Tuscarawas County, Ohio
|Tuscarawas County, Ohio|
Location in the state of Ohio
Ohio's location in the U.S.
|Founded||March 15, 1808|
|Named for||Delaware Indian word variously translated as "old town" or "open mouth".|
|Largest city||New Philadelphia|
|• Total||571.45 sq mi (1,480 km2)|
|• Land||567.64 sq mi (1,470 km2)|
|• Water||3.82 sq mi (10 km2), 0.67%|
|• Density||163.1/sq mi (63/km²)|
|Time zone||Eastern: UTC-5/-4|
Tuscarawas County is a county located in the eastern part of the U.S. state of Ohio. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 92,582, which is an increase of 1.8% from 90,914 in 2000. Its county seat is New Philadelphia. Its name is a Delaware Indian word variously translated as "old town" or "open mouth".
For years, European-American colonists on the East Coast did not know much about the territory west of the Appalachian Mountains except for reports from a few explorers and fur traders who ventured into the area. In 1750, Christopher Gist of the Ohio Land Company explored the Tuscarawas Valley. His report of the area hinted at some natural riches and friendly American Indians.
In 1761, missionaries from the German Moravians (also known as the Renewed Church of the United Brethren), set out from Bethlehem, Pennsylvania to set up a mission in the Tuscarawas Valley. Christian Frederick Post, David Zeisberger, and John Heckewelder met with Chief Netawatwees of the western Lenape, also known as the Delaware. He invited them to the tribal village he had founded, Gekelemukpechunk (present-day Newcomerstown, Ohio). He granted the missionaries permission to build a cabin near the junction of the Sandy Creek and Tuscarawas River, in present-day Stark County and begin Christianizing the natives. While they were successful in baptizing dozens of converts, they were forced to abandon the mission in 1763 during the French and Indian War (part of the Seven Years' War).
Again, at the request of Chief Netawatwees in 1771, David Zeisberger returned to found additional missions in the Tuscarawas Valley. In the spring of 1772, near the present site of New Philadelphia, Ohio, Zeisberger, along with five converted Indian families established the mission of Schoenbrunn (German for 'beautiful spring'). They built a school house and a chapel. In August of that year, John Heckawelder brought an additional 250 converted Lenape Christians into the village.
In late summer 1772, they established a second settlement, roughly 10 miles away from Schoenbrunn, called Gnadenhütten (cabins of grace). On October 17, 1772, Zeisberger conducted the first religious service at Gnadenhutten. In 1776, Chief Netawatwes donated land for another settlement, Lichtenau (meadow of light), near present-day Coshocton, then the principal Lenape village in the region.
The American Revolutionary War brought the demise of these first settlements. The Lenape, which at the time populated much of eastern Ohio, were divided over their loyalties, with many in the west allied with the British out of Fort Detroit and many in the east allied with the Americans out of Fort Pitt. The Lenape were involved in skirmishes against both sides, but by 1781 the American sense was that the Lenape were allying with the British. In response, Colonel Daniel Brodhead of the American forces led an expedition out of Fort Pitt and on 19 April 1781 destroyed the settlement of Coshocton. Surviving residents fled to the north. Colonel Brodhead's forces left the Lenape at the other Moravian mission villages unmolested, but the actions set the stage for raised tensions in the area.
In September 1781, British forces and Indian allies, primarily Wyandot and Lenape, forced the Christian Indians and missionaries from the remaining Moravian villages. The Indian allies took their prisoners further west toward Lake Erie to a new village, called 'Captive Town', on the Sandusky River. The British took the missionaries David Zeisberger and John Heckewelder under guard back to Fort Detroit, where the two men were tried (but eventually acquitted) on charges of treason against the British Crown.
The Indians at Captive Town were going hungry because of insufficient rations, and in February 1782, more than 100 returned to their old Moravian villages to harvest the crops and collect the stored food they had been forced to leave behind. In early March 1782, 160 Pennsylvania militia led by Lieutenant Colonel David Williamson raided the villages and garrisoned the Indians in the village of Gnadenhütten, accusing them of taking part in raids into Pennsylvania. Although the Lenape denied the charges, the militia held a council and voted to kill them. The next morning on 8 March, the militia tied up the Indians, stunned them with mallet blows to the head, and killed them with fatal scalping cuts. In all, the militia murdered and scalped 28 men, 29 women, and 39 children. They piled the bodies in the mission buildings and burned the village down. They also burned the other abandoned Moravian villages in the area.
This action, which came to be known as the Gnadenhutten massacre, caused an outright frontier war to break out between the Lenape and the Americans. After several years of ongoing campaigns by the natives to terrorize and keep out further American settlers, a brutal campaign by US General "Mad Anthony" Wayne from Fort Washington (now Cincinnati) was carried out in late 1793, eventually resulting in the Treaty of Greenville being signed in 1795 between the US government and the local natives. The Treaty ceded the eastern 2/3 of current-day Ohio to white settlers and once again opened up the territory for white settlement.
In October, 1798, David Zeisberger, the same Moravian missionary who had founded many of the original missions in the 1770s, returned to the Tuscarawas Valley to found a new mission, Goshen, from where he continued his work to Christianize the local natives. Over the next several years, farmer settlers from Pennsylvania came trickling into the area, and by 1808, the first permanent settlement, New Philadelphia, was founded near the Goshen mission. After the War of 1812, Goshen declined as a mission until it was disbanded in 1824.
Tuscarawas County was formed from Muskingum County on Feb. 15, 1808.
According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 571.45 square miles (1,480.0 km2), of which 567.64 square miles (1,470.2 km2) (or 99.33%) is land and 3.82 square miles (9.9 km2) (or 0.67%) is water.
- Stark County (north)
- Carroll County (northeast)
- Harrison County (southeast)
- Guernsey County (south)
- Coshocton County (southwest)
- Holmes County (northwest)
As of the census of 2000, there were 90,914 people, 35,653 households, and 25,313 families residing in the county. The population density was 160 people per square mile (62/km²). There were 38,113 housing units at an average density of 67 per square mile (26/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 97.87% White, 0.73% Black or African American, 0.17% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.21% from other races, and 0.73% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.71% of the population. 95.3% spoke English, 1.3% German and 1.1% Spanish as their first language.
There were 35,653 households out of which 32.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.10% were married couples living together, 9.30% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.00% were non-families. 24.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.01.
In the county, the age distribution of the population shows 25.40% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 28.10% from 25 to 44, 23.60% from 45 to 64, and 15.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 95.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.40 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $35,489, and the median income for a family was $41,677. Males had a median income of $31,963 versus $20,549 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,276. About 7.20% of families and 9.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.20% of those under age 18 and 7.80% of those age 65 or over.
- "Ohio County Profiles: Tuscarawas County" (PDF). Ohio Department of Development. Retrieved 2007-04-28.
- "The Export of Pennsylvania Placenames, William A. Russ, Jr.". Retrieved 2007-05-02.
- "Tuscarawas County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-02-16.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- "Tuscarawas County data". Ohio State University Extension Data Center. Retrieved 2007-04-28.[dead link]
- Guide to Tuscarawas County, Federal Writers Project of Ohio Work Projects Administration, F.C. Harrington, Florence Kerr, Carl Watson, 1939
- Ohio Annals, C.H. Mitchener, 1876.
- "Historical Collections of Ohio, Henry Howe". 1888. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "U.S. Decennial Census". Census.gov. Retrieved November 7, 2013.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Washington Governor Samuel G. Cosgrove". National Governors Association. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- Tuscarawas County Government's website
- Tuscarawas County Convention & Visitors Bureau's website
- Kent State University The Olmstead Collection, Tuscarawas County Historical Society
- Ohio and Erie Canal National Heritage Corridor, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary
||Holmes County||Stark County||Carroll County|
|Coshocton County||Guernsey County||Harrison County|