Turritella

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Turritella
Temporal range: Cretaceous–recent
Turritellatricarinata.jpg
Fossil shells of Turritella cingulifera from the Pliocene of Cyprus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Subclass: Caenogastropoda
Order: Sorbeoconcha
Superfamily: Cerithioidea
Family: Turritellidae
Subfamily: Turritellinae
Genus: Turritella
Lamarck, 1799[1]
Species

See text

Synonyms[2]
  • Proto Blainville, 1824 (Invalid: junior homonym of Proto Leach, 1814 [Crustacea])
  • Torcula Gray, 1847
  • Turritella (Torcula) Gray, 1847

Turritella is a genus of medium-sized sea snails with an operculum, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Turritellidae. [2]

They have tightly coiled shells, whose overall shape is basically that of an elongated cone.

The name Turritella comes from the Latin word turritus meaning "turreted" or "towered" and the diminutive suffix -ella.[3]

Species[edit]

Valid[edit]

Valid species within the genus Turritella are listed below. Fossil species are marked with a dagger "†".

Invalid[edit]

Numerous shells of a Turritella species washed up on the beach at Playa Grande, Costa Rica

These are species assigned to Turritella that were brought into synonymy with other taxa:

  • Turritella (Torcula) Gray, 1847: synonym of Turritella Lamarck, 1799
  • Turritella (Torcula) cochlea Reeve, 1849: synonym of Turritella cochlea Reeve, 1849
  • Turritella acicula Stimpson, 1851: synonym of Turritellopsis stimpsoni (Dall, 1919)
  • Turritella alternata Say, 1822: synonym of Bittiolum alternatum (Say, 1822)
  • Turritella andenensis Otuka, 1934: synonym of Neohaustator andenensis (Otuka, 1934)
  • Turritella aquila Reeve, 1849: synonym of Turritella conspersa Adams & Reeve, 1850
  • Turritella areolata Stimpson, 1851: synonym of Tachyrhynchus reticulatus (Mighels & Adams, 1842)
  • Turritella auricincta Martens, 1875:[81] synonym of Turritella aurocincta Martens, 1875
  • Turritella bicolor Adams & Reeve, 1850: synonym of Turritella cingulifera G.B. Sowerby I, 1825
  • Turritella brevialis Lamarck, 1822: synonym of Mesalia brevialis (Lamarck, 1822)
  • Turritella canaliculata Adams & Reeve, 1850: synonym of Turritella cingulifera G.B. Sowerby I, 1825
  • Turritella candida Reeve, 1849: synonym of Turritella gemmata Reeve, 1849
  • Turritella cingulata Sowerby, 1825[82] is a synonym of Incatella cingulata (Sowerby, 1825)[32]
  • Turritella concava Say, 1826: synonym of Terebra concava (Say, 1826)
  • Turritella congelata Adams & Reeve, 1850: synonym of Colpospira congelata (Adams & Reeve, 1850)
  • Turritella costulata Mighels & Adams, 1842: synonym of Acirsa borealis (Lyell, 1841)
  • Turritella costulata Møller, 1842: synonym of Eumetula arctica (Mørch, 1857)
  • Turritella crenulata (Donald, 1900): synonym of Colpospira joannae (Hedley, 1923)
  • Turritella erosa Couthouy, 1838: synonym of Tachyrhynchus erosus (Couthouy, 1838)
  • Turritella eschrichti Hölböll in Möller, 1842: synonym of Acirsa borealis (Lyell, 1841)
  • Turritella excavata G. B. Sowerby III, 1870: synonym of Turritella declivis Adams & Reeve in Reeve, 1849
  • Turritella flammulata Kiener, 1843-44: synonym ofTurritella ligar Deshayes, 1843
  • Turritella fortilirata G. B. Sowerby III, 1914:[83] synonym of Neohaustator fortilirata (G. B. Sowerby III, 1914)
  • Turritella granosa Quoy & Gaimard, 1834: synonym of Opalia granosa (Quoy & Gaimard, 1834)
  • Turritella imbricata (Linnaeus, 1758): synonym of Turritella variegata (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turritella knysnaensis Krauss, 1848: synonym of Turritella capensis (Krauss, 1848)
  • Turritella lactea Möller, 1842: synonym of Mesalia lactea (Möller, 1842)
  • Turritella maiquetiana Weisbord, 1962: synonym of Turritella paraguanensis Hodson, 1926
  • Turritella mediolevis Verco, 1910: synonym of Colpospira mediolevis (Verco, 1910)
  • Turritella meta Reeve, 1849:[84] synonym of Turritella gemmata
  • Turritella monterosatoi Kobelt, 1887: synonym of Turritella turbona Monterosato, 1877
  • Turritella nzimaorum Ryall & Vos, 2010:[85] synonym of Turritella caelata Mörch in Dunker, 1858
  • Turritella opalina Adams & Reeve, 1850: synonym of Mesalia opalina (Adams & Reeve, 1850)
  • Turritella opulenta Hedley, 1907: synonym of Glyptozaria opulenta (Hedley, 1907)
  • Turritella paraguanensis Hodson, 1926: synonym of Turritella variegata (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Turritella philippi Aradas, 1842: synonym of Acirsa subdecussata (Cantraine, 1835)
  • Turritella polaris Möller, 1842: synonym of Tachyrhynchus erosus (Couthouy, 1838)
  • Turritella spina Crosse & Fischer, 1864: synonym of Cingulina spina (Crosse & Fischer, 1864)
  • Turritella reticulata Mighels & Adams, 1842: synonym of Tachyrhynchus reticulatus (Mighels & Adams, 1842)
  • Turritella spirata Sowerby I, 1825: synonym of Eglisia spirata (Sowerby I, 1825)
  • Turritella symmetrica Hutton, 1873: synonym of Stiracolpus symmetricus (Hutton, 1873)
  • Turritella trisulcata Lamarck, 1822:[86] synonym of Turritella vermicularis
  • Turritella yucatecanum Dall, 1881: synonym of Turritella yucatecana (Dall, 1881)

Fossil species[edit]

Fossil specimens of Turritella incrassata

The genus is known from the Cretaceous to the Recent periods.[87]

The shells are quite frequently found as fossils, and the carbonate stone made from large quantities of Turritella shells is often referred to as "Turritella limestone", or, if silicified, "Turritella agate". Both varieties of this stone are commonly sold as polished cabochons.

"Turritella agate"[edit]

One variety of "Turritella agate", that from the Green River Formation in Wyoming, is a fossiliferous rock which does indeed contain numerous high-spired snail shells. However, contrary to the common name, these snails are not in the marine genus Turritella, instead they are freshwater snails in the species Elimia tenera, family Pleuroceridae from the Eocene epoch.[88] The rock in which these snail shells are so abundant varies from a soft sandstone to a dense chalcedony. This dense silicified rock is popular with gem and mineral hobbyists, was well as with New Age practitioners.

Turritellenplatte[edit]

The Erminger Turritellenplatte ("Turritella plate of Ermingen") near Ulm, Germany[89] is a rocky outcrop situated in the northern part of the North Alpine Foreland Basin. It is famous for its superabundance of Turritella turris shells within its sediments[90] and dates from the Burdigalian.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lamarck J.-B. (1799). Mém. Soc. Hist. nat. Paris, 74.
  2. ^ a b Vos, C.; Gofas, S. (2013). Turritella Lamarck, 1799. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=138615 on 2013-06-02
  3. ^ Webster's New Universal Unabridged Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1979.
  4. ^ Turritella acropora (Dall, 1889).  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  5. ^ Turritella albolapis Finlay, 1924.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  6. ^ Turritella algida Melvill & Standen, 1912.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  7. ^ Turritella anactor Berry, 1957.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  8. ^ Turritella annulata Kiener, 1843.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  9. ^ Turritella attenuata Reeve, 1849.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  10. ^ Turritella aurocincta Martens, 1875.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  11. ^ Turritella bacillum Kiener, 1843.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  12. ^ Turitella badensis at the online fossil gallery of Natural History Museum at the University of Oslo
  13. ^ Turritella banksii Gray in Reeve, 1849.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  14. ^ Turritella bayeri Petuch, 2001.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  15. ^ Turritella bicingulata Lamarck, 1822.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  16. ^ Turritella broderipiana d'Orbigny, 1840.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  17. ^ Turritella capensis (Krauss, 1848).  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  18. ^ Turritella carinifera Lamarck, 1822.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  19. ^ Turritella chordata Suter, 1908.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  20. ^ Turritella chrysotoxa Tomlin, 1825.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  21. ^ Turritella cingulifera G.B. Sowerby I, 1825.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  22. ^ Turritella clarionensis Hertlein & Strong, 1951.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  23. ^ Turritella cochlea Reeve, 1849.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  24. ^ Turritella columnaris Kiener, 1843.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  25. ^ Turritella communis Risso, 1826.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  26. ^ Turritella concava Martens, 1880.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  27. ^ a b c Harzhauser M. (2007). "Oligocene and Aquitanian gastropod faunas from the Sultanate of Oman and their biogeographic implications for the western Indo-Pacific". Palaeontographica Abteilung A 280: 75-121. PDF.
  28. ^ Turritella conspersa Adams & Reeve, 1850.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  29. ^ Turritella cornea Lamarck, 1822.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  30. ^ Turritella couteaudi Rochebrune & Mabille, 1889.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  31. ^ Turritella crocea Kiener, 1843.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  32. ^ a b c d DeVries T. J. (2007). "Cenozoic Turritellidae (Gastropoda) from southern Peru". Journal of Paleontology 81(2): 331-351. doi:10.1666/0022-3360(2007)81[331:CTGFSP]2.0.CO;2.
  33. ^ Turritella decipiens Monterosato, 1878.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  34. ^ Turritella dirkhartogensis (Garrard, 1972).  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  35. ^ Turritella duplicata (Linnaeus, 1758).  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  36. ^ Turritella dura Mörch, 1860.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  37. ^ Turritella elachista Rochebrune & Mabille, 1889.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  38. ^ Turritella exoleta (Linnaeus, 1758).  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  39. ^ Turritella fastigiata Adams & Reeve, 1850.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  40. ^ Turritella ferruginea Reeve , 1849.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  41. ^ Turritella fultoni Melvill & Standen, 1901.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  42. ^ Turritella fuscomaculata Bozzetti, 2009.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  43. ^ Turritella gemmata Reeve, 1849.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  44. ^ Turritella gonostoma Valenciennes, 1832.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  45. ^ Turritella gracillima Gould, 1860.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  46. ^ Turritella hastula Reeve, 1849.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  47. ^ Turritella hookeri Reeve, 1849.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  48. ^ Turritella incisa Reeve, 1849.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  49. ^ Turritella knysnaensis Krauss, 1848.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  50. ^ Turritella leeuwinensis (Garrard, 1972).  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  51. ^ Turritella lentiginosa Reeve, 1849.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  52. ^ Turritella leucostoma Valenciennes, 1832.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  53. ^ Turritella ligar Deshayes, 1843.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  54. ^ Turritella lindae (Petuch, 1987).  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  55. ^ Turritella lyonsi Garcia, 2006.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  56. ^ Turritella maculata Reeve, 1849.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  57. ^ Turritella marianopsis Petuch, 1990.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  58. ^ WoRMS (2011). Turritella minuta Turton, 1932. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=536361 on 2012-06-29
  59. ^ Turritella monilifera Adams & Reeve, 1850.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  60. ^ Turritella monterosatoi Kobelt, 1887.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  61. ^ Turritella nebulosa Kiener, 1843.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  62. ^ Turritella nodulosa King & Broderip, 1832.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  63. ^ Turritella praetermissa (Dautzenberg, 1912).  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  64. ^ Turritella punctata Kiener, 1843.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  65. ^ Turritella radula Kiener, 1843.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  66. ^ Turritella rubescens Reeve, 1849.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  67. ^ Turritella sanguinea Reeve, 1849.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  68. ^ Turritella terebra (Linnaeus, 1758).  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  69. ^ "†Turritella terebralis Lamarck 1799 (turret shell)". The Paleobiology Database, accessed 40 January 2010.
  70. ^ (Czech) Pek I., Vašíček Z., Roček Z., Hajn V. & Mikuláš R. (1996). Základy zoopaleontologie. Olomouc. ISBN 80-7067-599-3.
  71. ^ Turritella torulosa Kiener, 1843.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  72. ^ Turritella triplicata Philippi, 1836.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  73. ^ Turritella turbona Monterosato, 1877.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  74. ^ Turritella ungulina (Linnaeus, 1758).  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  75. ^ Turritella variegata (Linnaeus, 1758).  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  76. ^ Turritella vermicularis (Brocchi, 1814).  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  77. ^ "†Turritella vertebroides Morton 1834 (turret shell)". The Paleobiology Database, accessed 40 January 2010.
  78. ^ Turritella wareni Ryall & Vos, 2010.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  79. ^ Turritella willetti McLean, 1970.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  80. ^ Turritella yucatecana (Dall, 1881).  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  81. ^ Turritella auricincta Martens, 1875.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  82. ^ Turritella cingulata Sowerby, 1825.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  83. ^ Turritella fortilirata G. B. Sowerby III, 1914.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  84. ^ Turritella meta Reeve, 1849.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  85. ^ Turritella nzimaorum Ryall & Vos, 2010.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 19 May 2010.
  86. ^ "Haustator Montfort, 1810". OBIS Indo-Pacific Molluscan Database, accessed 10 January 2011.
  87. ^ Mayr H. (199). A Guide to Fossils. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.
  88. ^ Burch, J. B. (1989). North American Freshwater Snails. Malacological Publications, Hamburg, Michigan,OCLC 20559611
  89. ^ (German) Baier J. (2008). "Ein Beitrag zur Erminger Turritellenplatte (Mittlere Schwäbische Alb, SW-Deutschland)". ["Contribution on the Erminger Turritellenplatte"]. Jahresberichte und Mitteilungen des Oberrheinischen Geologischen Vereines, Neue Folge, 90: 9-17. (with English abstract). HTML abstract
  90. ^ (German) Baier J. (2008). "Über die Tertiärbildungen im Ulmer Raum" ["On Tertiary structures in the Ulm region"]. Documenta Naturae 168: 1-32.