Twenty four Manai Telugu Chettiars

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24 Manai Telugu Chettiar
Classification Merchants and traders
Religions Hinduism
Languages Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, Malayalam
Populated States Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh

The Twenty Four Manai Telugu Chettiar (24MTC) are an Indian caste of the Chettiar merchant jati. They are found predominantly in the state of Tamil Nadu in India, as well as Andhra Pradesh,Kerala and Karnataka. The community is known by a number of variants and spellings of their name, and is divided into twenty-four subdivisions (manai).

Social role[edit]

The 24MTC are traditionally traders, and modern day community is predominantly involved in business, industry, and petty trade. The total population of 24MTC is around ten million in South India. The community is categoried[by whom?] as Vaishyas (merchants) in the four-part Hindu varna system.[citation needed] They have been listed as a section of Balijas.[1][verification needed] They were traditionally traders corresponding to Perike Balijas of Andhra Pradesh.[2] The alternate name Janappan was derived from their manufacture of gunny-bags of hemp (janapa) fibre.

The 1970 Tamil Nadu Report of the Backward Classes Commission noted that the 24 Manai Chettiar were classified as Backwards Class, along with the Vellan Chettiar and Vaniya Chettiar.[3]

Various names[edit]

This community is also known by different names and spelling variants. They may be called Twenty-four Manai Telugu Chettiar, Sadhu Chetty, Janapan, Goniga, Telugu Chetty, Iruvathunalu Manai Chetty, Ruvathunalu,[4] and various combinations of these terms. Chettiar may also be rendered as Shetty or Setty.[5] In Tamil they are called Saluppa Chetti, saluppan being the Tamil form of janappan.[6] Some of them have taken to calling themselves Desayis or Desadhipatis (rulers of countries).[7] Sathu Vandlu ("company of merchants or travelers) occurs as a synonym of Janappan.[6]

Twenty-four divisions (manai)[edit]

The 24 Manai Telugu Chettiar community is called so because it consists of 24 manai (houses, similar to gotra). The 24 manai are subdivided into two houses: the Sixteen Veedu and Eight Veedu kothra.

  • Sixteen Veedu: Mummudiyar, Kolavar, Kanithiyavar, Thillaiyavar, Paluvidhiyar, Chennaiyavar, Mathalaiyavar, Kothavangavar, Rajabhairavar, Vammaiyar, Kappavar, Tharishiyavar, Vajyavar, Kenthiyavar, Naliviraiyavar, and Surayavar.
  • Eight Veedu: Makkadaiyar, Korahaiyar, Marattaiyar, Kavalaiyar (Irataiyar), Pillivangavar, Thavalaiyar, Soppiyar, and Kandiyaar

According to this community marriage procedure, 16 veedu boy or girl will marry 8 veedu boy or girl & viz versa. From the same veedu they are not allowed to marry, In calculation 16+8 = 24 which forms 24 manai Telugu chettiars.

Distribution[edit]

The 24 Manai Telugu Chettiars are particularly found in the following areas of Tamil Nadu: Erode, Coimbatore, Salem, Namakkal, Virudhunagar,Sivagangai, Madurai, Theni, Kambam, Dharmapuri,Natham and Krishnagiri districts.[citation needed]

The 24MTC immigrants, who migrated into Tamil Nadu during the pre-Colonial period, underwent various cultural diversities, met difficulties in the patterns of linguistic assimilation, adjustment and other adaptive processes. Over time, ensuing generations dropped the use of the traditional Telugu language and took on the local Tamil language.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Castes and Tribes of Southern India, page 446
  2. ^ Castes and Tribes of Southern India, page 192
  3. ^ Tamil Nadu (India). Backward Classes Commission; A. N. Sattanathan (1975). Report of the Backward Classes Commission, Tamil Nadu, 1970. Government of Tamil Nadu. p. 115. Retrieved 29 June 2013.  - Collector, Coimbatore, reported that Vellan Chettiar is just like Vaniya Chettiar and 24 Manai Chettiar which are classified as Backward
  4. ^ People of India: A - G.. Oxford Univ. Press. 1998. p. 3069. ISBN 978-0-19-563354-2. Retrieved 29 June 2013. 
  5. ^ A more explicit list of variants includes: 24 Manai Telugu Chettiar, 24 Manai Telugu Chetty, 24 Manai Telugu Shetty, 24 Mane Telugu Chettiar, 24 Mane Telugu Chetty, 24 Mane Telugu Shetty, Gonichetty, Goniga, Gonigamane, Janapachetty, Janapan, Janapar, Janapasetty, Janapashetty, Sadhu Chetty, Sadhu Chetty, Sadhu Setty, Sadhu Shetty, Sadu Setty, Salapar, Salaparu, Sanapar, Sanaparu, Telugu Chettiar, Telugu Chetty, Telugu Setty, Telugu Shetty, Telungu Chettiar, Telungu Chetty, Telungupatti Chetty and Telungupatti Chettis.
  6. ^ a b Castes and Tribes of Southern India, page 448
  7. ^ India. Census Commissioner; Edward Albert Gait (1902). Census of India, 1901. Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, India. pp. 157–. Retrieved 29 June 2013. 

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