20th United States Congress

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20th United States Congress
USCapitol1827A.gif
United States Capitol (1827)

Duration: March 4, 1827 – March 4, 1829

Senate President: John C. Calhoun
Senate Pres. pro tem: Samuel Smith
House Speaker: Andrew Stevenson
Members: 48 Senators
213 Representatives
3 Non-voting members
Senate Majority: Jacksonian
House Majority: Jacksonian

Sessions
1st: December 3, 1827 – May 26, 1828
2nd: December 1, 1828 – March 3, 1829
<19th 21st>

The Twentieth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1827 to March 4, 1829, during the third and fourth years of John Quincy Adams's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Fourth Census of the United States in 1820. Both chambers had a Jacksonian majority.

Major events[edit]

Major legislation[edit]

Party summary[edit]

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this congress. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

Senate[edit]

Party
(Shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Adams
(A)
Jacksonian
(J)
End of the previous congress 23 25 48 0
Begin 20 27 47 1
End 21 48 0
Final voting share 43.8% 56.3%
Beginning of the next congress 22 26 48 0

House of Representatives[edit]

Party
(Shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Adams
(A)
Jacksonian
(J)
Other
End of the previous congress 111 102 0 213 0
Begin 101 111 0 212 1
End 100 112
Final voting share 47.2% 52.8% 0.0%
Beginning of the next congress (Anti-Jackson)
71
136 (Anti-Masonic)
4
211 2

Leadership[edit]

President of the Senate
John C. Calhoun

Senate[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

President pro tempore
Samuel Smith

Members[edit]

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.

Senate[edit]

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1832; Class 2 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1828; and Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1830.

House of Representatives[edit]

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

Changes in membership[edit]

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate[edit]

  • replacements: 6
  • deaths: 0
  • resignations: 7
  • interim appointments: 0
  • Total seats with changes: 8


State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Massachusetts
(1)
Vacant Seat remained vacant Daniel Webster (A) Installed December 17, 1827
Ohio
(3)
William Henry Harrison (A) Resigned May 20, 1828 afrer being appointed Minister Plenipotentiary to Gran Columbia Jacob Burnet (A) Installed December 10, 1828
Maine
(1)
Albion K. Parris (J) Resigned August 26, 1828 after being appointed to the Maine Supreme Judicial Court John Holmes (A) Installed January 15, 1829
Georgia
(2)
Thomas W. Cobb (J) Resigned before November 7, 1828 Oliver H. Prince (J) Installed November 7, 1828
North Carolina
(3)
Nathaniel Macon (J) Resigned November 14, 1828 James Iredell, Jr. (J) Installed December 15, 1828
New York
(1)
Martin Van Buren (J) Resigned December 20, 1828 after being elected Governor of New York Charles E. Dudley (J) Installed January 15, 1829
New Jersey
(1)
Ephraim Bateman (A) Resigned January 12, 1829 due to failing health Mahlon Dickerson (J) Installed January 30, 1829
New Jersey
(2)
Mahlon Dickerson (J) Resigned January 30, 1829 after being elected to New Jersey's Class 1 US Senate seat Vacant Not filled in this Congress

House of Representatives[edit]

  • replacements: 9
  • deaths: 5
  • resignations: 9
  • contested election: 1
  • Total seats with changes: 15


District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date successor
seated
Georgia
1st
Edward F. Tattnall (J) Resigned some time in 1827 before the assembling of Congress George R. Gilmer (J) Seated October 1, 1827
Delaware
At-large
Louis McLane (J) Resigned some time in 1827 before the assembling of Congress after being elected to the US Senate Kensey Johns, Jr. (A) Seated October 2, 1827
New York
29th
David E. Evans (J) Resigned May 2, 1827 Phineas L. Tracy (A) Seated November 5, 1827
Massachusetts
1st
Daniel Webster (A) Resigned May 30, 1827 to run for the US Senate Benjamin Gorham (A) Seated July 23, 1827
Ohio
8th
William Wilson (A) Died June 6, 1827 William Stanbery (J) Seated October 9, 1827
Maine
1st
William Burleigh (A) Died July 2, 1827 Rufus McIntire (J) Seated September 10, 1827
Kentucky
11th
William S. Young (A) Died September 20, 1827 John Calhoon (A) Seated November 5, 1827
Kentucky
11th
John Calhoon (A) Resigned November 7, 1827 to avoid an election dispute Thomas Chilton (J) Seated December 22, 1827
Georgia
2nd
John Forsyth (J) Resigned November 7, 1827 after being elected Governor of Georgia Richard H. Wilde (J) Seated November 17, 1827
Arkansas Territory
At-large
Henry W. Conway Died November 9, 1827 Ambrose H. Sevier Seated February 13, 1828
New Jersey
At-large
George Holcombe (J) Died January 14, 1828 James F. Randolph (A) Seated December 1, 1828
New York
5th
Thomas J. Oakley (J) Resigned May 9, 1828 after being appointed judge of the Superior Court of New York City Thomas Taber II (J) Seated November 5, 1828
Kentucky
2nd
Thomas Metcalfe (A) Resigned June 1, 1828 after being elected Governor of Kentucky John Chambers (A) Seated December 1, 1828
New Jersey
At-large
Hedge Thompson (A) Died July 23, 1828 Thomas Sinnickson (A) Seated December 1, 1828
Mississippi
At-large
William Haile (J) Resigned September 12, 1828 Thomas Hinds (J) Seated October 21, 1828
Ohio
6th
William Creighton, Jr. (A) Resigned before December 19, 1828 after being nominated as a judge to district court Francis S. Muhlenberg (A) Seated December 19, 1828
New York
20th
Silas Wright (J) Resigned February 16, 1829 Vacant Not filled this Congress

Employees[edit]

Senate[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

References[edit]

  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 

External links[edit]