|Sailor Moon character|
Tuxedo Mask/Tuxedo Kamen, as depicted in the manga
|First appearance||(See below)|
|Created by||Naoko Takeuchi|
|Played by||(See below)|
Moonlight Knight (anime)
Metaria Endymion (PGSM)
Space Knight (musicals)
Dark Kingdom (while brainwashed)
Shadow Galactica (manga)
|Name Pp||Darien Shields|
|Aliases||Prince Darien (DIC dub)|
Tuxedo Mask (タキシード仮面 Takishīdo Kamen ) is a fictional character and one of the primary protagonists of the Sailor Moon metaseries. Named Mamoru Chiba (地場 衛 Chiba Mamoru , Darien Shields in the English-language versions), he disguises himself in order to support the series' central heroines, the Sailor Senshi. Wearing a mask to conceal his identity, he interferes with enemy operations, offers the Senshi advice, and sometimes physically aids them in battle. Like the Senshi, Tuxedo Mask possesses a power item like theirs: a Sailor Crystal, which gives him guardianship over the planet Earth. He also has psychic powers, including psychometry and healing, which evolve and become important to the storyline in the manga, but which play only a minor role and remain static in the anime. Along with his primary love interest Sailor Moon, a significant player in much of the story, he has royal credentials in the "past life" storyline as well as in the future.
The Japanese version refers to him as "Tuxedo Kamen" while the dub refers to him as "Tuxedo Mask" when calling this character by his codename, literally translating the word Kamen, a word in Japanese which means 'mask' or 'masked', into its English equivalent. Chibiusa and Usagi, in particular, also commonly refer to him with the nickname "Mamo-chan". The English-language dub often shortens his name, "Darien", to "Dar" as a nickname; however, this happens inconsistently. His traits are somewhat similar to Batman and James Bond.
Mamoru Chiba becomes the major romantic interest of Usagi Tsukino. The series often portrays him as stoic, steady and introverted. At a young age he lost his parents in a car crash. This blocked his childhood memories of his current lifetime and opened up the memories of his previous life as Prince Endymion. In the beginning of the series, dreams of Princess Serenity haunt Mamoru. Unaware of his dual-identity as Tuxedo Mask, he suffers painful headaches and visions whenever Usagi gets into trouble, and he transforms unknowingly into Tuxedo Mask. As Mamoru, he tries to piece together his strange dreams, and as Tuxedo Mask, he tries to remember his past and identity, while searching for Princess Serenity. Early in the manga he seeks the Silver Crystal in the belief that this will fully restore his memories. In the anime, he seeks it because Princess Serenity tells him to in a dream. Of all the characters, Mamoru gets brainwashed and captured the most throughout the series, probably because of his importance to Usagi.
Mamoru and Usagi become lovers during the series, although they hate each other initially. In the anime, Usagi and Mamoru don't know each other's shared histories, and don't know that they work together as Sailor Moon and Tuxedo Mask. In both the manga and anime he and Usagi feel antagonism towards each other and only develop romantic feelings later on. In the anime, Mamoru explains that when Usagi comes close, he doesn't know what comes over him, and for some reason he feels compelled to insult her. Their bantering sets up for a very passionate relationship. In the manga their feelings develop well before they discover their identities; in the anime such feelings emerge only shortly before the revelation of their true roles. Once they became a couple, they remain deeply devoted to each other and their love survives many trials. In the manga, they briefly show jealousy in Volume 8, Act 25. In the anime they break up in Episode 61 (55 in the English version) after King Endymion sends nightmares to Mamoru, making him believe if he stays with Usagi she will die. However, they re-unite in Episode 77. He is always addressed as Mamo-chan by Usagi throughout the series during this time period (Chibiusa also addresses him with this nickname later on). After dating for two years, Mamoru gives Usagi an engagement ring at an airport. Their wedding is shown at the very end of the manga. In the future, they become king and queen and have a child together whom they name, Small Lady, but is in the majority of the series known as Chibiusa.
The manga develops Mamoru more extensively, showing that the car-crash happened on his birthday, and it gives a glimpse of his parents. Mamoru also struggles with his identity and function throughout the manga, worrying first about his true nature, then later whether he gets in the way of the Sailor Soldiers. A fair amount of subtle characterization is made for Mamoru, and later extending his role within the manga as to who he is. He also is given the power of psychometry, which also showed up in the anime, but was not given a name. This manifests in his ability to see and read dreams (Such as Chibiusa's), heal people and monitor the status of the Earth. This was not fully developed until the Black Moon arc, and was used occasionally throughout the series. Mamoru also has his left ear pierced in the manga, a trait that does not carry over to his anime counterpart.
The anime tends not to develop Mamoru as much, but shows him as more social than his manga counterpart. He demonstrates interests in a variety of subjects and emerges as smart. The musical Kakyu Ouhi Kourin shows that he is aspiring to become a doctor. He also "dates" Rei Hino for a short time before the revelation of all the past-life identities, though he believes they are just friends.
Tuxedo Mask plays a significantly more important role in the manga than in the anime. In fact, many of Sailor Moon's transformations and final victories come as a result of her and Tuxedo Mask fusing their powers together. In the final battle against the Dark Kingdom, Queen Metaria absorbs Sailor Moon and Tuxedo Mask into her body. However, they succeed in combining their powers through the Silver Crystal and destroy Queen Metaria from within. Tuxedo Mask also combines his power into Super Sailor Moon's last item in the manga with the rest of the soldiers using the Golden Crystal. In the Infinity story arc, he combined his powers with Sailor Moon to create the next scepter.
The manga tends to show Mamoru as quiet, studious, mysterious and stoic. The student body of his high school often admires him for these qualities. The anime also tends to make him appear in every episode to save Sailor Moon's life. He did have a few attacks that resemble what would seem[original research?] like some of the attacks in the manga, but these are not given actual names within the anime.
The dub did not make many significant changes to Mamoru's character. He appears a little more extroverted than his original anime counterpart in the voicing. Darien was more likely to yell and get annoyed than Mamoru of the anime, who was often quiet and distant, even when he was annoyed. A line was also added to an episode in the dub that claimed Darien used to be a model, but this was never referred to again. The original line had Mamoru talking about the attractiveness of a girl's character being more important than physical beauty. It also invented karate as one of his hobbies, which was only mentioned in one episode and never mentioned in the original.
In the musicals, Mamoru protects Usagi and generally appears at her side. Several of his relationships change in different settings, however. For example, one musical reveals Queen Beryl as Mamoru's fiancé from his time as Prince of the Earth. Associating with the Moon Kingdom was against Earth law, and Endymion violated this law when he fell in love with Princess Serenity. In this version of events, Serenity and Endymion are outlaws (similar to Romeo and Juliet) who drive an otherwise innocent woman, Beryl, to evil by making her jealous. Sailor Pluto also reveals that she is in love with Endymion, though she has contented herself with watching from afar.
Another variation occurs in the Ryuusei Densetsu musical, when Galaxia does not kill Mamoru, leaving him able to fight alongside the Senshi. Mamoru typically gets very involved in Senshi battles, fighting alongside the Senshi as opposed to his anime rôle of throwing a rose and then letting Sailor Moon deliver the finishing blow.
Tuxedo Mask always gets his own song; these songs vary from musical to musical. One musical featured multiple songs as both the present Mamoru appeared as Tuxedo Mask and later King Endymion appeared in disguise as Space Knight to look out for Chibiusa.
The live-action version presents Mamoru as a much more silent, yet dedicated person. For example he stays loyal to Hina, his girlfriend (despite not loving her), on the basis of a promise they made as children. He searches for the Silver Crystal due to his amnesia: dreams told him that the magical object could restore his memories. To do this, he donned the Tuxedo Kamen disguise and became a thief, searching for the legendary crystal. Once he regained his memories of his past and present lives, he assumed his Endymion form to help the Senshi and tried his best to protect Usagi from the dangers of overusing the Silver Crystal. However, because of his dedication he is forced to join the Dark Kingdom or the Shitennou will be killed. He also joins to keep a promise with Usagi that they will not destroy the planet. Learning that the Silver Crystal made Metaria stronger every time Sailor Moon used it, Endymion took Metaria into his body before succumbing to its dark power. Now an evil parody of himself, Dark Prince Endymion, he almost killed Sailor Mercury when Sailor Moon was forced to kill him to stop Metaria. He was revived once Sailor Moon managed to finally control the Crystal's power and destroyed Metaria for good.
Aspects and forms 
|Mamoru Chiba||Act 1||Ep. 1||Act 1|
|Tuxedo Mask||Act 1||Ep. 1||Act 1|
|Prince Endymion||Act 9||Ep. 35||Act 25|
|Evil/Dark Endymion||Act 10||Ep. 36||Act 48|
|Moonlight Knight||--||Ep. 43||--|
|King Endymion||Act 18||Ep. 83||--|
As a character with different incarnations, special powers, transformations and a long lifetime spanning the Silver Millennium era and the 30th century, Mamoru gains multiple aspects and aliases as the series progresses.
Tuxedo Mask 
"Tuxedo Mask" represents a disguise Mamoru created for himself in order to hunt for the Silver Crystal incognito and — later — to assist the Sailor Senshi in battle. In addition to his white mask, he wears a full-dress tailcoat (as opposed to the dinner jacket of an actual tuxedo) with a red-lined black cape, and in the anime and live-action series he carries a black cane which he uses like a sword. He takes the place of Sailor Earth.
The anime has him standing on poles, defying gravity, and acting as something of a "swoop-in" type. He appears less developed, and has no special powers or named attacks, but remains a constant force in helping the Sailor Senshi throughout the series when they are in trouble. At the beginning he cannot control the transformation and his body automatically (and painfully) transforms if Sailor Moon is in danger. By the end of the first story arc he can willingly activate the transformation; in a stylized henshin sequence, this is indicated by pulling a rose out of his pocket, which then changes colors, and his tuxedo and mask fly in. Later in the series he is shown transforming instantaneously.
In the manga he starts out as an ordinary thief trying to find the Silver Crystal. Luna initially tells Usagi not to trust him, but relents when they begin to fall in love and his true identity emerges. His function goes beyond that of the rescuer portrayed so often in the anime – it is frequently Sailor Moon who goes to his rescue, and he lends her strength, support and guidance to use the Silver Crystal to defeat the enemies in return.
In the fourth story arc of the manga Helios reinforces Tuxedo Mask's role as a hero by revealing that he, as the Prince of the Golden Kingdom, Elysion, possesses a holy stone in the same way that the Princess of the Silver Millennium owns the Silver Crystal. This holy stone is the Golden Crystal, the Sailor Crystal of the Earth.
Prince Endymion 
Endymion (エンディミオン Endimion , called "Prince Darien" in the English-language anime) was the Crown Prince of planet Earth during the Silver Millennium, and Mamoru's identity in a previous life. He resided in the Golden Kingdom, which protected the Earth from within. Even though he and the guardian of Elysion, Helios, never met each other in person during that time, they shared the common desire to protect the planet. Endymion also had four guardians, the Shitennou, who protected him. He and Princess Serenity fell in love, and disobeyed a precept that forbade people from the Earth and people from the moon to contact one another. In the manga, Beryl killed Endymion in the past. However, in the anime, Queen Metallia killed Prince Endymion in the past. He is reincarnated in the 20th century as Mamoru Chiba.
The manga often portrays Prince Endymion as the silent protagonist; his past life remains a mystery. Mamoru usually does not transform into Prince Endymion willfully, but is usually used as a power-up from his Tuxedo Mask form. He was brainwashed by Queen Metallia of the Dark Kingdom during part of the Dark Kingdom arc, and was referred to as "Endou." Endou was supposed to be a friend of Motoki Furuhata/Motoki'. Motoki was brainwashed into believing dark Mamoru was his friend Endou. During his time serving the Dark Kingdom Mamoru appears as an evil form of Endymion. In the anime, Mamoru can transform into Prince Endymion. Often this occurs when Sailor Moon transforms into Princess Serenity. As in the manga, he wears black armor.
In the live-action series, Endymion wears white, and after obtaining this form it becomes Mamoru's primary combat form. He gains the power of teleportation, a power shared by the Shitennou (Sailor Moon)|Shitennou. After he takes Metallia into his body, the armor and accessories turn black and he becomes known as Metallia Endymion. He also gains a shroud and black versions of the accessories the Shitennou wear. Remnants of the white armor can be seen underneath.
King Endymion 
Later in the series Mamoru emerges as King Endymion, King of 30th-century Crystal Tokyo. He is the husband of Neo-Queen Serenity, and father of Chibiusa. As king of Crystal Tokyo his royal garments are a white and lavender tuxedo, as well as a royal staff. King Endymion's first appearance is at the end of manga Act 18. He is not actually in a physical form but a spiritual entity guarding the Crystal Palace while his real body sleeps. During this time he helps to guide the Sailor Senshi and his past self against the Dark Moon Kingdom. It is then revealed to the Senshi that Mamoru never aged due to the Silver Crystal's power. It is the ghost of King Endymion who instructs Tuxedo Mask in the first use of his attack "Tuxedo La Smoking Bomber." Prince Endymion becomes King at the end of the battle with the Dead Moon Circus when Helios, the priest of his former home, Elysion, hands him his sacred golden crystal atop his king's staff. After this, both Tuxedo Mask and Sailor Moon turn into their respective future selves, all of the Sailor Senshi transform into their princess forms. However, after this point, Mamoru is not seen in this form again.
The anime shows King Endymion only in the future as the father of Small Lady and the King of Crystal Tokyo. He also appears as a computerized image when they first meet him. However, he is never shown to fight in battle. Diana makes a comment about the future King and Queen. She says in SuperS that the King and Queen like to fake being sick to be excused from attending important banquets and meetings. In the English dub, he was not referred to as Endymion; only the "King of the Earth" or "The King".
Moonlight Knight 
The Moonlight Knight (月影の騎士 Tsukikage no Naito ) appears in the anime only for the first half of Sailor Moon R, the Makaiju arc. When Usagi wished to be a normal girl at the end of the first series, everyone's memories were magically hidden, including Mamoru's. However, Mamoru subconsciously still wanted to protect Usagi, so his memories separated from him and concentrated into the Moonlight Knight. The Moonlight Knight could co-exist in the same space and time as Mamoru. As with Tuxedo Mask, Usagi thought every cute guy she knew was him, and was surprised when she discovered who he was. Once Mamoru recovered his memories, the Moonlight Knight disappeared and rejoined with Mamoru. Mamoru returned to being Tuxedo Mask once again after that point on. The Moonlight Knight mainly dresses in Arabian robes and carries a saber. He also throws white roses, instead of Tuxedo Mask's trademark red roses. Moonlight Knight may be a reference to Moonlight Mask, another Japanese superhero.
Special powers and items 
Even in civilian form, Mamoru demonstrates a variety of psychic powers throughout each series. In both the anime and manga he uses psychometry to read past, present, and future events through touch, and heals others' wounds through psychokinesis. Inconsistently, he is shown teleporting; just once in the anime, while under Queen Beryl's power, and several times as Prince Endymion in the live-action series.
Mamoru also demonstrates a spiritual connection with Usagi: he can detect when she has transformed into Sailor Moon. Early on in the anime series, before they become friends, this connection forcibly transforms Mamoru into Tuxedo Mask so that he can protect her. In later episodes, he seems to have control over his transformations, although he still shows up shortly after the start of most of the battles, no matter how far away from the developing situation.
On one occasion the anime gives Tuxedo Mask a stylized transformation sequence, with his tuxedo and accessories forming around him as he flings a rose. He does not shout any special phrase, although his voice-actor jokingly ad-libbed the line "Tuxedo Power! Make up!" He also acquires a joke transformation in the live-action series, using the same phrase, which is a part of an outrageous story he tells Usagi about how he became Tuxedo Mask. This transformation is initiated with a special band-aid, and the sequence consists of Mamoru pulling on his pants and coat with dramatic flair.
Once transformed, Tuxedo Mask displays additional powers. In the anime shows these as mainly physical, while the manga depicts them as rare and magical. His iconic mainstay in the anime involves the use of roses, thrown like darts to injure or distract enemies. He can also twirl them or throw a wide array to block attacks, or can throw many at a time to pin an enemy down. He seems to have an unlimited supply of these roses, which are supernaturally strong and embed themselves in most any material, including concrete. In addition, when Mamoru takes on different forms or aspects, his roses change color accordingly. Tuxedo Mask's roses are red, the evil Prince Endymion's are black (and electrified), and the Moonlight Knight's are white.
Tuxedo Mask's secondary weapon, his cane, often serves as a sword, and he can extend its length, either to attack or to rescue people. As both Prince Endymion and Moonlight Knight, he uses real swords of different styles.
In the manga, Tuxedo Mask can blast energy from his hand, crying "Tuxedo La Smoking Bomber!" He also has a combination attack with his daughter, Sailor Chibi Moon: "Pink Sugar Tuxedo Attack." The musicals reproduce this attack.
Mamoru's most important magical possession in the manga, the Golden Crystal, serves as both his star seed and as the Sailor Crystal of the Earth. He uses it in combination with Sailor Moon's Silver Crystal to defend the solar system. In the anime, although Mamoru has the "golden star seed" of Earth, it differs from the Golden Crystal, which instead is possessed by Pegasus and can be used by people with good intentions.
Takeuchi designed the character of Tuxedo Mask as her own ideal of a man, describing him as "strong, silent, unshakeable, a little like Captain Harlock". She originally intended his persona as Tuxedo Mask to "have more mysteries and take a greater role".
The name "Mamoru Chiba" started as the prototypical name for Makoto Kino. The kanji in Mamoru's surname translate as "earth" (地 chi ) and "place" (場 ba ). Together, they form the term "local", with a pun on his identity as Endymion, Prince of Earth. His given name means "protect" (衛 mamoru ). His name in the English version of the anime, Darien, also means "protector". He rarely uses his surname, but when he does it is retained as Chiba; however, he was given the full name Darien Shields for the English manga. In DiC's first promo for the dub, he was referred to as "The Masked Tuxedo". A preliminary dub name for Mamoru, that appeared on Kodansha's English website in an advertisement for the series, was said to be Mark.
Originally Naoko Takeuchi used the codename "Mysterious 2098 Face" for Tuxedo Mask. She later expressed bewilderment at herself for the idea. Although Takeuchi had designed his costume herself, she found it difficult to draw, as it had many parts to it; she often forgot to draw parts of it in the early manga. She later had the same problem with Sailor Galaxia's costume.
Tōru Furuya stated in a "making-of" extra that he had an influence on the development of the anime persona of Tuxedo Mask. When asked about any differences between the anime and manga counterparts, he ad-libbed "I'm driving." Because of this, Tuxedo Mask became more comical.
Veteran voice actor Tōru Furuya voices Mamoru Chiba in the Japanese anime series and movies. He has described the role as "very special to me". In the English adaptations, the voice of "Darien Chiba" is provided by an uncredited Rino Romano for episodes 1-11, Toby Proctor for episodes 12-65, and Vince Corazza for episodes 66-159 and movies.
In the stage musicals eight different actors have played Mamoru: Mizuki Sano, Yuuta Mochizuki, Yuuta Enomoto, Kousei Amano, Hidemasa Edo, Kenji Urai, Yuu Shirota, and Gyo Miyamoto. Creator Naoko Takeuchi has described Sano's portrayal of Mamoru as "a cute, sweet boy". Yuuta Mochizuki, the longest-running among the musical actors, went on to perform as King Endymion during Fumina Hara's musicals, and Yuu Shirota performed as Kunimitsu Tezuka in The Prince of Tennis musical series, "Tenimyu".
In the live action series Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon Jouji Shibue played Mamoru: he later went on to portray Ibuki in Kamen Rider Hibiki; thus fans giving him the moniker of "Tuxedo Kamen Rider" due to the short super hero transitions between the shows .
Reception and influence 
The official Sailor Moon-character popularity-polls listed Mamoru Chiba, Tuxedo Mask, and Endymion as separate entities. In 1992, readers ranked Tuxedo Mask as the twelfth most popular character, Prince Endymion as the fifteenth most popular character, and Mamoru Chiba as the sixteenth most popular character out of thirty eight choices. One year later, now with fifty choices, King Endymion became the eighteenth most popular character, while Tuxedo Mask and Mamoru came in at twentieth and twenty-first respectively. Moonlight Knight, being an anime only form, was never included in the manga popularity polls. Tuxedo Mask was the fourth favorite male character in a May 1993 Animage poll, and Mamoru was seventh the following year.
Although Takeuchi herself had a soft spot for Mamoru, she has said that friends complained to her about Usagi being in love with "such a useless guy". He has been described as being both a "dashing hero" and a "boy-damsel in distress" by Jonathan Clements and Helen McCarthy. He has even been called a "liability" and a "burden," his relationship with Usagi being described as a child-mother relationship rather than that of a principality couple. Usagi is said to show him amae, or "indulgent love". When compared to male leads of male-targeted series, Mamoru, although unafraid of girls, seems uncomfortable with them. He also gives the impression of a "character who never laughs or has fun": "noble, passive and effectively totally ineffectual".
The image of the top hat and cape also influenced the early making of Tuxedo Umino Kamen (Tuxedo Umino Mask) in the anime. The dub referred to this character as Tuxedo Melvin. In this particular episode Umino tries to impress Naru by dressing up like Tuxedo Mask. This image was also used later in the manga for Tubby Mask for the Chibiusa Picture Diary, Story of the Hammer Price Shrine. This character was based on Makoto Hanmatsuura who bid two million yen in a charity auction for the Kobe Earthquake Disaster to be put in the Sailor Moon manga.
In Pokémon Season 7 Episode 21 ("Disaster In Disguise") when Team Rocket introduce themselves they dressed up like Tuxedo Mask while effectively running around using Rosalia's petal attacks to reference Tuxedo Mask's use of roses. The Disgaea anime has the recurring character "Mid-Boss" copy Mamoru's rose throw, down to the music cues.
In recent times, a member of popular web group RoosterTeeth and Achievement Hunter, Ray Narvaez Jr. has referenced Tuxedo Mask multiple times in videos and posts on the RoosterTeeth Website. In their successful 'Let's Play Minecraft' series, Narvaez always dons a Tuxedo skin and has named him Tuxedo Mask, also, it has been a running joke that Narvaez would try to find roses within the game, and often spewing them at the end of the video when one of the players would win the Tower of Pimps.
See also 
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 6, 1992, September 5, 1996). "Act 3". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 1. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178721-7.
- "The Sparkling Silver Crystal! The Moon Princess Appears". Sailor Moon. Episode 34.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 6, 1996). "Act 43". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 16. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178841-8.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (April 4, 1997, December 10, 1998). "Act #". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 18. Kodansha. ISBN ISBN 4-06-178858-2.
- Takeuchi, Naoko. "Act 37". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 13. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178820-5. shows Mamoru sick in bed when the Shitennou appear.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 5, 1996). "Act 42". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 15. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178835-3.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (November 6, 1993, July 5, 1995). "Act 23". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 5. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178764-0.; "An Angel? A Devil? Mysterious Girl from the Sky". Sailor Moon R. Episode 60.
- "Usagi's Dance, In Time to a Waltz". Sailor Moon S. Episode 108.
- "Kakyu Ouhi Kourin (The Coming of Princess Kakyu)". Sailor Moon Musical. Part 1; Before Kaze no Shijin; Saito Kun (Kunzite):"Are you going to be a doctor?" Mamoru:"Yeah"
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 6, 1993, March 5, 1995). "Act 13". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 4. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178753-5.
- "The Rod of Love is Born! Usagi's New Transformation". Sailor Moon S. Episode 91.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (November 6, 1993, July 5, 1995). "Act 16". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 5. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178764-0.
- "Is Usagi a Model? The Focus of the Monster Camera". Sailor Moon. Episode 17., Dub Episode 14
- "Usagi is Frantic! Rei's First Date". Sailor Moon. Episode 15.
- Sera Myu, Shin Densetsu Kourin[clarification needed]
- "Onna No Ronsou". Retrieved 2006-08-06. - A Sailor Pluto and Queen Beryl duet about their love for Endymion.
- Sailor Moon Musical, Kaguya Shima Densetsu and its revision, Kaguya Shima Densetsu Kaiteiban.
- "I Must Save Osaka!". Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. Episode 16.
- "Usagi is the Real Princess!". Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. Episode 26.
- "I am Sailor Moon!". Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. Episode 1.
- "Princess Sailor Moon Appears!". Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. Episode 36.
- "Usagi's Mother's Challenge as a Reporter!!". Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. Episode 39.
- "Goodbye, Minako". Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. Episode 47.
- "The Five Sailor Senshi Surpassed Their Previous Lives". Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. Episode 49.
- "Naoko Takeuchi at the San Diego Comic Con!". Smile magazine. December 1998. Retrieved 2007-07-31. "Instead of Sailor Earth, there's Tuxedo Mask."
- "A House Full of Evil Presence! The Secret of the Beautiful Girl, Hotaru". Sailor Moon S. Episode 113.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (March 6, 1996). "Act 40". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 14. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178826-4. said by Helios.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 6, 1992, April 6, 1996). "Act 9". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178731-4.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (April 6, 1993). "Act 10". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 3. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178744-6.
- "Usagi's Awakening! A Message From the Distant Past". Sailor Moon. Episode 44.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (April 6, 1993). "Act 11". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 3. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178744-6.
- "So Tuxedo Mask's True Identity was Mamoru Chiba…". Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. Episode 25.; after this point Tuxedo Mask does not show up for the rest of the episodes except in flashbacks.
- "I am Sailor Moon!". Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. Episode 1., shows the Shitennou teleporting.
- "Believe Me! I Definitely Won't Destroy the Planet!". Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. Episode 38.
- "Mamoru is Captured by Metallia!". Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. Episode 48.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (November 6, 1993, July 5, 1995). "Act 19". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 5. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178764-0.
- "Holiday in Juban City! A Carefree Princess". Sailor Moon Supers. Episode 146.
- "True Love Awakens! The Doom Tree's Secret". Sailor Moon R. Episode 59.
- For example in the manga, Act 14 and in the anime, Episode 61.
- As in manga Act 14 and "A Bright Shooting Star! Saturn, and the Messiah". Sailor Moon S. Episode 125., "Shadows of the Great Evil! The Trio is Cornered". Sailor Moon Supers. Episode 148.
- "Usagi is Confused! Is Tuxedo Mask Evil?". Sailor Moon. Episode 1.
- "Girl Power! The End of Jadeite". Sailor Moon. Episode 13.
- "Usagi is Thrilled! Tuxedo Mask's Love Letter". Sailor Moon. Episode 19.
- Liner notes, manga volume 3.
- "Tuxedo Mask's Secret Birth". Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. Episode ZERO.
- "Crybaby Usagi's Magnificent Transformation". Sailor Moon. Episode 1.
- "Women Should Be Strong and Beautiful! Rei's New Killer Move". Sailor Moon R. Episode 63.; "Protect Chibiusa! Clash of the 10 Warriors". Sailor Moon R. Episode 68.
- "Usagi in Tears! Glass Shoes for her Birthday". Sailor Moon S. Episode 101.
- "Usagi's Parental Love? A Curry Triangle Relationship". Sailor Moon R. Episode 66.
- "The Shocking Future! Dimande's Dark Ambition". Sailor Moon R. Episode 83.; "Premonition of World's End? Mysterious New Warriors!". Sailor Moon S. Episode 90.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 6, 1995, August 8, 1995). "The Lover of Princess Kaguya". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 11. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178809-4.
- "Labyrinth of Mirrors! Chibi Moon Captured". Sailor Moon Supers. Episode 163.
- Interview of Naoko Takeuchi at the San Diego Comic-con
- Holzer, Stefanie; Mrs. Okishita from Kodansha (translator) (July / August 1999). "Interview mit Naoko Takeuchi". AnimaniA (in German) (30).
- Takeuchi, Naoko (August 1994). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume I Original Picture Collection. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-324507-1.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (June 1997). Bishoujo Senshi Sailormoon Original Picture Collection Volume Infinity.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (April 1998). "Act 1". Sailor Moon. TokyoPop. ISBN 4-06-334783-4.
- "DiC Sailor Moon Promotional Video". Sailor Moon. DiC. Various.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (October 23, 2003). "Punch!". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon shinsouban Volume 3. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-334783-4.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 22, 2003). "Punch!". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon shinsouban Volume 2. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-334777-X.
- "Sailor Moon Omake Making Of". Sailor Moon. Season 2. ~05.08.1993. Toei. "I'm driving" was from Original anime episode 10.
- Bulfinch, Thomas (1998). Bulfinch's Mythology. Modern Library. ISBN 0-375-75147-5.
- Doi, Hitoshi. "Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon". Archived from the original on 2006-09-02. Retrieved 2006-10-06.
- "Exclusive interview with Furuya Toru". musicJAPANplus.
- "eternal.legend". Retrieved 2006-11-04.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 1996). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume III Original Picture Collection. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-324518-7.
- Sailor Moon Musical, 1998 Shin Densetsu Kourin, 1999 Kaguya Shima Densetsu and 1999 Kaguya Shima Densetsu kaiteiban
- Nae; wasurenagusa; Hui, Andrea. "Shingetsu". Retrieved 2006-10-31.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (April 6, 1993). Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 3. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178744-6.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 6, 1994). Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 7. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178781-0.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (August 1997). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume V Original Picture Collection. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-324522-5.
- Clements, Jonathan; Helen McCarthy (2001-09-01). The Anime Encyclopedia: A Guide to Japanese Animation Since 1917 (1st ed.). Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. p. 338. ISBN 1-880656-64-7. OCLC 47255331.
- Baranyi, Dave (January 1999). "Wimps from Outer Space". Animefringe. Retrieved 2009-07-21.
- "Umino's Resolve! I'll Protect Naru". Sailor Moon. Episode 1.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (December 6, 1996). "Chibiusa Picture Diary, Story of the Hammer Price Shrine". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 17. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178849-3.