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A tutor is an instructor who gives private lessons. Shadow education is a name for private supplementary tutoring that is offered outside the mainstream education system.
- 1 Teaching assistance
- 2 Costs
- 3 Effectiveness
- 4 Policy
- 5 Resources
- 6 Solution assistance
- 7 Writing tutor
- 8 Tutoring in popular culture
- 9 See also
- 10 References
In British, Australian, New Zealand, South African, Italian, and some Canadian universities, a tutor is often, but not always, a postgraduate student or a lecturer assigned to conduct a seminar for undergraduate students, often known as a tutorial. The equivalent of this kind of tutor in the United States and the rest of Canada is known as a teaching assistant, a graduate teaching assistant, or a graduate student instructor (GSI).
In the University of Cambridge and University of Dublin a Tutor is an officer of a college responsible for the pastoral care of a number of students in cognate disciplines; as against a Director of Studies in Cambridge who is responsible for the academic progress of a group of students in their own discipline, with both Tutors and Directors of Study answering to a Senior Tutor. In the University of Oxford, the colleges fuse pastoral and academic care into the single office of Fellow and Tutor, also known as a CUF Lecturer.
In the United States, the term tutor is generally associated with one who gives professional instruction (sometimes within a school setting but often independently) in a given topic or field.
British and Irish secondary schools
In English and Irish secondary schools, form tutors are given the responsibilities of a form or class of students in a particular year group (up to 30 students). They usually work in Year Teams headed by a Year Leader, Year Head, or Guidance Teacher.
Form tutors take on these responsibilities in addition to teaching, planning, and monitoring their academic (subject) classes.
Form tutors will provide parents with most of the information about their child's progress and any problems they might be experiencing. Ordinarily, the form tutor is the person who contacts a parent if there is a problem at school; however, the Year Leader or Guidance Teacher may contact the parents, since the form tutor has full-time responsibility as a specialist subject teacher.
Private Tutoring in Asia
A 2012 study by the Asian Development Bank and the Comparative Education Research Centre at the University of Hong Kong pointed out that private tutoring can dominate the lives of young people and their families, maintain and exacerbate social inequalities, divert needed household income into an unregulated industry, and create inefficiencies in education systems. It can also undermine official statements about fee-free education and create threats to social cohesion.
In South Korea, nearly 90% of elementary students receive some sort of shadow education. In Hong Kong, China, about 85% of senior secondary students do so. 60% of primary students in West Bengal, India, and 60% of secondary students in Kazakhstan receive private tutoring.
Demand for tutoring in Asia is exploding; by comparison globally, shadow education is most extensive in Asia. This is partly due to the stratification of education systems, cultural factors, perceptions of shortcomings in regular school systems, and the combination of growing wealth and smaller family sizes. Therefore, the education sector has become a profitable industry which businesses have created different kinds of products and advertisement such us "the king/queen of tutorial", a usual advertisement tactic of Hong Kong tutorial centers that has spread to South Korea, Thailand, Sri Lanka and India where tutors achieve "celebrity-like status". Online private tutor matching platform and online learning platform offering online learning materials are other creations.
In Cambodia, most tutoring is provided by teachers, whereas in Hong Kong, China, it is provided by individuals, small companies or large companies. In Mongolia, most tutoring is labor-intensive, while entrepreneurs in South Korea make use of computers and other forms of technology.
Some studies have estimated costs associated with “shadow education”. In Pakistan, expenditures on tutoring per child averaged the equivalent of $3.40 a month in 2011, a significant amount considering 60% of Pakistan’s populations reportedly live on less than $2 per day. In India, average spending was lower, but still equated to about $2 per month.
In Georgia, household expenditures for private tutoring at the secondary school level was $48 million in 2011. In Hong Kong, China, the business of providing private tutoring to secondary schools reached $255 million in 2011.
In the Republic of Korea, where the government has attempted to cool down the private tutoring market, shadow education costs have continually grown, reaching a staggering $17.3 billion in 2010. Household expenditures on private tutoring are equivalent to about 80% of government expenditures on public education for primary and secondary students.
In many countries, individuals can become tutors without training, and the effectiveness of some forms of tutoring is doubtful. In some countries, including Cambodia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Lao PDR, and Tajikistan, the pattern of classroom teachers supplementing their incomes by tutoring students after school hours is more a necessity than a choice, as many teachers’ salaries hover close to the poverty line.
In the Republic of Korea, the number of private tutors expanded roughly 7.1% annually on average from 2001 to 2006, and by 2009 the sector was the largest employer of graduates from the humanities and social sciences.
Private tutoring is not always effective in raising academic achievement; and in some schools students commonly skip classes or sleep through lessons because they are tired after excessive external study. This means that the shadow system can make regular schooling less efficient.
Teachers who spend more time focusing on private lessons than regular classes can cause greater inefficiencies in the mainstream school system. Situations in which teachers provide extra private lessons for pupils for whom they are already responsible in the public system can lead to corruption, particularly when teachers deliberately teach less in their regular classes in order to promote the market for private lessons.
A 2012 study by the Asian Development Bank and the Comparative Education Research Centre at the University of Hong Kong recommended policymakers across the region take a closer look at how ‘shadow education’ affects family budgets, children’s time, and national education systems. It suggested that in order to reduce the need for private lessons, improvements in mainstream schools should be made. Regulations are also needed to protect consumers.
A private tutor is a private instructor who teaches a specific subject or skill to an individual student or small group of students. Such attention ideally allows the student to improve knowledge or skills more rapidly than in a classroom setting. Tutors are often privately hired and paid by the student, the student's family or an agency. Some are used for remedial students or others needing special attention; some provide more advanced material for exceptionally capable and highly motivated students, or in the context of homeschooling. Tutoring can also occur when one adult helps another adult student to study a specific course or subject that he/she is taking to get a better result. The adult can also let the student work on his/her own, and can be there if the student has any questions.
Academic coaching is an evolution of mentoring applied to academics. Coaching involves a collaborative approach. Coaches try to help students learn how they best learn and how to operate in an academic environment. Tutors help students learn the material in individual courses while coaches help students learn how to be successful in school. In college, that includes such topics as: study skills, time management, stress management, effective reading, note-taking, test-taking, and understanding how to use a syllabus. Academic coaches meet with the student regularly throughout the semester. Coaches work with students in all kinds of situations, not just those who are struggling academically. Some highly motivated, high-achieving students will have a coach to improve their learning efficiency. Academic coaching also occurs to help students prepare for entrance exams to gain entry to schools or universities. Tutoring may even be used for the whole application process to university. Academic coaching is a huge industry in Asia. For example, in India, a majority of students, be it of any class or stream, visit a coaching center or a "study circle."
Sometimes, current students act as tutors to other students. Sometimes, a classroom setting is not enough for a student to learn all of the material that they need to know in order to pass the test or to go on to harder classes. Academic tutoring from students at a higher grade level or experience in an academic setting can help to encourage and strengthen a student so that they do not fall behind.
Online tutoring is a new way for a student to receive help, either scheduled or on-demand. Sessions are done through an application where a student and tutor can communicate. Common tools include chat, whiteboard, web conferencing, teleconferencing and other specialized applets which make it easier to convey information back and forth. For example, there are specialized applets designed specifically for mathematics which allow the use of mathematical symbols.
Online tutoring has been gaining popularity over the past couple of years due to the ease of being able to connect to a tutor at moment's notice when help is required. This is especially effective when a student is studying for a test that is scheduled for the next day at school and is stumped on a particular problem. Not all online tutoring companies offer an on-demand tutoring service.
In-home tutoring is a form of tutoring that occurs in the home. Most often the tutoring relates to an academic subject or test preparation. This is in contrast to tutoring centers or tutoring provided through after-school programs. The service most often involves one-on-one attention provided to the pupil.
Solution assistance is a growing trend in the field of mathematics tutoring. This method of checking the accuracy of answers is particularly helpful for students without a computer or those students that live in remote areas.
In Canada and the United States, writing tutor is the common term used for individuals working one-on-one with students in college and university writing centers. The terms tutor and consultant are often used interchangeably, and both terms are used with deliberation as they are seen to represent a specific relationship, role, or activity between tutor and tutee. For example, Griffin, Keller, Pandey, Pedersen, and Skinner in their 2003-2004 survey of North American writing centers describe a tutor as an expert providing a less expert learner with knowledge, implying a transmission approach. In contrast, the consultant, also expert, collaborates with the tutee in addressing the writing task, implying a social constructivist approach. Others who use the term writing tutor describe the tutor as facilitating learning through active listening, responding, as well as using silence and wait time. Taking the cue from the student, these writing tutors function much like the consultants described by Griffin et al., offering suggestions and working together on a given writing task. Regardless of the title, the intent and actions of the tutor are important to writing center practitioners. A tutor may say he/she is acting collaboratively with the student and unknowingly be enforcing her or his own agenda.
Tutoring in popular culture
- “Searching for Bobby Fischer (1993), directed by Steven Zaillian and starring Max Pomeranc, Joe Mantegna, Joan Allen, and Ben Kingsley is about a young Joshua Waitzkin, a chess prodigy played by Pomeranc, being tutored at chess by the strict tutor Bruce Pandolfini (played by Ben Kingsley).
- “Music of the Heart” (1999) directed by Wes Craven is an inspirational tutoring film with Meryl Streep as a Harlem music tutor.
Films about tutors sometimes focus on romantic relationships that develop between tutor and student:
- My Tutor, a 1983 movie directed by George Bowers, is about a group high school grads trying to lose their virginity before college, and one of them has a relationship with his female French tutor.
- In Private Tutor, a 1988 film directed by William Olsen, a student falls in love with her male philosophy tutor.
- In “Cruel Intentions” (1999), starring Sarah Michelle Gellar, Ryan Phillippe, Reese Witherspoon, and Selma Blair, a wealthy and naïve Manhattan teenager (Cecile, played by Blair) falls in love with her music tutor.
On the Internet
CollegeHumor has produced and published some popular humorous videos and articles about private tutors:
- Jake and Amir’s video “Tutors” on CollegeHumor is about Amir Blumenfeld hiring three 15-year-old students to tutor him in a reversal of the usual situation in which older students tutor younger ones.
- “Mega Man’s Tutor” on Dorkly is about the tutor of Mega Man, a robot character in a popular video game
- Ryan Max Riley's humor article “Bios for New York's Most Popular Tutors" on CollegeHumor parodies the tutor biographies listed on websites of elite private tutoring companies and satirizes the strict Asian style of tutoring described in Amy L. Chua’s Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother.
- Learning by teaching
- Peer-mediated instruction
- Teaching assistant
- Tuition agency
- Virtual education
- ADB Study Highlights Dark Side of 'Shadow Education', Shadow Education: Private Supplementary Tutoring and its Implications for Policy Makers in Asia.
- ,Kim, Kyung-Keun. 2010. “Educational Equality”, in Lee, Chong Jae; Kim, Seong-yul & Adams, Don (eds.), Sixty Years of Korean Education. Seoul: Seoul National University Press, p.302.
- , Caritas, Community & Higher Education Service. 2010. Private Supplementary Tutoring of Secondary Students: Investigation Report. Hong Kong: Caritas.
- , Pratham. 2011. Annual Status of Education Report 2010.
- ,Kalikova, Saule & Zhanar Rakhimzhanova. 2009. “Private Tutoring in Kazakhstan”, in Silova, Iveta (Ed.), Private Supplementary Tutoring in Central Asia: New Opportunities and Burdens.
- ,Dawson, Walter. 2010. “Private Tutoring and Mass Schooling in East Asia: Reflections of Inequality in Japan, South Korea, and Cambodia.” Asia Pacific Education Review 11(1):14-24.
- , Kwo, Ora & Mark Bray. 2011. “Facing the Shadow Education System in Hong Kong.” IIAS Newsletter (University of Leiden, International Institute for Asian Studies)
- ,Dong, Alison, Batjargal Ayush, Bolormaa Tsetsgee, & Tumendelger Sengedorj. 2006. “Mongolia”. In Iveta Silova, Virginija Būdienė, & Mark Bray (Eds.), Education in a Hidden Marketplace: Monitoring of Private Tutoring. New York: Open Society Institute, pp.257-277
- ,Aslam, Monazza & Paul Atherton. 2011. “The “Shadow” Education Sector in India and Pakistan: The Determinants, Benefits and Equity Effects of Private Tutoring.” Presentation at the UKFIET (United Kingdom Forum for International Education and Training) Conference, University of Oxford, 13–15 September.
- ,EPPM (International Institute of Education Policy, Planning & Management). 2011. Study of Private Tutoring in Georgia. Tbilisi: EPPM, p.29. (In Georgian)
- ,Synovate Limited. 2011. Marketing survey of tutoring businesses in Hong Kong, cited in Modern Education Group Limited (2011), Global Offering (for stock market launch), Hong Kong, p.96.
- ,Vora, Nikhil & Shweta Dewan. 2009. Indian Education Sector: Long Way from Graduation!. Mumbai: IDFC-SSK Securities Ltd., p.60.
- ,Kim, Sunwoong & Ju-Ho Lee. 2010. “Private Tutoring and Demand for Education in South Korea.” Economic Development and Cultural Change 58(2), p.261.
- ,Kim, Kyung-Min & Daekwon Park. 2012. “Impacts of Urban Economic Factors on Private Tutoring Industry.” Asia Pacific Education Review 13 (20), p.273.
- ,Dawson, Walter. 2009. “The Tricks of the Teacher: Shadow Education and Corruption in Cambodia”, in Heyneman, Stephen P. (ed.), Buying Your Way into Heaven: Education and Corruption in International Perspective. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, pp.51-74; Bray & Lykins (2012), p.43.
- Bloom, B. (1984). "The 2 Sigma Problem: The Search for Methods of Group Instruction as Effective as One-to-One Tutoring", Educational Researcher, 13:6(4-16).
- "Hey tutors! Leave us kids alone". The Times Of India.
- Geller, A.E., Eodice, M., Condon, F., Carroll, M., & Boquet, E.H. (2007) The Everyday Writing Center: A Community of Practice. Logan, Utah: Utah State University Press.
- Ryan, L. (2002). The Bedford Guide for Writing Tutors. (3rd ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.
- Lunsford, A. (2008). Collaboration, Control, and the Idea of a Writing Center. In C. Murphy and S. Sherwood, Eds., The St. Martin's Sourcebook for Writing Tutors. (3rd ed.) Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.
- Riley, Ryan Max (10 October 2013). "Bios for New York’s Most Popular Tutors". CollegeHumor. Retrieved October 10, 2013.