Twelfth Street YMCA Building, also known as the Anthony Bowen YMCA, was home to the first African American chapter of the YMCA, founded in 1853 by Anthony Bowen. It is located at 1816 12th Street NW in the Shaw neighborhood of Washington, D.C. The building was reopened on February 20, 2000 as the Thurgood Marshall Center in honor of the first African American Associate Justice to serve on the United States Supreme Court. The Thurgood Marshall Center now serves as a community center for residents of the U Street Corridor and Shaw neighborhoods. The permanent organization of Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, Inc. was established in the Bowen Room.
Erected in 1908, the Renaissance Revival building was designed by William Sidney Pittman, one of the United States' first African American architects and a son-in-law of Booker T. Washington. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1994 and is a contributing property to the Greater U Street Historic District.