Twin cities (geographical proximity)
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Twin cities are a special case of two cities or urban centres that are founded in close geographic proximity and then grow into each other over time, losing most of their mutual buffer zone. The term Twin Cities in the United States refers specifically to the cities Minneapolis and Saint Paul which are in the midwestern state of Minnesota.
Cities twinned by proximity do not necessarily match demographically, economically, or politically.
In most cases, cities that grow of form multiple connections into each other's space lose their individual identities, and the border or barrier that still separates them becomes almost irrelevant. An 1873 case of twin cities becoming united cities is Budapest in Hungary, which began as two settlements (Buda and Pest) facing each other across the Danube at a strategic fording place along a trade route. However, there are twin cities which have been able to resist this final union and have maintained individual identity against increased inter-city transport and typically converging economies and demographics.
In some cases, such as Albury/Wodonga in Australia, the two cities are permanently divided by a state border, often one that strictly adheres to a geographical landmark, such as the Murray River that divides New South Wales from Victoria, and thus Albury from Wodonga.
- 1 Examples
- 2 Fictional twin cities
- 3 Tri cities
- 4 Quad cities
- 5 Examples of cities formed by amalgamation
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes and references
||This article may contain excessive, poor, or irrelevant examples. (November 2009)|
- Dhaka and Gazipur, Bangladesh
- Seleucia and Ctesiphon, Iraq.[n 1]
- Tel Aviv and Jaffa, Israel
- Okayama and Kurashiki, Japan.[n 2]
- Tsukuba and Tsuchiura, Japan. [n 3]
- Nasushiobara and Otawara, Japan. [n 4]
- Kamisu and Kashima, Japan. [n 5]
- Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur, Nepal
- Bharatpur and Narayangarh, Nepal
- Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan
- Jhelum and Sarai Alamgir, Pakistan
- Guangzhou and Foshan, People's Republic of China
- Hong Kong and Shenzhen, People's Republic of China
- Macau and Zhuhai, People's Republic of China
- Dipolog and Dapitan, Philippines
- Taipei and New Taipei, Republic of China (Taiwan)
- Dammam and Khobar, Saudi Arabia
- Johor Bahru, Malaysia and Singapore
- Seoul and Incheon, South Korea
- Bangkok and Nonthaburi, Thailand
- Chiang Mai and Lamphun, Thailand
- Songkhla and Hatyai, Thailand
- Ramallah and al-Bireh, in the West Bank
- Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar, Gujarat
- Asansol and Durgapur, West Bengal
- Bhubaneswar and Cuttack, Odisha
- Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali, Punjab
- Durg and Bhilai, Chhattisgarh
- Ghaziabad and Noida, Uttar Pradesh
- Hubli and Dharwad, Karnataka
- Hyderabad and Secunderabad, Andhra Pradesh
- Vijayawada and Guntur, Andhra Pradesh
- Kochi and Ernakulam, Kerala
- Kolkata and Howrah, West Bengal
- Mandla and Balaghat, Madhya Pradesh
- Mumbai, Navi Mumbai, Thane and Kalyan, Maharashtra
- Pune and Pimpri-Chinchwad, Maharashtra
- Ranchi and Hatia, Jharkhand
- Sangli and Miraj
- Savar and Kundla, Savarkundla Gujarat
- Siliguri and Jalpaiguri, West Bengal
- Tirunelveli and Palayamkottai, Tamil Nadu
- Udhana and Sachin, Gujarat, Gujarat[n 6]
- Visakhapatnam and Gangavaram, Andhra Pradesh
- Warangal, Hanamakonda Kazipet, Andhra Pradesh
- Historic twin cities
- Quasi-twin cities
- Harihar and Davangere, Karnataka.
- Shivamogga and Bhadravati in Karnataka.
- Surat and Navsari, Gujarat[n 7]
- Aalborg and Nørresundby, Denmark
- Copenhagen, Denmark and Malmö, Sweden[n 8]
- Birmingham and West Bromwich, England
- Brighton and Hove, England
- Chatham and Rochester, England
- Manchester and Salford, England
- Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Gateshead, England
- Warwick and Royal Leamington Spa, England
- Porto and Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal
- Póvoa de Varzim and Vila do Conde, Portugal
- Valka, Latvia and Valga, Estonia
- Ludwigshafen and Mannheim, Germany
- Mainz and Wiesbaden, Germany
- Ulm and Neu-Ulm, Germany
- Zgorzelec, Poland and Görlitz, Germany
- Buda and Pest, Hungary
- Komárno, Slovakia and Komárom, Hungary
- Rotterdam and The Hague, The Netherlands
- Fredrikstad and Sarpsborg, Norway
- Porsgrunn and Skien, Norway
- Sandnes and Stavanger, Norway
- Bielsko and Biała, Poland
- Těšín, Czech Republic and Cieszyn, Poland
- Novi Sad and Petrovaradin, Serbia
- Zemun and New Belgrade, Serbia
- Gorizia, Italy and Nova Gorica, Slovenia
- Alcobendas and San Sebastian de los Reyes, Spain
- Barcelona and Badalona in Catalonia, Spain
- Santa Cruz de Tenerife and San Cristóbal de la Laguna, Spain
- Gothenburg and Mölndal, Sweden
- Tornio, Finland and Haparanda, Sweden
- Baltimore, Maryland and Washington, D.C.[n 9]
- Bloomington and Normal, Illinois[n 10]
- Bristol, Virginia and Bristol, Tennessee
- Bryan and College Station, Texas
- Champaign and Urbana, Illinois[n 11]
- Dallas and Fort Worth[n 12]
- Duluth, Minnesota and Superior, Wisconsin[n 13]
- Greensboro and Winston-Salem, North Carolina[n 14]
- Greenville and Spartanburg, South Carolina
- Hartford, Connecticut and Springfield, Massachusetts[n 15]
- Killeen and Temple, Texas
- Lewiston and Auburn, Maine
- Midland and Odessa, Texas[n 16]
- Minneapolis and St. Paul
- Palmdale and Lancaster, California[n 17]
- Portland and South Portland, Maine[n 18]
- Raleigh and Durham, North Carolina[n 19]
- Richmond and Petersburg[n 20]
- San Francisco and San Jose [n 21] or San Francisco and Oakland, California[n 22]
- Scranton and Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania[n 23]
- Seattle and Tacoma, Washington
- Tampa and St. Petersburg, Florida[n 24]
- Texarkana, Texas and Texarkana, Arkansas[n 25]
- Halifax and Dartmouth, Nova Scotia[n 26]
- Kitchener and Waterloo, Ontario
- Ottawa, Ontario and Gatineau, Quebec[n 27]
- Battleford and North Battleford, Saskatchewan[n 28]
Examples, sharing names or similar names, across an international border include:
- Boquillas, Texas and Boquillas del Carmen, Coahuila
- Laredo, Texas and Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas
- Niagara Falls, New York and Niagara Falls, Ontario
- Naco, Arizona and Naco, Sonora
- Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora
- Portal, North Dakota and North Portal, Saskatchewan
- Progreso, Texas and Nuevo Progreso, Río Bravo, Tamaulipas
- Tecate, California and Tecate, Baja California
- San Luis, Arizona and San Luis Río Colorado, Sonora
- Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario and Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan
Pairs with unrelated names include:
- San Diego and Tijuana — see San Diego–Tijuana
- Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Ontario — see Detroit–Windsor
- Calexico, California and Mexicali, Baja California — see Calexico–Mexicali
- Douglas, Arizona and Agua Prieta, Sonora
- Brownsville, Texas and Matamoros, Tamaulipas — see Matamoros–Brownsville Metropolitan Area
- Eagle Pass, Texas and Piedras Negras, Coahuila
- Del Rio, Texas and Ciudad Acuña, Coahuila
- Presidio, Texas and Manuel Ojinaga, Chihuahua
- El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua — see El Paso–Juárez
- Carmen de Patagones and Viedma, Argentina
- Santa Fe and Paraná, Entre Ríos, Argentina
- Aparecida and Guaratinguetá, Brazil
- Londrina and Cambé, Brazil
- Chuí, Brazil and Chuy, Uruguay
- Cuiabá and Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso, Brazil
- Florianópolis and São José, Santa Catarina, Brazil
- Ilhéus and Itabuna, Brazil
- Juazeiro and Petrolina, Brazil
- Recife and Olinda, Brazil
- Paramaribo and Lelydorp, Suriname
- Rivera, Uruguay and Santana do Livramento, Brazil
- Vitória and Vila Velha, Brazil
- Concepción and Talcahuano, Chile
- La Serena, Chile and Coquimbo, Chile
- Valparaiso and Viña del Mar, Chile
- Barranquilla and Soledad, Atlántico, Colombia
- Leticia, Colombia and Tabatinga, Brazil
- Lima and Callao, Peru
- Guarenas and Guatire, Venezuela
- Albury and Wodonga
- Canberra and Queanbeyan
- Gold Coast and Tweed Heads
- Forster and Tuncurry
- Harden and Murrumburrah
- Perth and Fremantle
- Townsville and Thuringowa
- Rabat and Salé, Morocco.
- Fes and Meknes, Morocco
- Cairo and Giza, Egypt
- Harar and Dire Dawa, Ethiopia
- Sekondi and Takoradi, Ghana
Fictional twin cities
- Gotham City (the home of Batman) and Metropolis (the home of Superman) have sometimes been presented as twin cities, mainly in 1970s and 1980s stories by DC Comics. The two cities were shown as located on opposite sides of a large bay.
- Central City and Keystone City, from the current Flash comics, are shown as twin cities. Before the 1985-86 miniseries Crisis on Infinite Earths, Central and Keystone are presented as located in the same space but on different parallel Earths.
- Ankh-Morpork, from Terry Pratchett's Discworld novels, is referred to as "the twin cities of proud Ankh and pestilent Morpork"
- Duckburg and St. Canard were depicted in the cartoon Darkwing Duck as sister cities connected by a bridge, very similar to Oakland and San Francisco.
- Springfield and Shelbyville from The Simpsons are usually presented as twin cities with an intense rivalry.
- Dallas; Fort Worth; and Arlington, Texas
- New York, New York; Newark; and Jersey City, New Jersey
- San Jose; San Francisco; and Oakland, California[n 30]
- Teresina; Piauí; and Timon, Maranhão, Brazil
- In Iowa: Iowa City, Coralville, University Heights and North Liberty
- In North Carolina, the Unifour: Hickory, Lenoir, Morganton and Alexander County
- In Ontario, Canada: Kitchener, Waterloo, Cambridge, and Guelph, Ontario (often viewed as a tri-city area by grouping Kitchener-Waterloo as a single entity).
- Quad Cities of Davenport and Bettendorf, Iowa, and Rock Island and Moline, Illinois. It also includes a fifth member, East Moline, Illinois.
- The Florence-Muscle Shoals Metropolitan Area in Alabama is locally referred to as "the Quad Cities", with Florence, Muscle Shoals, Sheffield, and Tuscumbia. Formerly, when Muscle Shoals was a mere village, this region was known a "Tri-Cities", Alabama. Actually, they are all incorporated as towns except for Florence.
- The Quad Cities of Minnesota consist of Virginia, Eveleth, Gilbert, and Mountain Iron.
- The cities of Pullman, Washington, Moscow, Idaho, Clarkston, Washington, and Lewiston, Idaho have marketed themselves as "Quad Cities."
- Pattaya-Chonburi Metropolitan Area consists of the City of Pattaya, Town of Chonburi, Portal town of Laem Chabang and Town of Sattahip on the west coast of Chonburi Province, Thailand
Examples of cities formed by amalgamation
- Lahore the second largest city of Pakistan has now grown out so much that small towns by this giant city like Shahdara which now have been absorbed in its city limits.
- Wuhan in China consists of the towns of Wuchang, Hankou, and Hanyang in Hubei Province
- Islamabad the capital city of Pakistan has been expanded to include smaller towns including Rawat in its territory.
- Bangkok the capital and largest city of Thailand was created in 1971 when the previous Bangkok province (Phra Nakhon) was merged with Thonburi province.
- Fukuoka in Japan, a city of 1.4 million people, formerly the twin cities of Hakata and Fukuoka until the late 19th century.
- Saitama in Japan, a city of 1.2 million people, created in 2001 by the merger of the cities of Urawa, Omiya, Yono, and later Iwatsuki. Urawa and Omiya could formerly have been considered twin cities.
- Kitakyushu in Japan, a city of 900 thousand people, created in 1963 by the merger of Yahata, Kokura, Moji, Wakamatsu, and Tobata. Yahata and Kokura had formerly been major cities in their own right.
- The cities of Saigon and Cholon merged in 1931 to form a single city named Saigon-Cholon; in 1956, the name Cholon was dropped and the city became known as Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh city).
- London grew from its cores in the City of London and the City of Westminster to encompass many other towns and villages.
- Budapest is the amalgamation of Buda, Pest and Óbuda.
- Berlin (Berlin and Cölln), in Germany
- Duisburg (Duisburg and Hamborn, 1929–1935 called Duisburg-Hamborn), in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
- Wuppertal (Barmen and Elberfeld), in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
- Zagreb grew from the twin towns of Gradec and Kaptol.
- Belgrade now includes the formerly separate city of Zemun.
- Greater Manchester took in the city of Salford.
- Eindhoven merged with five neighbouring municipalities (Woensel, Tongelre, Stratum, Gestel en Blaarthem and Strijp) into the new Groot-Eindhoven ("Greater Eindhoven") in 1920. The prefix "Groot-" was later dropped.
- Richmond (Richmond and Manchester) in central Virginia
- Cleveland (Cleveland and Ohio City) in Ohio
- Minneapolis. St. Anthony (not to be confused with St. Anthony Village, a modern city which is a suburb) was a twin city to Minneapolis in the two cities' youth. Minneapolis annexed St. Anthony in the late 1800s.
- New York City (five boroughs, historically especially between Manhattan and Brooklyn)
- Fremont, California was formed in 1956 by the combination of the five towns of Centerville, Irvington, Niles, Mission San Jose, and Warm Springs, California. The town of Newark has always refused to merge into Fremont, and Newark is completely surrounded by Fremont.
- What is now the city of Winston-Salem, North Carolina was once two separate towns called Winston and Salem that were combined into one.
- Ottawa, Ontario, was given its large area by the amalgamation in 2001 of the old City of Ottawa, the suburbs of Nepean, Kanata, Gloucester, Rockcliffe Park, Vanier and Cumberland, Orleans, and the rural townships of West Carleton, Osgoode, Rideau, and Goulbourn
- Gatineau, Quebec, formed by the amalgamation of the old City of Gatineau, City of Hull, City of Aylmer, City of Buckingham and the Municipality of Masson-Angers all facing the City of Ottawa, Ontario from the north shore of the Ottawa River.
- Toronto formed by an amalgamation of the Old Toronto with East York, Etobicoke, North York, Scarborough and York, which were themselves products of earlier amalgamations.
- Thunder Bay, Ontario (Fort William and Port Arthur).
- Lloydminster, Canada, on the Saskatchewan-Alberta border, was formed as a single entity in 1903, when both future provinces were part of the Northwest Territories, but was divided into two separate entities in 1905 because the border between the newly created provinces bisected the community. In 1930, the two towns were reunited as a single town under the shared jurisdiction of both provinces, and Lloydminster was reincorporated as a single city in 1958.
- Halifax and Dartmouth (Canada) were forcibly merged in 1996 along with Bedford and Halifax County to create the Halifax Regional Municipality.
- Saguenay, Quebec (Chicoutimi, Jonquière, et al.)
- Seattle annexed the neighboring towns of West Seattle and Ballard.
- Lincoln City, Oregon was formed in 1965 by merging the extant seaside towns of Oceanlake, Delake, and Taft, with the adjoining unincorporated areas of Nelscott and Cutler City.
- Pittsburgh annexed Allegheny City, which is now the quarter of the city that lies north of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. Also annexed was Birmingham, now referred to as the "South Side".
- Ciudad Guayana, Venezuela, officially founded in 1961 is actually composed of the old town of San Félix at the east and the new modern planned town of Puerto Ordaz at the west of Caroní river in Bolívar state.
- Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, which absorbed the cities of South Bethlehem, and West Bethlehem. The former Bethlehem and South Bethlehem are situated in Northampton County, and West Bethlehem is in Lehigh County. As a result, present-day Bethlehem straddles the county line.
- Montreal, Quebec, was merged with the other 27 communities on the Island of Montreal by an act in the Quebec Parliament in 2002. Several communities later voted via referendum to de-merge and there are now a total of 15, leaving Montreal merged with the other 12.
- Kingston, Ontario was amalgamated in 1998 with the neighboring Kingston and Pittsburgh Townships.
- Winnipeg, Manitoba amalgamated with 12 surrounding municipalities and its metropolitan corporation in 1971 under what was referred to as unicity reforms in local government restructuring.
- Park Hills, Missouri was formed in 1994 by a four-way municipal merger involving the cities of Flat River, Elvins, and Esther, plus the village of Rivermines.
- Helena-West Helena, Arkansas was formed in 2006 by the merger of the previous cities of Helena and West Helena.
- Greater Sudbury, Ontario, was formed in 2001 by the amalgamation of the former Regional Municipality of Sudbury, comprising the municipalities of Sudbury, Nickel Centre, Valley East, Capreol, Rayside-Balfour, Onaping Falls and Walden, plus a number of previously unamalgamated townships. The amalgamation made it the most populous city in the Northern Ontario region.
- Boston, Massachusetts is made up of the former towns of Boston, Dorchester, Brighton, Roxbury, Charlestown, and Hyde Park.
- Divided cities
- United cities
- Cross-border town naming
- Sister cities
- List of metropolitan areas that overlap multiple countries
- List of twin towns and sister cities
- Global city
Notes and references
- Formed historic Al-Mada'in.
- Kurashiki is somewhat more of a suburb
- Co-centers of a shared major metropolitan area.
- Co-centers of a shared micropolitan area.
- Co-centers of a shared micropolitan area.
- one of the country's earliest examples
- formal merger set for 2015.
- Co-centers of the Öresund Region, divided by the narrow Øresund strait.
- Buffered]] but having broader buffers to the Baltimore–Washington Metropolitan Area
- See Bloomington-Normal, Illinois
- Champaign was originally known as West Urbana but it has since grown to surpass its neighbor. See Champaign-Urbana metropolitan area
- twin cores of the Metroplex of northern Texas.
- Nicknamed the Twin Ports, these form the world's largest freshwater port
- largest two cities of the three-city Piedmont Triad area.
- locally known as the Knowledge Corridor
- nicknamed the Petroplex in a nod to the DFW region's nickname, as well as its strong reliance on the oil industry.
- The principal cities of the Antelope Valley and High Desert in California.
- share the Portland International Jetport (buildings/terminal in one city, runways in the other) and the Port of Portland and retain separate identities.
- two anchor cities of the three-city Research Triangle area.
- One perhaps more suburban, see Greater Richmond Region
- the two principal urban cores of the the San Francisco Bay area.
- connected by the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge over the San Francisco Bay
- the core cities of the Wyoming Valley in northeastern Pennsylvania.
- Main cities of the Tampa Bay Area
- the cities meet at the border between Texas and Arkansas, and their name is a portmanteau of those states' names as well as that of Louisiana, whose border lies approximately 25 miles to the south. See Texarkana metropolitan area and Ark-La-Tex
- Main cities of Metropolitan Halifax, they are geographically separated by Halifax Harbour
- form the National Capital Region, geopolitically separated by the Ottawa River.
- Separated by the North Saskatchewan River. While the communities are commonly referred to by the collective "The Battlefords," they retain distinctive identities.
- Until 1930, the community, divided by the Alberta-Saskatchewan border, was two separate, adjacent towns. However, with the Town of Lloydminster Acts in administration the large town became integrated while still bi-provincial.
- the principal cities of the the San Francisco Bay area.
- Weather story from 2006 The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 2006-12-31
- "It's a wise man who knows where Chatham ends and Rochester begins." Charles Dickens
- New Adventures of Superboy #22, October 1981
- World's Finest Comics #259, October–November 1979
- The Flash (volume 1) #123, September 1961
- Lemon of Troy, season 6, The Simpsons
- "Quad Cities too generic a name for ID, WA cities". The Seattle Times. 28 April 2010. Retrieved 22 January 2013.