View showing Twickenham Stadium, with the Stoop in the background, 2005
Twickenham shown within Greater London
|Area||12.36 km2 (4.77 sq mi)|
|Population||52,396 (2011 Census Heathfield, St Margarets and North Twickenham, South Twickenham, Twickenham Riverside and West Twickenham wards 2011)|
|– density||4,239 /km2 (10,980 /sq mi)|
|OS grid reference|
|– Charing Cross||10 mi (16 km) NE|
|Ceremonial county||Greater London|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Postcode district||TW1, TW2|
|London Assembly||South West|
Twickenham, 10 miles (16 km) southwest of the centre of London, Charing Cross, is a town on the River Thames in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. The administrative headquarters of the borough are at York House in Twickenham, which is of equal importance to Richmond in the London Plan. Historically, Twickenham was a parish and then a civil parish in the county of Middlesex. It expanded rapidly during the suburban growth of London from 1881 until 1961, when its population grew and its farms and common were converted to other use. In 1926 it was incorporated as the Municipal Borough of Twickenham, which merged into the present Greater London borough in 1965.
This area has three grand period mansions with public access: York House, Marble Hill and Strawberry Hill House. Another has been lost, that belonging to 18th century aphoristic poet Alexander Pope. Among these is the Neo-Gothic prototype home of Horace Walpole which has given its name to a whole district, Strawberry Hill, and is linked with the oldest Roman Catholic university in the country, St Mary's University, Twickenham. Twickenham's demonym is 'the home of English rugby': the headquarters of the Rugby Football Union is at Twickenham, as is Twickenham Rugby Stadium, the world’s largest stadium officially solely for rugby but which also hosts seasonal and particularly charity music concerts.
Excavations have revealed settlements in the area dating from the Early Neolithic, possibly Mesolithic periods. Occupation seems to have continued through the Bronze Age, the Iron Age and the Roman occupation. The area was first mentioned (as "Tuican hom" and "Tuiccanham") in a charter of 13 June 704 AD to cede the area to Waldhere, Bishop of London, "for the salvation of our souls". The charter is signed with 12 crosses. The signatories included Swaefred of Essex, Cenred of Mercia and Earl Paeogthath.
In Norman times Twickenham was part of the Manor of Isleworth – itself part of the Hundred of Hounslow (mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086). The manor had belonged to Ælfgār, Earl of Mercia in the time of Edward the Confessor, but was granted to Walter de Saint-Valery (Waleric) by William I of England after the Norman Conquest of England in 1066.
The area was then farmed for several hundred years, while the river provided opportunities for fishing, boatbuilding and trade.
There was also a Watch House in the middle of the town, with stocks, a pillory and a whipping post whose owner was charged to "ward within and about this Parish and to keep all Beggars and Vagabonds that shall lye abide or lurk about the Towne and to give correction to such...".
1659 saw the first mention of the Twickenham Ferry, although ferrymen had already been operating in the area for many generations. Sometime before 1743 a "pirate" ferry appears to have been started by Twickenham inhabitants. There is speculation that it operated to serve "The Folly", a floating hostelry of some kind. Several residents wrote to the Lord Mayor of the City of London:
...Complaining that there is lately fixed near the Shore of Twickenham on the River Thames a Vessell made like a Barge and called the Folly wherein divers[e] loose and disorderly persons are frequently entertained who have behaved in a very indecent Manner and do frequently afront divers[e] persons of Fashion and Distinction who often in an Evening Walk near that place, and desired so great a Nuisance might be removed,....
In 1736, the noted pharmacist and quack doctor Joshua Ward set up the Great Vitriol Works to produce sulphuric acid, using a process discovered in the seventeenth century by Johann Glauber in which sulphur is burned together with saltpetre (potassium nitrate), in the presence of steam. The process generates an extremely unpleasant smell, which caused objections from local residents. The area was also soon home to the world's first industrial production facility for gunpowder, on a site between Twickenham and Whitton on the banks of the River Crane. There were frequent explosions and loss of life. On 11 March 1758, one of two explosions was felt in Reading, Berkshire, and in April 1774 another explosion terrified people at church in Isleworth.
In 1772 three mills blew up, shattering glass and buildings in the neighbourhood. Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, wrote complaining to his friend and relative Henry Seymour Conway, then Lieutenant General of the Ordnance, that all the decorative painted glass had been blown out of his windows at Strawberry Hill.
The powder mills remained in operation until 1927 when they were closed. Much of the site is now occupied by Crane Park, in which the old Shot Tower, mill sluices and blast embankments can still be seen. Much of the area along the river next to the Shot Tower is now a nature reserve.
The 1818 Enclosure Award led to the development of 182 acres (0.74 km2) of land to the west of the town centre largely between the present day Staines and Hampton Roads, new roads – Workhouse Road, Middle Road, 3rd, 2nd and 1st Common Roads (now First to Fifth Cross Roads respectively) – being laid out. During the 18th and 19th centuries, a number of fine houses were built and Twickenham became a popular place of residence for people of "fashion and distinction". Further development was stimulated by the opening of Twickenham station in 1848.
In 1894 Twickenham Urban District Council was formed. In 1902 the council bought Radnor House as the home of the legislature. The council bought and occupied York House in 1924. (Radnor House was destroyed by a Luftwaffe bomb during the Blitz of 1940.)
In 1939, when All Hallows Lombard Street was demolished in the City of London, its distinctive stone tower designed by Christopher Wren, with its peal of ten bells and connecting stone cloister, and the interior furnishings, including a Renatus Harris organ and a pulpit used by John Wesley, were brought to Twickenham to be incorporated in the new All Hallows Church on Chertsey Road (A316) near Twickenham Stadium.
In 1926 Twickenham was constituted as a municipal borough. Eleven years later the urban district Councils of Teddington, Hampton & Hampton Wick merged with Twickenham. In 1965 the former areas of the boroughs of Twickenham, Richmond and Barnes were combined to form the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. The borough council offices and chamber are located at York House, York Street, Twickenham and in the adjacent civic centre.
The Member of Parliament for Twickenham has been Liberal Democrat Dr Vincent Cable since his first election in 1997. Twickenham (UK Parliament constituency) includes St Margaret's, Whitton, Heathfield, Teddington, Hampton, Fulwell, Hampton Hill and Hampton Wick.
The Twickenham Green area witnessed a high profile murder on 19 August 2004, when French woman Amelie Delagrange (aged 22) died in hospital after being found with a serious head injury (caused by battery) in the area. Within 24 hours, police had established a link with the murder of Marsha McDonnell, who was killed in similar circumstances in nearby Hampton 18 months earlier.Levi Bellfield was found guilty of both murders on 25 February 2008 (as well as a further charge of attempted murder against 18-year-old Kate Sheedy) and sentenced to life imprisonment. He is also suspected of a series of other unsolved murders and attacks on women since 1990, most notably the Murder of Amanda Dowler, a teenage girl who vanished from Walton-on-Thames in March 2002 and whose body was later found in Hampshire woodland.
Population and housing
Data for 1891–1961 is available for the Urban Sanitary District, that was then the Metropolitan Borough which always included Whitton. This area temporarily expanded for 31 years to include Hampton and Teddington from 1935, rising from 2,421 acres (9.80 km2) to 7,014 acres (28.38 km2). The 2001 and 2011 Censuses give detailed information about the town/district. The settlement's population in 2011 were living in 22,273 households.
|Ward||Detached||Semi-detached||Terraced||Flats and apartments||Caravans/temporary/mobile homes/houseboats||Shared between households|
|St Margarets and North Twickenham||431||1,092||1,193||1,843||23||17|
|Ward||Population||Households||% Owned outright||% Owned with a loan||hectares|
|St Margarets and North Twickenham||11,172||4,616||28||40||197|
The town is bordered on the south-eastern side by the River Thames and Eel Pie Island — which is connected to the Twickenham embankment by a narrow footbridge, the first of which was erected in 1957. Before this, access was by means of a hand-operated ferry that was hauled across using a chain on the riverbed. The land adjacent to the river, from Strawberry Hill in the south to Marble Hill Park in the north, is occupied by a mixture of luxury dwellings, formal gardens, public houses and a newly built park and leisure facility.
In the south, in Strawberry Hill, lies St Mary's University, Twickenham historically specialising in sports studies, teacher training, religious studies, the humanities, drama studies and English literature. Strawberry Hill was originally a small cottage in two or three acres (8,000 or 12,000 m²) of land by the River Thames. Horace Walpole, a son of the politician Robert Walpole, rented the cottage in 1747 and subsequently bought it and turned it into one of the incunabula of the Gothic revival. The college shares part of its campus with Walpole's Strawberry Hill. On adjacent land were the villa and garden of the poet Alexander Pope. The villa was demolished in 1808/09 following the orders of Lady Howe, who became irritated with the large number of tourists who visited the place. The grotto which formed the basement survived. A memorial plaque was placed on the site in remembrance in 1848.
A road just north of the campus is named Pope's Grove, and a local landmark next to the main road is the Alexander Pope Hotel (previously known as Pope's Grotto), a public house and hotel where Pope's landmark informal garden used to be. Near this hostelry lie St Catherine's school for girls and St James's school for boys, formerly a convent, in a building on the site of Pope's white stucco villa and the location of Pope's original — surviving — grotto.
Not far from Pope's Grotto is the Roman Catholic Church of Saint James, which has a memorial window in the form of the Royal Arms of Portugal and memorials to Manuel II, Portugal's last king, who worshipped here and died in nearby Fulwell Park in 1932.
Twickenham proper begins in the vicinity of Pope's Grotto, with generally large period houses to the west, the traditional definition of which is Twickenham Green, and similar housing in the east all the distance to Richmond Bridge typically largest near the Thames. Further to the north and west lies the town of Whitton, an area once of allotments and farm land but as with much of the nearest part of Twickenham (separated by the A316) 1930s-1960s housing.
The district of St Margarets lies to the north-east of central Twickenham and has one side of Richmond Bridge, the shortest bridge on the Tideway. It is popular for its attractive tree-lined residential roads and an eclectic range of shops and cafés. Here is Twickenham Studios, one of London's major film studios.
St Margarets abuts the River Thames to the east, much river frontage in this area is more narrowly yet on controversial boundaries called 'East Twickenham'. Its strictest sense this is the former Twickenham Park and Cambridge Park (estates of Sir Francis Bacon, the 16th century philosopher and Lord Chancellor and Richard Owen Cambridge, the 18th century satirical poet).
- East Twickenham/St Margarets
- Hampton Hill
- Hampton Wick
- Kingston upon Thames
Until 1971 London Transport operated a bus depot known as "Twickenham Garage" (coded AB) which was located in Cambridge Road, East Twickenham. The relevant destination blind for garage journeys always referred to this location as Richmond Bridge, which was close by. On closure, all its routes and vehicles were transferred to Fulwell Garage, but the building remained under the ownership of London Transport until the mid-1990s when it was demolished to make way for a housing development.
Fulwell Garage was previously known as Fulwell Depot and was originally the base for London United Tramways in south west London. The trams were replaced by trolleybuses that started operating from Fulwell Depot in the 1930s. The trolleybuses were later replaced by Routemaster buses and London's last trolleybus terminated here on the night of 8 May 1962, following a commemorative circuit of the Fulwell routes by London's first trolleybus, No.1 of the A1 class Felthams, known as "Diddlers". This vehicle is preserved in working order.
Originally Twickenham station was situated on the western side of the A310 "London Road" bridge before the new station was opened on the eastern side. This accounts for roads named "Railway Approach" and "Station Road", which now give no access to the station.
Nearest railway stations
The main railway station in the town is Twickenham itself, although St Margarets, Fulwell and Strawberry Hill stations are also in Twickenham. Stations in nearby towns (all once part of the old Borough of Twickenham, except for Richmond) are:
- Hampton railway station
- Hampton Wick railway station
- Richmond station
- Teddington railway station
- Whitton railway station
Twickenham is home to the headquarters of the Rugby Football Union and Twickenham Rugby Stadium, one of England’s largest stadiums and the world’s largest rugby stadium. Harlequins, a rugby union club and London Broncos, a rugby league club play at the Twickenham Stoop.
Brothers Arthur Anderson and Gerard Anderson were born in Twickenham and competed in track and field events in the 1912 Summer Olympics. Gerard was also the world record holder in the 440 metres hurdles. In 1914 he was killed in combat in World War I.
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- First written mention of 'Tuican hom'
- Twickenham in the Domesday Book
- Cobbett, R.S. Memorials of Twickenham (Smith, Elder, & Co., 1872), p. 402
- Knight, Laurence (19 July 2014). "Sulphur surplus: Up to our necks in a diabolical element". BBC News magazine. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
- Twickenham in 1818: The year of the Enclosure, T.H.R.Cashmore, Borough of Twickenham Local History Society Paper 38, 1977
- Borough of Twickenham Local History Society Paper 37: The Coming of Electricity to Twickenham, A.C.B.Urwin 1977
- "Murder police probe Marsha 'link'". BBC News. 20 August 2004. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
- Moore, Matthew and agencies (25 February 2008). "Levi Bellfield guilty of murdering two women". The Telegraph. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
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- Winterman, Denise (7 March 2013). "The man who demolished Shakespeare's house". BBC News. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- Gerard Anderson Spartacus Educational
- Laurie Anderson. Sports-Reference.com
- "RG number: RG14. Piece: 424. Reference: RG14PN424 RG78PN14 RD5 SD1 ED10 SN104. Registration District: St George. Sub District: Mayfair and Knights Bridge. Enumeration District: 10 Parish: St George Hanover Square. Address: 15 Grosvenor St W. County: London". http://www.findmypast.co.uk. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
- Webb, Jela (2008). "TwickFolk: Music for the Folks!". Maverick. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
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- Lysons, Daniel (1792), "Twickenham", Environs of London, 3: County of Middlesex, London: T. Cadell
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- Thorne, James (1876), "Twickenham", Handbook to the Environs of London, London: John Murray
- Walford, Edward (1883), "Twickenham", Greater London, London: Cassell & Co., OCLC 3009761
|Wikisource has the text of The New Student's Reference Work article Twickenham.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Twickenham.|
- Twickenham Town Business Association
- The London Borough of Richmond Upon Thames Council
- The Twickenham Museum
- The Twickenham Society
- Twickenham Online
- Library Local History Notes on houses and persons mentioned.
- St Margarets Community Website, East Twickenham
- Twickerati local news, events & discussion blog