentary Papers, No. 25 - Bury and Bolton Road. Harvard University: HMSO. 1852. p. 86. 
  31. ^ a b c d Albert 2007, p. 221.
  32. ^ a b c d Albert 2007, p. 216.
  33. ^ a b c d Ordnance Survey (1851). Lancashire & Furness (Map). http://www.old-maps.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-01-03.
  34. ^ a b c Wadsworth 1918, p. 9.
  35. ^ a b c d Albert 2007, p. 211.
  36. ^ a b Hulme and Eccles Turnpike Road. Manchester Central Library, Local Studies, f388.1 Ma21: Manchester Central Library Archives Department. 1970. 
  37. ^ a b c d Parliamentary Papers - No. 43, Little Lever Road. Harvard University: HMSO. 1852. p. 164. 
  38. ^ a b c d e f Albert 2007, p. 204.
  39. ^ a b Chaloner, Farnie & Henderson 1990, p. 174.
  40. ^ a b c d Albert 2007, p. 207.
  41. ^ Cheetham Hill Trust
  42. ^ Wadsworth 1918, p. 17.
  43. ^ Parliamentary Papers. HMSO. 1852. p. 71. 
  44. ^ a b Albert 2007, p. 205.
  45. ^ a b c d e f Albert 2007, p. 203.
  46. ^ a b Albert 2007, p. 223.
  47. ^ a b Thacker et al. Lawes, pp. 73–83.
  48. ^ Ordnance Survey (1882). Cheshire (Map). http://www.old-maps.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-01-03.
  49. ^ a b c Manchester and Wilmslow Turnpike Trust. Manchester Central Library, Local Studies, m124, f352.042 m103: The Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts. 1973. 
  50. ^ a b Albert 2007, p. 209.

Bibliography[edit]