Twelve Tribes communities

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For other uses of "The Twelve Tribes", see The Twelve Tribes (disambiguation).
Twelve Tribes
Twelve Tribes Logo.jpg
Classification Messianic Judaism[1] Christian Fundamentalism,[2] New Religious Movement[1]
Structure Apostolic Council[3]
Region North America, South America, Western Europe, India, Australia[4]
Founder Elbert "Gene" Spriggs[1]
Origin 1972[2]
Chattanooga, Tennessee, United States
Members 2,500–3,000[5]
Official website http://www.twelvetribes.com

The Twelve Tribes, formerly known as the Vine Christian Community Church,[6] Northeast Kingdom Community Church,[1] the Messianic Communities,[1] and the Community Apostolic Order[7] is an international confederation of religious communities[8] founded by Gene Spriggs (now known as Yoneq) that sprang out of the Jesus Movement in 1972[3] in Chattanooga, Tennessee.[2] The group is an attempt to recreate the 1st-century church in the Book of Acts;[3] the name "Twelve Tribes" also derives from a quote of the Apostle Paul in Acts 26:7.[9] The group has also been referred to as The Yellow Deli People[10] and informally as The Community.[11]

History[edit]

The origins of the Twelve Tribes movement can be traced to a ministry for teenagers called the "Light Brigade"[12] in 1972.[3] The ministry operated out of a small coffee shop called "The Lighthouse"[2] within the home of Gene Spriggs and his wife Marsha. The Light Brigade began living communally[13] and opened a restaurant called "The Yellow Deli" while attending several churches, before deciding on First Presbyterian Church.[14] The Light Brigade, while at First Presbyterian, experienced friction with the establishment by bringing anyone who was willing to come with them, including different social classes and racial groups than the church normally experienced.[2] On January 12, 1975, the group arrived at First Presbyterian to find the service had been cancelled for the Super Bowl;[2] for the group, this was an intolerable act and led them to form The Vine Christian Community Church.[13] During this time, the church planted churches, each with their own Yellow Delis, in Dalton and Trenton, Georgia, Mentone, Alabama, and Dayton, Tennessee.[6]

Northeast Kingdom Community Church Members leaving the Courthouse with their children on June 22, 1984

Their withdrawal from the borders of the religious mainstream turned what had been a friction-filled relationship into an outcry against them.[1] They began holding their own services in Warner Park calling it "Critical Mass",[15] appointing elders[16][17] and baptizing people outside of any denominational authority. The deteriorating relationship between the group and the religious and secular Chattanooga community attracted the attention of The Parents' Committee to Free Our Children from the Children of God and the Citizen's Freedom Foundation who labeled the church a "cult" and heavily attacked Spriggs as a Cult leader.[1] This led to what the group refers to today as the "Cult Scare"[18] in the late seventies. A series of deprogrammings starting in the summer of 1976 that were carried out by Ted Patrick.[14] The group nevertheless largely ignored the negative press and the wider world in general, and continued their businesses[1] opening the Areopagus and a second local Yellow Deli in downtown Chattanooga.[14][19] In 1978 an invitation was received from a small church in Island Pond, Vermont for Spriggs to minister there; the offer was declined but the group began moving in stages to the small rural town, naming the church there The Northeast Kingdom Community Church.[15] One of Patrick's last deprogramming cases in Chattanooga occurred in 1980; it involved a police detective who, according to Swantko, had his 27-year-old daughter arrested on a falsified warrant in order to facilitate her deprogramming, with the support of local judges.[20] Kirsten Neilsen continued in the community of her own free will, with respect to her right not to be assaulted by so-called "deprogramming" to program a person into popular society. The group continued moving, closing down all the Yellow Delis and associated churches except for the one in Dalton.[6] At one point, a leader conceded the group was deeply in debt[17] before closing the Dalton church down and moving the last members to Vermont.[2]

Common Sense Cafe and Yellow Deli in Island Pond, Vermont--owned and operated by Twelve Tribes.

The move to Vermont, combined with an initial period of economic hardship, caused some members to leave.[2] The Citizen's Freedom Foundation conducted several meetings in Barton to draw attention to the group.[20] The Citizen's Freedom Foundation had made allegations of mind control in Chattanooga, but now made accusations of child abuse.[20] In 1983, charges were brought against Charles "Eddie" Wiseman (an elder in the group) for misdemeanor simple assault; this, combined with multiple child custody cases, formed the basis of a search warrant. On June 22, 1984 Vermont State Police and Vermont Social Rehabilitation Services[21] seized 112 children;[2] all were released the same day while the raid was ruled unconstitutional.[22] Due to what the group perceived as massive misunderstanding of the events and concerns leading up to and surrounding the raid, they began formal relationships with their neighbors.[1] Two months after the raid, the case against Wiseman fell apart after the main witness recanted, saying he was under duress from the anticult movement.[1] The case was later dropped in 1985 after a judge ruled that Wiseman had been denied his right to a speedy trial. Eddie Wiseman's public defender, Jean Swantko, who had been present during the raid, later joined and married Wiseman.[23]

Peacemaker 1 bus at a June 22, 1984 Raid anniversary in Island Pond, Vermont.

By 1989, the church had become widely accepted in Island Pond[24] and grew substantially during the 1980s and 1990s, opening branches in several different countries, including Canada, Australia, Brazil, Spain, Germany, Argentina, and the United Kingdom. During this expansion phase, the group used the name Messianic Communities, before deciding on The Twelve Tribes. Through the mid-2000s (decade), the group remained controversial, with accusations of child labor,[25] custodial interference,[20] and illegal homeschooling.[26] In 2006 the group held a reunion for members and friends of the Vine Christian Community Church and former Yellow Deli in Warner Park, announcing a new community in Chattanooga.[27] The movement proceeded to open a new Yellow Deli in 2008, nearly thirty years after leaving Chattanooga.[14]

Beliefs and practices[edit]

The Twelve Tribes' beliefs resemble those of Christian fundamentalism and Messianic Judaism; however the group believes that all denominations are fallen, and so refuse to align themselves with any denomination or movement.[2] They do not identify as Christians, believing that Christianity is the Whore of Babylon.[28][29] They believe that in order for the messiah to return, the Church needs to be restored to its original form seen in the Acts 2:38–42 and Acts 4:32–37. This restoration is not merely the restoration of the 1st-century church, but of a new Israel consisting of Twelve Tribes in twelve geographic regions.[2][12] Part of this restoration is the return to observing the sabbath, maintaining Mosaic law[11] including dietary law, and Jewish feasts.[11][30] This interpretation of the prophesied restoration of Israel,[3] combined with the perceived immorality[31] in the world leads the group to believe the end times have arrived, though no date has been set.[32] They adopt a highly nonstandard interpretation of the Book of James, which they believe was written in the second century after the supposed Great Apostasy allegedly occurred, and that the epistle was written to protest the lack of good works among believers. In keeping with their view of James, the group strongly rejects sola fide and upbraids Martin Luther.[33]

One noted aspect of the group is their insistence of using the pseudo-Hebrew name "Yahshua",[1] as opposed to Jesus or even the more common Hebrew transliterated form Yeshua.[2] As the name "Yahshua" represents the nature of Jesus, similarly they bestow Hebrew names upon members that are meant to reflect the personality of the individual.[30]

The group rejects the traditional Christian duality of heaven and hell; instead believe in what they term the Three Eternal Destinies.[34] They believe that after the Fall of Man every person is given a conscience;[34] and that after dying every person goes to a state of being called death[35] regardless of faith.[34] Upon the second coming, believers will be brought back for the thousand years to reign with "Yahshua" before the last judgment.[34] At the end of this thousand years, all the nonbelievers will be judged according to their deeds and be put into two groups: the righteous, filthy/unjust.[34] The filthy and the unjust will be sent to the Lake of Fire while the righteous will go to a place in heaven.[34]

"We Need Radical Change" an example of Twelve Tribes "free paper" commonly distributed at events as a form of Evangelism[3][11][36]

The leadership within is a structure is a series of Councils on the local, regional, and a global Apostolic Council;[3] the group is also overseen within these councils by a fluid number of teachers, deacons, deaconesses, elders and apostles.[7] Gene Spriggs is highly regarded as the first to open up his home to brothers and sisters, but is not regarded as a spiritual figurehead.[36]

The Spriggs travel between the communities offering advice and inspiration but try to foster local autonomy.[37] The group operates as a 501 (d) – a "for-profit organizations with a religious purpose and a common treasury" the community pays taxes on property and income[3][14] and do not vote in elections.[11]

Courtship within the Community involves a "waiting period"[14][38] in the which the man or woman expresses their desire to get to know the other person.[36] The couple then receives input from the community while spending time together.[36][38] The couple is betrothed (engaged) if their parents (or the entire community, if they are adults) confirm their love and compatibility;[7][36] the couple is then permitted to hold hands.[38] Weddings are dramatized preenactments[37] of what the group believes will happen at the end of time when "Yahshua"returns to earth for his bride.[14][36]

Children have been noted to play a central role in the group's eschatological beliefs,[7] as future generations of the group are to be the "pure and spotless bride" of Revelation.[7][36] Many children within the group are born through a home birth with a midwife where local laws permit, though a hospital may sometimes be used.[11][36] Children are homeschooled,[3][7][11][26][32][36] by both parents and others within the group.[36] Their curriculum includes learning to read, arithmetic, writing, history, religion and dance.[32] Commercial toys are used sparingly, along with blocks, puzzles, and sewing kits. Television, radio, and video games are regarded as time-wasters or worldly indoctrinating mechanisms. Within the group teenagers may take on apprenticeships in the group's cottage industries to be taught trades complementing their education.[7][39][40] The group utilizes corporal punishment[1][2][7][20][36][40] with a "reed-like rod"[11] like a balloon stick[41] across the child's bottom.[7]

Controversies[edit]

Since its inception, the group has ignited controversy[37] and garnered unfavorable attention from the media,[21] the anti-cult movement and governments.[20] The Twelve Tribes has been cited by Stuart A. Wright as a group suffering from "Front-End/Back-End Disproportionality" in media coverage.[21] According to Wright, the media often focuses on unsubstantiated charges against the group, but as charges are investigated and cases fall apart, the media cover them significantly less than at the beginning.[21] Wright then asserts this leaves the public with the impression that the group was guilty of the disproven charges.[21]

The ministry[42] New England Institute of Religious Research's Executive Director the Rev. Bob Pardon[42] warns in his report that "Messianic Communities, under the leadership of Spriggs, has tended towards an extreme authoritarianism and a "Galatian heresy."[43] The Tribes have responded with a line-by-line response to the report and continue to contend its large "errors, distortions, misunderstandings, and misjudgments", while criticizing the heavy use of apostates in his report.[44] In France, the group was listed on the 1995 Governmental Report by the Parliamentary Commission on Cults in France under the name "Ordre apostolique – Therapeutic healing environment."[45]

Twelve Tribes members Jean Swantko and husband Eddie Wiseman have made efforts to combat social control and the anti-cult movement by engaging in dialogue with hostile ex-members[citation needed], the media and government authorities.[46] Swantko has presented at scholarly conferences[46] including CESNUR[47] Communal Studies Association[48] and Society for the Scientific Study of Religion[49] as well as a chapter in James T. Richardson's Regulating Religion: Case Studies from Around the Globe.

Commentary on the Island Pond raid[edit]

The Island Pond raid has remained prominent in Vermont legal history; it was the subject of a Vermont Bar Association seminar in 2006.[50] The group held anniversary events in both 1994[51] and 2000;[52] and produced a 75-minute documentary.[53] The Vermont Chapter of the ACLU also criticized the raid, calling it "frightening" and "the greatest deprivation of civil liberties to have occurred in recent Vermont history."[54] The then-Governor of Vermont, Richard Snelling, who had authorized the raid, reportedly drew the "hottest political fire of his career" in the weeks after[55] Vermont Attorney General John J. Easton, Jr. attributed the raid to assisting his campaign for governorship.[56] In 1992, John Burchard, who had been the State Commissioner of Social and Rehabilitation Services, and Vanessa L. Malcarne, published an article in Behavioral Sciences and the Law, encouraging changes in the law that would have allowed the raid to succeed.[57]

Twelve Tribes and race controversies[edit]

The Twelve Tribes religious movement has been criticized for its teachings regarding race.[58][59] It teaches that the Jews were guilty of the blood of Christ, quoting Matthew 27:25.[58][60] Although often labelled antisemitic, the group repeatedly denies this label. They keep the Sabbath and the Jewish festivals of Pesach, Yom Kippur, and Sukkot. Youth have Bar Mitzvah and Bat Mitzvah celebrations, and they regularly perform Israeli folk dancing.[61]

The movement advocates against multi-culturalism and forced racial integration, arguing that "multiculturalism increases murder, crime and prejudice".[citation needed] The group welcomes people of all races to visit or join[58][59][62] and has members of Caucasian, African and Oriental descent, believing them to be the offspring of Noah's three sons. John Stringer, an African-American member of the Twelve Tribes, denies his group is racist, stating their teachings "accord my race with much honor and generate a high degree of self-esteem and worth". He explains, "Racism is a definite problem in society at large. We make no bones about the issue; and it is quite clear that affirmative action, reparations, and crying 'victim' are not the solutions to this problem."[63]

Child labor and homeschooling controversies[edit]

In 2001, The New York Post ran an article accusing the group of child labor violations;[64][65] and later attributed itself as having prompted the Investigation.[66] The Twelve Tribes responded with a press conference at the "Commonsense Farm" where the alleged child labor had taken place.[64][65][67] The Twelve Tribes reported that during a random inspection by Estée Lauder Companies the company found several fourteen-year-olds had been found assisting their fathers in their cottage industry;[65] this report was later confirmed by Estée Lauder who terminated their contract with Common Sense products.[67] The Group's official statement at the press conference stated that they believed that it was a family owned business, and children ought to be able to help their parents in the business while making "no apology" for it.[66][67] The New York State Department of Labor stated they intended to visit all five of the Twelve Tribes' businesses. State Attorney General Eliot Spitzer asserted that apprenticeships amounted to indentured servitude and were illegal. Robert Redford's Sundance Catalog, who had contracted with Common Wealth Woodworks (another of the group's cottage industries that made furniture), also terminated their contract as a response to the allegations.[67] The Labor Department later fined the group two thousand dollars for a fifteen-year-old pushing a wheelbarrow and another fifteen-year-old changing a lightbulb, according to senior tribespeople.[40]

In Germany and France, the controversies centered on the issues of homeschooling, health, and religious freedom. The group has several times been in conflict with authorities in Germany and France over homeschooling their children, with a particularly long and protracted dispute between the community in Klosterzimmern, in the municipality of Deiningen, Bavaria, and Bavarian education authorities.[68][69] Homeschooling is illegal in Germany, with rare exceptions.[68] When fines and arrests failed to have an effect on the community, authorities granted the group the right to operate a private school on the commune's premises, under state supervision.[69][70] The agreement entailed that the school would not teach sex education and evolution.[69][70]

Child abuse[edit]

On September 5, 2013, German police raided two communities belonging to the Twelve Tribes and removed 40 children to protect them from continued abuse.[71] An investigative TV report had documented systematic child abuse in a 100-strong community in Bavaria, including "persistent beatings for the most trivial offences".[72] The group admits that they use a "reed-like rod" for discipline, but denies abusing their children. [73]

Outreaches[edit]

Peacemaker Bus in California

The Twelve Tribes utilizes mobile operations and as vehicles to evangelize at various events.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Palmer, Susan J. Apostates and Their Role in the Construction of Grievance Claims Against the Northeast Kingdom/Messianic Communities article in the book The Politics of Religious Apostasy: The Role of Apostates in the Transformation of Religious Movements edited by David G. Bromley Westport, CT, Praeger Publishers, (1998). ISBN 0-275-95508-7
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Palmer, Susan J.; Bozeman, John M. (May 1997). "The Northeast Kingdom Community Church of Island Pond, Vermont: Raising Up a People for Yahshua's Return". Journal of Contemporary Religion 12 (2): pages 181–190. doi:10.1080/13537909708580798. Retrieved 2009-11-05. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Barna, Mark (2009-07-29). "Twelve Tribes living as one". Colorado Spring Gazette (Freedom Communications). Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  4. ^ a b Wallgren, Christine (2006-07-23). "A festival of peace Twelve Tribes opens its Plymouth home to curious neighbors". Boston Globe (Globe Newspaper Company). pp. 1–3. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  5. ^ Legere, Christine (2009-06-04). "Sect to increase holdings Plan would link harbor, downtown". Boston Globe (Globe Newspaper Company). p. 2. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  6. ^ a b c "Church to sell Yellow Delis, other properties and relocate". Chattanooga Times (WEHCO Media). 1979-03-26. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Palmer, Susan J. (1999-6-1). Children in New Religions. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. pp. 153–171. ISBN 978-0-8135-2620-1. 
  8. ^ Chiaramida, Angeljean (2009-07-29). "Tall Ships tie up in Salisbury for weekend festival". Newbury port Daily News (Eagle Tribune Publishing Company). Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  9. ^ Twelve Tribes (Summer 2004). "Our Twelve Tribes: a Manifesto". The Voice: Call to Restoration (Parchment Press). p. 2. Retrieved 2009-12-06. 
  10. ^ Shultz, Wes (2008-05-07). "Remembering the Yellow Deli People". Chattanoogan (Chattanooga Publishing Company, Inc.). Retrieved 2009-12-06. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h Stephenson, Heather (2000-09-10). "A church of their own". Rutland Herald (Herald Association). 
  12. ^ a b Warth, Gary (2009-10-3). "The 12 Tribes at a glance". North County Times (Lee Enterprise). Retrieved 2009-11-11. 
  13. ^ a b Hunt, Stephen (2001). Christian Millennialism. Bloomington and Indianapolis, Indiana: Indiana University Press. pp. 209–223. ISBN 978-0-253-21491-1. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Garret, Joan (2008-05-03). "Chattanooga: Yellow Deli hosts reunion, betrothal". Chattanooga Times Free Press (Chattanooga Publishing Company, Inc.). Retrieved 2009-11-07. 
  15. ^ a b Palmer, Susan J. (February 2010). "The Twelve Tribes: Preparing a Bride for Yahshua's Return". Nova Religio 13 (3): 59–80. doi:10.1525/nr.2010.13.3.59. 
  16. ^ Murray, Alan (1978-1-19). "Vine elders concede church has authoritarian character". Chattanooga Times (Chattanooga Publishing Company, Inc.). 
  17. ^ a b Castel, Bill (1980-12-1). "Elder: "We have no money"". Chattanooga Times (Chattanooga Publishing Company, Inc.). 
  18. ^ Wiseman, Eddie (2009-Q3). "Cult Scare in Chattanooga". In the Vine House Days (Parchment Press). p. 10. Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  19. ^ "Yellow Deli In Comeback Popular Christian Eatery From 1970s To Be Revived". Chattanoogan (John Wilson). 2006-04-05. Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  20. ^ a b c d e f Swantko, Jean (2000). "The Twelve Tribes' Communities, the Anti-Cult Movement, and Government's Response". Social Justice Research 12 (4): 341–364. doi:10.1023/A:1022021125576. Retrieved 2009-11-09. 
  21. ^ a b c d e Wright, Stuart A. (December 1997). "Media Coverage of Unconventional Religion: Any "Good News" for Minority Faiths?". Review of Religious Research 39 (2): 101–115. doi:10.2307/3512176. JSTOR 3512176. 
  22. ^ "Children of Sect Seized in Vermont". New York Times (The New York Times Company). 1984-06-24. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  23. ^ Wheeler, Scott (2009). "The Raid on Island Pond 25 Years Later – A Personal Look". Northland Journal (Scott Wheeler). Retrieved 2010-02-26. 
  24. ^ "Vt. Village Warms to Church". The Hartford Courant (Tribune Company). 1989-07-05. p. 17. 
  25. ^ Lovett, Kenneth (2001-10-04). "Upstate 'Soap' Cult fined for Child Labor". New York Post (News Corporation). Retrieved 2009-12-15. 
  26. ^ a b "Fundamentalist Christian Group Gets School of Their Own". Deutsche Welle (Deutsche Welle). 2006-08-31. Retrieved 2009-11-17. 
  27. ^ Nash, Robert T. (2006-04-16). "Chattanooga Yellow Deli Reunion Draws Crowd". Chattanoogan (Chattanooga Publishing Company, Inc.). Retrieved 2009-11-17. 
  28. ^ "Chloe's Dilemma". 
  29. ^ "Who Will Play the Part?". 
  30. ^ a b Warth, Gary (10-4-2009). "VALLEY CENTER: Twelve Tribes Christian community lives as an example of its faith". North County Times (Lee Enterprise). Retrieved 2009-12-13. 
  31. ^ Twelve Tribes (Fall 2004). "If the Foundations Are Destroyed, What Can the Righteous Do?". Love is a Many Splendored thing (Parchment Press). pp. 9–12. Retrieved 2009-12-12. 
  32. ^ a b c Folstad, Kim (2000-12-02). "Life on the Farm". Palm Beach Post (Cox Enterprises). pp. 9–12. 
  33. ^ "The Insurgent". 
  34. ^ a b c d e f Twelve Tribes (June 2001). "Three eternal Destinies of Man". The Three Eternal Destinies (Parchment Press). pp. 9–22. Retrieved 2009-12-07. 
  35. ^ Twelve Tribes (Spring 2004). "The Passion of the Christ The Rest of the Story". The Passion of the Christ : The Rest of the Story (Parchment Press). p. 7. Retrieved 2009-12-12. 
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Palmer, Susan J. (1994). Moon Sisters, Krishna Mothers, Rajneesh Lovers. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press. pp. 133–153. ISBN 978-0-8156-0382-5. 
  37. ^ a b c Palmer, Susan J. (1998). "Messianic Communities/North East Community Church". In James R. Lewis. The Encyclopedia of Cults, Sects and New Religions 1 (1st ed.). Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. pp. 334–335. 
  38. ^ a b c Filipov, David (2009-06-28). "‘Forgiven and free’". Boston Globe (Globe Newspaper Company). Retrieved 2009-12-27. 
  39. ^ Staff Writer (2001-04-13). "Tribes speak, but don't apologize". Bennington Banner (MediaNews Group). 
  40. ^ a b c Bernstein, Fred A. (2005-07-24). "Healing Buildings and Healing Souls in the Catskills". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  41. ^ Pokorny, Brad (1985-2-24). "Island Pond has message for Media: Paint Brighter Picture or Get Lost". Boston Globe (New York Times Company). p. 32. 
  42. ^ a b The New England Institute of Religious Research. "About NEIRR". The New England Institute of Religious Research Website. The New England Institute of Religious Research. Retrieved 2009-12-31. 
  43. ^ "My Analysis of the Twelve Tribes". New England Institute of Religious Research website. Retrieved 2005-10-23. 
  44. ^ "Our Response to the NEIRR Analysis". Twelve Tribes: Controversies. Retrieved 2009-10-29. 
  45. ^ "French National Assembly: On Sects". Retrieved 2008-05-09. 
  46. ^ a b Palmer, Susan J. (2005). "Twelve Tribes". In Lindsay Jones. Encyclopedia of Religion 14 (2 ed.). New York: Macmillan Reference USA. p. 9409. 
  47. ^ Swantko-Wiseman, Jean (2009). "State-Sanctioned Raids and Government Violations of Religious Freedom: Revealing Similarities of Constitutional Errors in Both the 1984 Island Pond Raid and the 2008 FLDS Raid". The 2009 CESNUR Conference. Salt Lake City, Utah: CESNUR. Retrieved 2010-12-13 
  48. ^ "Communal Studies Association, 2010 New Harmony, Indiana" (PDF). Communal Studies Association. 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-13. 
  49. ^ "Society for Scientific Study of Religion and Religious Research Association Annual Meeting 2010" (PDF). Society for Scientific Study of Religion and Religious Research Association Annual. 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-13. 
  50. ^ Vermont Bar Association. "Vermont Bar Association 49th Mid-Year Meeting" (PDF). Vermont Bar Association. Retrieved 2010-01-08. 
  51. ^ Daley, Yvonne (1994-06-19). "Praise the Lord: the community goes forth to meet the world". Vermont Sunday Magazine (Herald Association). Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  52. ^ New York Times (2000-06-19). "Island Pond Journal; Trip Home to Stand Up For Their Community". New York Times (New York Times Company). Retrieved 2010-01-10. 
  53. ^ Freyne, Peter (2005-07-27). "When Big Brother Ran Vermont". Seven Days (Seven Days (newspaper)). Retrieved 2010-01-10. 
  54. ^ Smith, Colin (1984-06-26). "ACLU: Raid on Sect was Lawless act by Vermont". Boston Globe (New York Times Company). 
  55. ^ Nickerson, Colin (1989-07-25). "Island Pond Case: How Much Latitude Does the Church have?". Boston Globe (New York Times Company). 
  56. ^ Kranish, Michael (1984-06-26). "Governor's Race a nail biter, Legislature Might Decide winner". Boston Globe (New York Times Company). 
  57. ^ Buchard, John D.; Malcarne, Vanessa L. (1992). "Investigation of Child abuse/Neglect in Religious Cults". Behavioral Sciences and the Law 10: 75–88. doi:10.1002/bsl.2370100108. 
  58. ^ a b c Vasagar, Jeevan (2000-07-03). "Racist sect digs in at rock festivals". The Guardian (London). 
  59. ^ a b http://www.boulderweekly.com/article-5583-father-son-holy-toast.html
  60. ^ "Who Does the Pope Think He Is?". 
  61. ^ Goswami, Neal. "Let Us Pray: Twelve Tribes, honoring the past". Bennington Banner (Bennington, VT). 
  62. ^ "In view of the recent media reports, we want to make the following observations". 
  63. ^ "FAQ: Are We Racist?". 
  64. ^ a b Moeller, Katy (2001-04-15). "Worshippers of Yahshua as savior weather storm – Cambridge farm counters criticism". Daily Gazette (John E.N. Hume III). pp. A–01. 
  65. ^ a b c Associated Press (2001-04-14). "Twelve Tribes sect opens farm to Press group Denies Charges of Child Labor, Racism". Watertown Daily Times (Watertown Daily Times inc.). p. 29. 
  66. ^ a b MacIntosh, Jeane (2001-04-09). "State probes cult in Child Labor Scandal on heels of post report". New York Post (News Corporation). Retrieved 2010-01-03. 
  67. ^ a b c d Staff Writer (2001-04-13). "Tribes speak, but don't apologize". Bennington Banner (MediaNews Group). 
  68. ^ a b Jean A. Swantko (2004). "The Twelve Tribes Communities, the Anti-Cult Movement, and Governmental Response". In James T. Richardson. Regulating religion: case studies from around the globe. Springer. pp. 197–199. ISBN 978-0-306-47886-4. Retrieved 27 August 2011. 
  69. ^ a b c Alexander Görlach (2006-02-04). "Sieg der Sekten-Eltern". Die Welt. Retrieved 2011-08-26. 
  70. ^ a b cpa/jol/dpa (2006-08-29). "Schulboykott. "Zwölf Stämme" erhalten eigene Schule". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 2011-08-26. 
  71. ^ "German Christian sect raided and children put in care". BBC News. 2013-09-05. 
  72. ^ Paterson, Tony (2013-09-10). "In Germany's Twelve Tribes community at Klosterzimmer, cameras catch ‘cold and systematic’ child-beating". The Independent (London). Retrieved 2013-09-12. 
  73. ^ Jamie Merrill (2013-09-16). "'It is our right to use the willow cane': Inside the Twelve Tribes Christian fundamentalist sect at centre of childcare controversy". The Independent (London). Retrieved 2013-09-17. 
  74. ^ Felty, Dana Clark (2008-11-29). "Savannah Now article". Savannah Morning News. Retrieved 2008-12-23. 
  75. ^ Dreher, Christopher (2005-10-23). "The Doomsday Prophets on Main Street". Boston Globe (Globe Newspaper Company). Retrieved 2009-11-10. 

External links[edit]

Movement Links
Critical of Twelve Tribes