Twelve Heavenly Generals

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Bhaisajyaguru Buddha (center) accompanied by one of the Twelve Heavenly Generals

In some Buddhist denominations, the Twelve Heavenly Generals or Twelve Divine Generals are the protective deities, or yaksha, of Bhaisajyaguru, the buddha of healing. They are introduced in the Bhaiṣajyaguruvaidūryaprabharāja Sūtra.[1] They are collectively named as follows:

Names of Generals[edit]

The names of the generals are:[2]

Sanskrit kanji romanized Japanese Pinyin
Kumbhīra 宮毘羅
金毘羅
Kubira
Kompira (Shinto)
Guānpíluò
Jīnpeíluò
Vajra 伐折羅 Basara, Bazara Fázhéluò
Mihira 迷企羅 Mekira, Meikira Míqǐluò
Aṇḍīra 安底羅 Anchira, Anteira Āndǐluò
Anila 頞儞羅 Anira
Majira
Ènǐluò
Śāṇḍilya 珊底羅 Sanchira, Santeira Shāndìluò
Indra 因達羅
帝釈天
Indara Yīndàluò
Dìshìtiān
Pajra 波夷羅 Haira Bōyìluò
Mahoraga 摩虎羅
摩睺羅伽
Makora
Makura
Mòhǔluò
Mòhóuluòjiā
Kinnara 真達羅 Shintara, Kimnara
Shindūra
Zhēndàluò
Catura 招杜羅 Shōtora
Shatora
Zhāodùluò
Vikarāla 毘羯羅 Bikara
Bigyara
Píjiéluò

The goddess Marichi, protector of warriors and protector against fire is sometimes worshipped as one of the Twelve Heavenly Generals.[2]

Popular culture[edit]

General Catura at Ngong Ping
  • Statues of the Twelve Heavenly Generals stand in Ngong Ping, Hong Kong. They are near the Statue of Big Buddha.
  • In the anime Digimon Tamers, the twelve devas are named after the Twelve Heavenly Generals.
  • In the anime Tokyo Ravens, the Twelve Divine Generals were named after these Twelve Heavenly Generals, referring to people with extraordinary abilities.
  • This is the same with the anime Arata Kangatari, referring to the people with the most powerful Hayagamis of Amawakuni.

See also[edit]

  • The Glossary of Japanese Buddhism for an explanation of terms concerning Japanese Buddhism, Japanese Buddhist art, and Japanese Buddhist temple architecture.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mary Neighbour Parent (2001). "JAANUS - Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System". Japanese Architectural and Art Historical Terminology (online ed.). Retrieved 2009-04-20. 
  2. ^ a b c Mark Schumacher. "12 Divine Generals of Yakushi Buddha". A to Z Photo Dictionary: Japanese Buddhist Statuary. Retrieved 2009-06-24. 

External links[edit]