Quark (dairy product)
Quark is a type of fresh dairy product. It is made by warming soured milk until the desired degree of coagulation (denaturation) of milk proteins is met, and then strained. Dictionaries usually translate it as curd cheese or cottage cheese, although most commercial varieties of cottage cheese are made with rennet, whereas traditional quark is not. It is soft, white and unaged, and usually has no salt added.
Quark is distinct from ricotta because ricotta (Italian: "recooked") is made from scalded whey. It is also similar to yogurt cheeses such as the South Asian chak(k)a, the Arabic labneh, and the Central Asian suzma or kashk, but while these products are obtained by straining yogurt (milk fermented with thermophile bacteria), quark is made from milk fermented with mesophile bacteria.
The name comes from the Late Middle High German Quark, centuries earlier also spelled Quarck was also called twarc, dwarg,quarc, quargel zwarg -- meaning Zwerg (English dwarf) -- for its smaller than regular cheese size. The Greek name for cheese is recorded as Tyros, Tyr, Turo  It is also known in Lower Sorbian Slavic as tvarog (Polish twaróg, Belarusian тварог, Russian творог, and Czech and Slovak tvaroh) which also means "curd". In Austria, the name Topfen (pot cheese) is used. In Flanders, it is called plattekaas (flat cheese), while the Dutch use the name kwark. In French it is called fromage à la pie. In Denmark, it is called kvark. In Norway and Sweden, it is called kvarg. In Hungarian cuisine it is termed túró, with the word juhtúró referring to quark made from ewe's milk.
The cheese product starts out as thick milk or soured milk (from German Dicke Milch or Saure Milch/Sauermilch M.H.G surmilch), or as "white cheese" (Polish: ser biały, Lithuanian: Baltas sūris, southern Germany: Weißkäse or weißer Käs, Hebrew: Gvina Levana גבינה לבנה, Serbian: beli sir), as opposed to any rennet-set "yellow cheese". In Finnish, it is known as rahka, while in Estonian, as kohupiim (foamy milk). In Latvian, it is called biezpiens (thick milk). The French-language word for it is seré, but it is most commonly called fromage blanc.
Quark is a member of the acid set cheese group, meaning it is traditionally made without the aid of rennet. In most German dairies today, it is made with rennet ("Lab" in German)  Lactic acid bacteria are added in the form of mesophilic Lactococcus starter cultures. Acidification continues until the pH reaches 4.6, which causes precipitation of the casein proteins. In Germany, the curd is continuously stirred to prevent it from getting hard, resulting in a thick, creamy texture. Quark is usually sold in plastic tubs with most or all of the whey. This type of quark has the firmness of sour cream but is slightly drier, resulting in a somewhat crumbly texture (like Italian ricotta), and contains in its basic form about 0.2% fat. Quark with higher fat content is made by adding cream, and is often sold flavored with herbs, spices, or fruit. It has a very smooth and creamy texture and is slightly sweet (unlike sour cream).
To make the firmer eastern European version, a small amount of rennet may be added to make the curd firmer. Some or most of the whey is removed to standardize the quark to the desired thickness. Traditionally, this is done by hanging the cheese in loosely woven cotton gauze called cheesecloth and letting the whey drip off, which gives quark its distinctive shape of a wedge with rounded edges. In industrial production, however, cheese is separated from whey in a centrifuge and later formed into blocks. The Polish, Lithuanian, Russian, Ukrainian and Austrian varieties contain less whey and are therefore drier and more solid than varieties common in other countries.
Various cuisines, especially those of German-speaking countries (Germany, Austria, Switzerland), northern Europe (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Sweden), the Netherlands, Hungary, Israel, and of Slavic peoples (e.g. Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians) feature quark as an ingredient for appetizers, salads, main dishes, side dishes and desserts.
In Germany, quark is sold in small plastic tubs and usually comes in three different varieties, Magerquark (lean quark, virtually fat-free), "regular" quark (20% fat in dry mass) and Sahnequark (creamy quark, 40% fat in dry mass) with added cream. Similar gradations in fat content are also common in Eastern Europe. While Magerquark is often used for baking and as health food, e.g. as a breakfast spread, Sahnequark also forms the basis of a large number of quark desserts (called Quarkdessert or Quarkspeise in German). Much like yoghurts in some parts of the world, these foods mostly come with vanilla and fruit flavouring (Früchtequark, fruit quark), and are often also simply referred to as quark. Because mainstream popularity of quark desserts is limited to mainly the central, northern and eastern European countries, confusion might arise when talking about quark with people unfamiliar with cuisine from this area.
Quark is often used as an ingredient for sandwiches, salads, cheesecake (Käsekuchen or Quarkkuchen in Germany, Quarktorte in Switzerland, Topfenkuchen in Austria, kwarktaart in the Netherlands, tvarohovník in Slovakia, tvarožník in Czech Republic, sernik in Poland, and syrnik in Ukraine) and cheese pancakes (syrniki in Russia and Ukraine). In these cakes, the quark is typically mixed with eggs, milk or cream, and sugar, and baked or fried. A firmer variant, called Schichtkäse (layer cheese) is sometimes used for Käsekuchen.
Quark, vegetable oil and wheat flour are the ingredients of a popular kind of dough, called Quarkölteig, used in German cuisine as an alternative to yeast-leavened dough in home baking, since it is considerably easier to handle and requires no rising period. The resulting baked goods look and taste very similar to yeast-leavened goods, although they do not last as long and are thus usually consumed immediately after baking.
In Poland, twaróg is mixed with mashed potatoes to produce a filling for pierogi. Twaróg is also used to make gnocchi-shaped dumplings called leniwe pierogi ("lazy pierogi"). Ukrainian recipes for vareniki or lazy vareniki are similar but tvorog and mashed potatoes are different fillings which are usually not mixed together.
In Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, tvorog (Russian: творог) is highly popular and is bought frequently by almost every family. As a result, tvorog is a member of the official minimal basket of foods in Russia. In Russian families, it is especially recommended for growing babies. It can be simply enjoyed with sour cream, or jam, sugar, sugar condensed milk, as a breakfast food. It is often used as a stuffing in blinchiki offered at many fast-food restaurants. It is also commonly used as the base for making Easter cakes. It is mixed with eggs, sugar, raisins and nuts and dried into a solid pyramid-shaped mass called paskha. The mass can also be fried, then known as syrniki.
In Latvia, quark is eaten savory mixed with sour cream and scallions on rye bread or with potatoes. In desserts, quark is commonly baked into biezpiena plātsmaize, a crusted sheet cake baked with or without raisins. A sweetened treat biezpiena sieriņš (small curd cheese) is made of small sweetened blocks of quark dipped in chocolate.
In Switzerland, quark is recommended by some physiotherapists as an alternative to ice for treatment of swelling associated with sprains, etc. It can be cooled in a refrigerator and then applied to swollen tissues (enclosed in a plastic bag). The advantages over ice are that it does not get so cold, reducing risk of damage to treated tissue, but stays cooler longer.
Although common in Europe, manufacturing of quark is rare in the Americas. A few dairies manufacture it, such as the Vermont Creamery in Vermont, and some specialty retailers carry it. Lifeway Foods manufactures a product under the title "farmer cheese" which is available in a variety of metropolitan locations with former Russian populations. Quark is also available at several upstate NY farms. In Canada, the firmer East European variety of quark is manufactured by Liberté Natural Foods; a softer German-style quark is manufactured in the Didsbury, Alberta plant of Calgary-based Foothills Creamery. Quark may also be available as "baking cheese", "pressed cottage cheese", fromage frais.
In Australia, it is sometimes available from supermarkets labelled as quark or quarg.
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